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I could never have written this thesis alone. There were of course many friends, teachers, and professors along the way, to whom I owe everything I know of the Tibetan language, of Tibetan Buddhist philosophy, and of the practice of translation. While I keep them in mind, I will however be brief. I must first of all mention my kind teacher, Phakchok Rinpoché, who introduced me to Chokgyur Lingpa and his termas, igniting the interest that pushed me to pursue this line of investigation. Second, my research would not have led to an academic thesis of any depth without the guidance and insight of my advisor, James Gentry. Throughout the translation process, the learned lineage master Kyabjé Khenpo assisted me with great patience, clarifying all the difficult passages I came up against in my Tibetan sources. The challenging questions and input of my external reader, Holly Gayley, further helped me deepen my understanding of the larger academic context and refine my thesis accordingly. Finally, in the very last stages of composition, this thesis would never have reached a conclusion without the support and input of dear friends, Seung-Jae Pi and Gwenaelle Witt- Doerring. Last but not least, I cannot forget my parents who made all this possible, and without whose unfailing support I would not be here today.


This thesis presents and analyzes the translations of ten short texts chosen among the few writings attributed to the nineteenth-century Treasure revealer Chokgyur Dechen Zhikpo Lingpa (mChog gyur bde chen zhig po gling pa, 1829-1870). These autobiographical and rhetorical writings portray the tertön as a figure who must have access to both the past and the present, the temporal and the a- temporal, in order to fulfill his role. The collapse of time that is thereby apparent in the Treasure revealer’s experience is discussed in the light of Western academic discussions of Treasure revelation as either an act of innovation or of continuity with tradition. From an emic perspective that defies any linear conception of time, both of these categories fall short of accurately describing the specificity of the tertön’s role – which instead seems most characterized by timeliness. Indeed, as a bridge between the four times—understood in their traditional Buddhist classification into past, present, future and timelessness—the tertön enjoys a privileged access to the very sources of the Buddhist tradition, which in turn empowers him to act as its timely mediator, influencing his own historical context in important ways. As evidenced in his autobiographical and rhetorical writings, Chokgyur Lingpa uses this temporal influence to promote the non-sectarian approach associated with the Rimé movement. Despite the contemporary popularity of the non-sectarian revival, Chokgyur Lingpa presents it as the continuation of the original Buddhist tradition, mirroring the emic rhetoric that casts the Treasure tradition as timely revival rather than innovation.

Thesis statement: Chokgyur Lingpa’s literary self-portrayal suggests an important collapse of time in the Treasure revealer’s experience, defying any linear conception of time necessary to the characterization of the tertön’s role as either one of innovation or of continuity with tradition. From an emic perspective, the tertön appears instead first and foremost as a recaster of timeless tradition in a timely manner suited to the needs and challenges of contemporary circumstances.


When asked what distinguishes tertöns1 and terma2 teachings from other Buddhist masters and texts, Phakchok Rinpoché (sKyab mgon ’Phags mchog rin po che, b.1981), direct descendant and lineage holder of the tertön Chokgyur Dechen Zhikpo Lingpa (mChog gyur bde chen zhig po gling pa, 1829- 1870), first replied3 that Treasure teachings are specific to and most appropriate for their time and place, to which they bring the warmth of Guru Rinpoché’s blessings through the intermediary of the tertön. 4 These two characteristics specific to Treasure teachings are commonplace in related discussions, and may therefore be taken for granted and overlooked. However, they point to a key aspect of the Treasure tradition, namely, the central role of temporality and the unique nature of the Treasure revealer’s relation to it. As teachings that are said to date back to the very peak of Tibetan Buddhist civilization, the imperial period,5 and to have emanated from such seminal figures as Padmasambhava, Treasure teachings are deeply steeped in Tibetan religious history. In the Nyingma 6 tradition, Treasure revelation is thus traditionally presented as a bridge to this ‘golden age,’ purporting to make teachings and artifacts from that period of time available in the present. Yet, this historical narrative is also underpinned by a timeless reality, or dharmakāya, from which all Dharma in general, and Treasure

1 Tertön (gter ston): Treasure revealer. The English and Tibetan transliterated versions of this word will be used interchangeably in the following. 2 Terma (gter ma): Treasure. The English and Tibetan transliterated versions of this word will be used interchangeably in the following. 3 Phakchok Rinpoché, personal communication, December 7th, 2015.

4 Guru Rinpoché (the Precious Master) or Guru Padmasambhava (the Lotu-Born Master) is renowned as the Indian Buddhist master who established Buddhism in Tibet in the eighth and ninth centuries. He is said to be at the origin of most Treasures that were concealed at this time to be later revealed by reincarnations of his disciples.

5 This refers to the time of Tibetan imperialism, from the mid-7th to the mid-9th century, during which Buddhism was first introduced and propagated in Tibet under imperial sponsorship. 6 The Nyingma (rNying ma), or “Old School” is one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, along with the “New Schools” (gSar ma) of the Gelug (dGe lugs), Sakya (Sa skya), and Kagyü (bKa’ brgyud). The Nyingma school represents the tradition of the ‘early transmission’ (snga dar) that occurred during the imperial period of the mid-7th to the mid-9th century. This is contrasted to the New Schools, which represent the ‘later transmission’ (phyi dar) that took place during the so-called ‘Tibetan Renaissance’ of the late tenth century onwards, following the decline of state sponsorship for Buddhism in the mid-ninth century. The Nyingma school is the main proponent of the Treasure tradition, although Treasures have been revealed by masters of all four school of Tibetan Buddhism, and Nyingma Treasures are also practiced in other lineages.

teachings in particular, emanate.7 The idea of the dharmakāya as an eternal truth that acts as an accessible source for all authentic teachings was in fact already widespread in early Indian Buddhism.8 The unique aspect of Treasure teachings, however, resides in the fact that they are also meant to be timely teachings tailored to the specific needs of the historical and geographical context of their revelation. The phenomenon of Treasure revelation therefore plays out on multiple temporal dimensions, which can all be drawn upon to respond to the pressing imperative of timeliness.

This temporal fluidity is exemplified by the persona of the Treasure revealer. Indeed, revealed Treasures usually include historical accounts setting the teaching and its future revealer in the imperial period, as well as prophecies for the circumstances of their revelation by his later incarnation. This historical anchoring of Treasure revelation at the origins of Tibetan Buddhism is complemented by the tertön’s prowess as a spiritual master in his current incarnation, as displayed in his revelations, visionary experiences, and other signs of accomplishment. The tertön therefore appears as both a charismatic persona with powerful temporal agency and a prophesied mediator between past, present, and a timeless visionary realm, acting as foretold and commanded. The Treasure tradition itself claims to be above all reviving the very source of the Buddhist tradition, both in historical and spiritual terms.

7 The dharmakāya is one of the three bodies of the buddha, or three realities, in the trikāya (three body) system, the other two being the nirmāṇakāya, or emanation body, and the sambhogakāya, or enjoyment body. According to the Nyingma system of transmissions of Mahāyoga teachings, all teachings are first transmitted from the nondescript dharmakāya, undifferentiated ultimate truth, to our nirmāṇakāya realm via the sambhogakāya. In particular, “the transmission of the Treasures is traditionally described in terms of six events, or stages, whereby the teaching moves from its original formulator in a dharmakāya realm to the devotee in the present.” Andreas Doctor, Tibetan Treasure Literature: Revelation, Tradition, and Accomplishment in Visionary Buddhism (Ithaca, N.Y.: Snow Lion Publications, 2005), 19.

Thus, according to Andreas Doctor, in the traditional understanding, terma are originally generated “in the a-historical realm personified by the dharmakāya buddha Samantabhadra and his peers.” Consequently, “there has been a broad understanding within the Nyingma School that the Treasures, in essence, embody the entirety of the Buddha’s teachings and even existence itself. Thus, in the most fundamental equation, anything and everything belongs within the unifying dharmakāya realm from which all Treasures emerge.” Ibid., 29.

8 As noted by Sarah Hieatt-Jacoby, “scholars have pointed out that the concept of receiving a newly packaged scripture based on their realization relevant to contemporary concerns can be seen as a natural outgrowth of the general Indian Mahāyāna understanding that realized Buddhist disciples can produce new scripture based on their realization rather than having to prove always that the new scripture literally came from the historical Buddha’s speech. Thus there was Indian precedent for the understanding that Buddha-voiced scripture could mean discourse inspired by the realization of enlightenment that did not literally emanate from the speech of the historical Buddha.” Sarah Hieatt-Jacoby, “Consorts and Revelation in Eastern Tibet: The Autobiographical Writings of the Treasure Revealer Sera Khandro (1892-1940)” (PhD diss., University of Virginia, 2007), 76.

The tremendous intertextuality between terma cycles and tantras throughout time is also a testimony to this continuous revival of timeless knowledge.9 In Western academic literature, much of the attention to the phenomenon of Treasure revelation has been focused on the respective parts played by innovation and continuity with tradition. Continuity with tradition implies the endurance through time of customs, ideas or rituals; innovation requires the introduction at a certain point in time of something that did not previously exist. Applied to the Treasure tradition, this conceptual dichotomy has led on the one hand to scrutinizing the claims of historical and spiritual authenticity of these interrupted lineages; and on the other, to examining the seemingly innovative nature of Treasure revelations and the lineages they give rise to in light of their often conservative nature. These discussions have fostered a deeper understanding of the Treasure tradition in academia, within the framework of Western categories and concepts. However, examining the Treasure tradition on its own terms reveals fluid temporal relations that defy the linear conception of time inherent to the ideas of innovation and continuity. This dichotomy thus fails to address the specificity of the tertön’s role as envisioned by the Treasure tradition itself. From an emic perspective, termas and tertöns rather appear to embody the interwovenness of temporal planes that underlies the logic of Treasure revelation as the manifestation of timeless wisdom in a timely manner.

One such figure, the main focus of this study, was the nineteenth-century Khampa10 master Chokgyur Lingpa (also known as Chokling), considered within his lineage as the last of the hundred

9 Indeed, according to Robert Mayer and Cathy Cantwell, terma cycles often exhibit tremendous intertextuality, sharing many passages with previous termas and tantras. Notwithstanding, new textual arrangements and contexts still make termas innovative to some extent; but they are not always complete new material. Mayer, Robert. “gTer ston and Tradent: Innovation and Conservation in Tibetan Treasure Literature.” JIABS 36/37 2013/2014 (2015): 227-242. Cantwell, Cathy. “Different Kinds of Composition/Compilation Within the Dudjom Revelatory Tradition.” JIABS 36/37, 2013/2014 (2015): 243-280.

10 Khampa refers to people from the area of Kham (Khams), Eastern Tibet. Once one of the three main provinces of greater Tibet, Kham is now divided between the Chinese provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan.

and eight major Treasure revealers (terchen, gter chen)11 who were prophesied to appear in Tibet.12 Chokgyur Lingpa ascended from anonymity to great renown as a Treasure revealer in his short life- span of forty-one years, and his Treasures are still widely revered and practiced today in various monasteries in India, Tibet, and Nepal.13 He is said to be the last reincarnation of Prince Murub Tsenpo,14 second son of Dharma king Trisong Deutsen,15 who propagated the Buddhist teachings in Tibet primarily through his invitation of such great Indian masters as Guru Rinpoché.16 Thus, as is required for Treasure revealers, Chokgyur Lingpa’s past incarnation was a key figure of the imperial period,17 during which he received the teachings and empowerments that he would need to recall in his later revelation of these very same practices as Treasures. This direct connection to Guru Rinpoché was moreover confirmed many times in his incarnation as Chokgyur Lingpa by his mystical visions of the historical Indian master and journeys to his a-temporal pure land, the Copper-Colored

11 According to Tulku Thondup, a great tertön is a Treasure revealer who has discovered teachings related to three categories of practices: Guru Rinpoché, Avalokiteśvara and the Great Perfection (Dzogchen, rDzog chen). Thondup and Harold Talbott, Hidden Teachings of Tibet: An Explanation of the Terma Tradition of the Nyingma School of Buddhism (London: Wisdom Publications, 1986), 71.

12 Though many tertöns have appeared since Chokgyur Lingpa, the latter is considered within his lineage as the last of the major tertöns. The lineage supports this claim with various prophecies as well as the statements of certain of Chokgyur Lingpa’s contemporaries. Thus contemporary lineage master Orgyen Tobgyal (O rgyen stobs rgyal) explained: “In all the major chronicles of Padmasambhava’s life, in which he gives detailed predictions for the future, Guru Rinpoché announces that Chokgyur Lingpa will be the last of the hundred major tertöns to appear for the benefit of beings. Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo has said that, as last in the line, Chokgyur Lingpa’s Dharma activity to benefit beings cannot be matched by that of all his predecessors added together.” Phakchok Rinpoché, Chokgyur Lingpa, Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo, Jamgön Kongtrül and Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoché, The Great Tertön (Kathmandu: Lhasey Lotsawa Translations and Publications, 2016), 163.

13 In Nepal, the New Treasures of Chokgyur Lingpa are mainly practiced in the monasteries of Zhechen (Zhe chen) and Ka-Nying Shedrub Ling (bKa’ rnying bshad grub gling) as well as in the nunnery of Nagi in Kathmandu, and in the region of Nubri. In India, they are mainly practiced in the monastery of Pema Ewam Chögar Gyurme Ling (Padma e wam chos sgar gling) in Bir. In Tibet, they are still practiced at Chokgyur Lingpa’s main seats, namely, the Neten (gNas rten) and Kela (Ke la) monasteries in Kham.

14 Murub Tsenpo (Mu rub btsan or Mu rum bstan po), also known as Yeshé Rolpa Tsel (Ye shes rol pa rtsal) or Lhasey Lotsawa (lHa sras lo tswa ba) was the second son of King Trisong Deutsen. He was prophesied to take rebirth as a tertön 13 times, the last one being his incarnation as Chokgyur Lingpa. Thus, in his biography of Chokgyur Lingpa entitled Breeze that Carries the Auspicious Melody, Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo quotes the following prophecy taken from one of Chokgyur Lingpa’s Treasures, the Basic framework for the Sādhanas of Profound Auspicious Coincidence (rTen ’brel zab mo’i sgrub thabs mdo chings), which is understood to concern Chokgyur Lingpa: “The profound Treasures concealed in Sky Treasury / Will not remain there, but will be revealed by a man with aspirations. / Lhasé, this will be your last incarnation.” Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo, “The Breeze that Carries the Auspicious Melody,” in The Great Tertön, 264. 15 King Trisong Deutsen (Khri srong lde’u btsan, 742-c.800) was the first Tibetan King to invite Indian masters to Tibet for the translation of scriptures and to initiate widespread state sponsorship of Buddhism. See Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thaye, The Hundred Tertöns, tr. Yeshé Gyamtso (New York: KTD Publications, 2011), 31-35. 16 For a more detailed account of Chokgyur Lingpa’s past lives, see Doctor, Tibetan Treasure, 82-83.

Most Treasure revealers are said to be reincarnations of one of Guru Rinpoché’s twenty-five main disciples, and the prince Murub Tsenpo was particularly prominent among these

mountain, Zangdok Palri (Zangs mdog dpal ri).18 Thus, in order to fulfill his role as a Treasure revealer, Chokgyur Lingpa necessarily navigates in and out of time to connect with both the historical and spiritual sources of Tibetan Buddhism.

In terms of his own historical context, Chokgyur Lingpa is well known for his intimate relationship with two spearhead figures of the non-sectarian Rimé (ris med) movement that flourished in Kham in the nineteenth-century,19 namely Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thaye (’Jam mgon kong sprul blo gros mtha’ yas, 1813-1899) and Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo (’Jam dbyangs mkhyen brtse’i dbang po, 1820-1892), who participated in many of his Treasure discoveries and writings.20 In fact, as Alexander Gardner remarks, these “three religious leaders […] worked so closely in concert that they are still known by a single epithet: mKhyen Kong Mchog sde gsum.”21 This close association with the Rimé movement, against the backdrop of religious and political strife that surrounded the non- sectarian revival, were important influences on the temporal role that Chokgyur Lingpa adopted as a Buddhist master and Treasure revealer. Indeed, the tertön’s texts of ethical advice strongly advocate the adoption of a non-sectarian attitude, particularly toward and by the Treasure tradition, which he claims is by definition non-sectarian. Moreover, Chokgyur Lingpa describes how his visionary abilities and interpretation of terma prophecies were directly instrumental in furthering his associates' Rimé endeavors. Though Chokgyur Lingpa’s influence as part of the contemporary Rimé movement

18 The Copper-Colored mountain is the land of rākṣas, a type of man-eating demon, to which Guru Rinpoché is supposed to have gone when he left Tibet. It is believed that he remains there, teaching the Dharma. The realm is considered a nirmāṇakāya pure land, and many Tibetan devotees pray to be reborn in it. Treasure revealers usually travel there in some form or another in order to receive teachings and transmissions from Guru Rinpoché. See Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 242.

19 Schwieger offers a succinct but precise explanation of the Rimé movement and the political context from which it sprung in his article, “Collecting and Arranging the gTer ma Tradition:” “The basic ideal of this movement was to gain a geneal acceptance of the traditions and practices of different schools including the Bon one as authentic and authoritative. But we can presume that the motivation was also a political one: The idea arose when the dGe lugs pa in Khams became stronger and severely tried to suppress especially the Karma bKa’ rgyud pa in Khams. In such a situation the search for allies suggests itself.” Peter Schwieger, “Collecting and Arranging the gTer ma Tradition: Kong sprul’s Great Treasury of the Hidden Teachings,” in Editions, éditions: l’écrit au Tibet, evolution et devenir, eds. Anne Chayet et al. (München: Indus Verlag, 2010), 326.

20 Indeed, once Treasures are revealed, often in crypted form, they need to be decoded and written down. Jamgön Kongtrül and Khyentsé Wangpo assisted Chokgyur Lingpa greatly in this task, as shown in his biography, The Breeze that Carries the Auspicious Melody. Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo, “The Breeze that Carries the Auspicious Melody” in The Great Tertön, 253-324. 21 Alexander Gardner, “The Twenty-five Great Sites of Kham: Religious Geography, Revelation, and Nonsectarianism in Nineteenth-Century Eastern Tibet” (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 2006), ix.

might be seen as innovative activity, the tertön himself presents his non-sectarian position as one that is deeply rooted in the very sources of the Buddhist tradition. In his rhetorical writings, Rimé, like Treasure revelation, appear to be but timely revivals of the a-temporal fundaments of Buddhism.

This thesis explores these various dimensions of Chokgyur Lingpa’s role as it relates to temporality through the translation and analysis of several texts from his anthology.22 The selection of translated texts aims to reflect the fluidity of the tertön’s relationship to time throughout the multiple facets of his activities as a Treasure revealer. Through an analysis of Chokgyur Lingpa’s role in bridging temporal dimensions—understood in their traditional Buddhist fourfold categorization into past, present, future, and timelessness—I aim to elucidate the specificities of the Treasure revealer’s role from an emic perspective. Indeed, Chokgyur Lingpa’s literary self-portrayal depicts the tertön as both rooted in tradition and endowed with visionary prowess that empowers him to have a unique influence in his own time, defying categorization as either a figure of continuity or innovation. Instead, the tertön’s visionary access to both the historical and spiritual sources of the Buddhist tradition suggest a collapse of time in his experience that allows him to revive a-temporal Buddhist principles in a manner relevant to his own time and place. Chokgyur Lingpa tellingly uses this influence to promote the Rimé ideals in his rhetorical writings, arguing for a return to the basics of Mahāyāna ethics as applied to specific issues of his own time. From an emic perspective, it thus appears that the unique specificity of the tertön’s role lies in the timeliness of his actions and revelations.

The first part of this thesis explores the relation of the tertön to the past, showing that he is necessarily a person of both the past and present, who is thereby empowered to act as a mediator and agent of the past in the present. The second part analyzes the tertön’s visionary access to an a-temporal realm, a source of timeless wisdom that manifests timely advice due to his mediation. Finally, the third part looks at the tertön’s temporal influence as he expresses it in rhetorical writings advocating

22 mChog gyur gling pa, mChog gling bka’ ’bum skor, vol. 36 of mChog gling bde chen zhig po gling pa yi zab gter yid bzhin nor bu’i mdzod chen po (Kathmandu, Nepal: Ka-nying Shedrub Ling monastery, 2004).

non-sectarianism. This part examines how the tertön appeals to tradition as a source of both historical and timeless wisdom to be applied to current circumstances in a timely manner.


Translation methodology

The translations presented in this study are based on a philological preparation that chiefly aimed to uncover the most accurate reading for the texts in light of contemporary standards of grammar and spelling. To that aim, two textual witnesses were consulted, one of them being based on the other. The first witness is a blockprint published by Lama Pema Tashi in Paro between 1982 and 1986 by rTsi ske nor bu gling gi par khang, which is “reproduced from an enlarged collection of texts representing the tradition of gNas-brtan dgon-pa supplemented with texts from Tibet.”23 The second is a typeset version from 2004, which is based on the blockprint and edited by contemporary lineage masters in Nepal.24 Though this second one is derivative, it shows corrections of many of the orthographic idiosyncracies present in the first, with little apparent corruption of the consulted texts. An edition was compiled from these two versions, with an emphasis on accuracy in terms of meaning and spelling, rather than on historical precedence. It presents a positive apparatus, which first indicates the chosen reading before noting the variants. Page numbers within the text refer to the typeset version. This critical edition is presented in the annexes. In terms of the translation, several of Chokgyur Lingpa’s longer biographies, which have not yet been translated into English, were consulted in the original Tibetan in order to provide more background information for the autobiographical material. Moreover, the translation owes much to the kind help and informed insight of Kyabjé Khenpo, who not only has thorough knowledge of the

23 This is the inscription found on the title board of mChog gyur gling pa, mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986). 24 mChog gyur gling pa, mChog gling bde chen zhig po gling pa yi zab gter yid bzhin nor bu’i mdzod chen po (Kathmandu, Nepal: Ka-nying Shedrub Ling monastery, 2004).

tradition and texts—and has himself participated in the editing process of the new edition— but also knows the dialect and regional specificities of Chokgyur Lingpa’s home area. Names of persons and deities have been rendered in English phonetics to facilitate reading, with the Wylie equivalent given at the first mention in footnotes. All phonetic renderings of Tibetan terms follow the THL simplified phonetics system developed by Nicolas Tournadre and David Germano. Indian names with known Sanskrit equivalents were rendered back in Sanskrit form. I have chosen to translate most place names into English, as they often have poetic resonances and meaning. The original Tibetan is indicated in both Wylie and transliteration in footnotes. In this process, I have followed a practice similar to that used by the early Tibetan translators, translating only the names that render well in English, and leaving the more obscure ones in transliteration.25 Text names have been uniformly translated, in order to give the reader a sense of their contents, with both Wylie and transliteration provided in footnotes. If a text is cited several times throughout the thesis, however, I have chosen to use the transliterated form of its shorthand Tibetan title from the second mention onwards, for the sake of brevity. In that case, the abbreviated form is given in parentheses at the first mention for future reference. The page numbers that appear in the translation refer to the typeset edition. Each text is numbered and referred to in order of presentation by the sigla T1 to T10. These sigla are used throughout the thesis to avoid excessive repetition of text titles.

Presentation of the texts

The Chokling Tersar (mChog gling gter gsar), the collection of Chokgyur Lingpa’s terma revelations and related works, is comprised of thirty-nine volumes in its latest edition, which includes ancillary writings by other masters as well. However, only one of these volumes preserves the tertön’s own writings; this is volume Chi or thirty-six, which counts 459 folio sides. Chokgyur Lingpa’s

25 This method was encouraged by imperial decree in the New Translation period of Tibetan history. dKar chag ’phang thang ma sgra sbyor bam po gnyis pa (Beijing: mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 2003), 72.

writings are of particular interest in that they present the tertön as author,26 providing a rare showcase for his own voice and personality. Indeed, as discussed by Janet Gyatso, when it comes to terma revelation, the tertön has only fragmentary agency, as the production of Treasures is a collaborative effort in which authorship, in the case of writings, is distributed across time and persons.27 Looking into the few writings authored by Chokgyur Lingpa himself therefore offers a unique perspective on the Treasure revealer’s own discourse as it relates to time and timeliness.

Among these texts, more ritualistic and exegetical material were left out of this thesis in order to focus on personal writings that reflect Chokgyur Lingpa’s role and persona as a Treasure revealer. The selected translations presented here include his autobiography and personal accounts of Treasure revelations, accounts of visionary encounters with Guru Padmasambhava, and texts of ethical advice that address controversies surrounding Treasure revealers. In these texts, the tertön expresses himself on widely different aspects of his life and times, offering a multi-faceted picture of himself and his tradition. Though this self-representation is most evident in direct form in his autobiographical material, it also manifests in a performative manner through the rhetoric and opinions he expresses in correspondences of ethical advice.

The select translations in this study span three different collections within the volume of writings in the Chokling Tersar anthology whose authorship is attributed to the Treasure revealer. The first, “The Illuminating Sun of the Victorious Ones’ Teachings: A brief, first-hand account of the liberating life-story of the great emanated Treasure revealer”28 relates the tertön’s life story within the framework of lineage transmission, traditional tropes, and Treasure prophecies. It shows the tertön

26 Though in fact most of these texts were probably written down by a scribe, as some texts’ colophons indicate, authorship is nonetheless attributed to Chokgyur Lingpa. 27 As Janet Gyatso writes, “authorship is never possible to pinpoint or isolate in the Treasure tradition, for in the end a primordial buddha, Padmasambhava, Yeshé Tsogyal, the discoverer, scribes, and disciples are all given some credit for the text of the Treasure in its current form. The Treasure is the heteroglossic product, to use Bakhtin’s famous term, of all these voices.” ’Jigs-med-gling-pa Rang-byung-rdo-rje and Janet Gyatso, Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary: A Translation and Study of Jigme Lingpa’s Dancing Moon in the Water and Ḍākki’s Grand Secret-Talk (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998), 178-179.

28 mChog gyur gling pa, “sPrul pa’i gter ston chen mo’i rnam thar gyi sa bon zhal gsung ma dang gter ’byung ’ga’ zhig ’bem gtam sna tshogs bcas phyogs bsdoms rgyal bstan nyin byed ’od snang,” in mChog gling bka’ ’bum skor, vol. 36 of mChog gling bde chen zhig po gling pa yi zab gter yid bzhin nor bu’i mdzod chen po, 133-189 (Kathmandu, Nepal: Ka- nying Shedrub Ling monastery, 2004).

as a figure molded by tradition and predestined in the ancient past, yet with an important innovative role in the present due to his prolific activity of Treasure revelation. Two of the translations presented below belong to this collection. The first (T1) is Chokgyur Lingpa’s short autobiography, which focuses on his education, tantric initiations, teachers, and disciples. This text corresponds to the traditional genre of ‘outer’ autobiography, which often resembles a list of teachings and deeds rather than a narrative or cohesive portrait of the protagonist.29 The larger part of T1 is devoted to Chokgyur Lingpa’s studies and practice under others’ (human) guidance; only a few lines mention his Treasure revelations, and these focus mostly on their recipients, students and doctrine holders who would further the tertön’s lineage. In T1, as is customary for the literary genre, Chokgyur Lingpa thus emphasizes his place within the traditional lineage of master-student relationships. Conversely, his role as a Treasure revealer who has direct access to a-temporal sources of knowledge is not put to the fore.

The second translation (T2) immediately follows T1 within the same autobiographical collection. It presents an account of Chokgyur Lingpa’s successive visionary experiences and Treasure revelations from his childhood to the age of thirty-one, the time of its composition. Here, Chokgyur Lingpa describes his inner process towards fulfilling his destiny as a Treasure revealer, from his early doubts regarding visions and prophecies, to his public revelations and recognition by prominent masters. Though T2 generally concerns the same time period as T1, it therefore relates entirely different events, as Chokgyur Lingpa now presents himself exclusively from the standpoint of his identity as a visionary and charismatic Treasure revealer. The second collection of texts explored in this thesis is entitled “The Lucid Jewel Mirror: a collection of texts of prophetic instructions and visionary dialogues bestowed upon the great emanated Treasure revealer, Chokgyur Lingpa, by Guru Padmasambhava from Uḍḍiyāna, in order to

29 ‘Outer’ autobiographies (phyi’i rang rnam) generally record the more factual and publicly known events of a master’s life, as opposed to ‘inner’ autobiographies (nang gyi rang rnam), which focus on his personal practice, and the ‘secret’ autobiographies (gsang ba’i rang rnam), which concern the most private domain of his visions and spiritual accomplishments. For a further discussion of the genre, see Gyatso, Apparitions, 6-7 and 103.

clarify doubts.”30 Though not explicitly designated as such, this collection is also autobiographical. The material it presents, however, is predominantly of the genre of secret autobiography, focusing on the tertön’s mystical experiences, mainly in the form of dreams, visions, and prophecies. By relating Chokgyur Lingpa’s visionary experiences, these texts elicit his relation to a timeless dimension, and the important part it plays in the tertön’s contemporary role and influence. As other masters rely on Chokling to convey instructions obtained in visions and prophecies, the tertön is shown to act as messenger and interpreter both for the a-temporal and the historical.

Four translations from this collection of texts are presented below. The first (T3) is the opening text of the collection; it relates a visionary dialogue between Chokgyur Lingpa and Guru Rinpoché, in which the latter manifests to give the tertön general spiritual advice and specific instructions. Here, Padmasambhava appears as a timeless principle rather than a historical figure. Yet, on the tertön’s request, he offers him instructions meant for contemporary times, with specific temporal guidelines. The tertön’s access to timeless wisdom, as embodied by Guru Rinpoché, thus permits him to act as its mediator, bringing back timely advice to be applied in present times.

In the following text of this collection (T4), Chokgyur Lingpa is commissioned by Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo (JKW) to examine the timeliness of opening a particular terma teaching.31 In this process, Chokgyur Lingpa is led to an a-temporal realm where he meets with a supra-mundane assembly. However, the instructions the tertön receives in this realm are yet again very much concerned with specific temporal circumstances that will determine the future course of events.

30 mChog gyur gling pa, “O rgyan gu ru padma ’byung gnas kyis sprul pa’i gter chen mor bstsal pa’i lung bstan bslab bya dang dag snang dris lan dogs gcod kyi skor ’ga’ zhig phyogs bsdus rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” in mChog gling bka’ ’bum skor, vol. 36 of mChog gling bde chen zhig po gling pa yi zab gter yid bzhin nor bu’i mdzod chen po, 133-89 (Kathmandu, Nepal: Ka-nying Shedrub Ling monastery, 2004).

31 “Opening the door to Dharma” (chos sgo phe) is a phrase commonly used in a variety of contexts, including religious conversion, revival… Here, in reference to a specific Dharma text, it can be understood as the act of opening up the maṇḍala in order to bestow the empowerments and thereby ‘open up’ the line of transmission of this particular Treasure, beginning its propagation.

The following translation (T5) addresses the need for another ‘opening:’ that of a sacred site, Cārita-like Jeweled Cliff (Tsadra). 32 Like the previous text, T5 is very much concerned with opportunity and auspicious circumstances (rten ’brel), 33 as laid out in prophetic instructions. However, the prophecies cited by the tertön were not received in visions, but come from his own terma revelations. These prophecies are therefore attributed to the imperial period—past wisdom that has descended through time to be applied at the right moment. The Treasure revealer appears as interpreter and agent of the prophecies, a mediator of past wisdom in the present.

In T6, Chokgyur Lingpa is once again asked to examine the correctness of a certain course of action—in this instance, Kongtrül’s collection of teachings from diverse lineages of Tibetan Buddhism into what would become the Treasury of Precious Terma (Rinchen Terdzö) as part of his efforts in promoting a Rimé ideal.34 As in T4, it seems that eminent figures around Chokgyur Lingpa sought him out for spiritual verification of their activities; and in both instances, Chokgyur Lingpa obtains verification in visionary encounters with Guru Rinpoché. T6 thus further highlights the privileged nature of the tertön’s access to timeless wisdom, as others rely upon him as mediator

32 Tsa ’dra rin chen brag (Tsadra Rinchen Drak). This Treasure site opened up by Chokgyur Lingpa would become the site for Jamgön Kongtrül’s hermitage Kun bzang bde chen ’od gsal gling. It is situated above Palpung (dPal spungs) monastery, Situ Rinpoché’s main seat. Gardner, “The Twenty-five Great Sites,” 1.

33 Janet Gyatso provides a useful definition of rten ’brel as denoting either interdependent origination or auspicious connections depending on the context: “ ‘Tendrel’ abbreviates the Tibetan rendering of the famous Buddhist concept of ‘interdependent origination’ (rten-cing ’brel-bar ’byung gnas; Skt. pratītyasamutpāda). It is the principal characterization of Buddhist causality and ontology. Everything is constituted by the coming together of multiple cause and conditions; everything is dependent for its existence upon something else. ‘Because this exists, that arises,’ the classical Buddhist saying goes; therefore nothing has an autonomous ‘own nature.’ In colloquial Tibetan usage, tendrel concerns matters of auspiciousness and fortune. When the right conditions connect, it augurs that something good will happen. Connections indicate past karma; for example, to have connections with a teachings means that previous actions have made for a mutual relationship, which ensure that the teacher will help one; as one of Jigme Lingpa’s prophecies states, he will launch anyone who has connections with him into heaven. Connections can also augur a negative outcome. In either case, the metaphysics are decidedly Buddhist: the event in question is a matter of parts and elements coming together; no single factor suffices.” Gyatso, Apparitions of the Self, 179

34 ’Jam mgon kong sprul blo gros mtha’ yas, Rin chen gter mdzod chen mo (Paro: Ngodrup and Sherab Drimay, 1976- 1980). The Treasury of Precious Terma is to this day an important legacy of Kongtrül, Khyentsé and Chokling’s Rimé approach. Indeed, regarding this collection, Peter Schwieger writes that it is “part of the canonical collections of the rNying ma school of Tibetan Buddhism as well as an evidence for Kong sprul’s commitment to the non-sectarian Ris med movement he had founded together with ’Jam dbyangs mkhyen brtse’i dbang po (1820–1892). The Rin chen gter mdzod incorporates not only hundreds of texts from the rNying ma tradition but also selected texts from the bKa’ brgyud, Sa skya, Jo nang, bKa’ gdams and Bon traditions. Due to the efforts of Kong sprul the Rin chen gter mdzod constitutes a collection of authoritative writings which since then has been appreciated and transmitted especially among followers of the rNying ma and the Karma bKa’ brgyud schools.” Schwieger, “Collecting and Arranging the gTer ma Tradition,” 321.

between the temporal and the a-temporal. It also signals his involvement in Jamgön Kongtrül’s and Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo’s Rimé endeavors. The final text (T7) from this collection of visionary and prophetic instructions likewise opens with a request by Jamgön Kongtrül to Chokgyur Lingpa, this time to explain the purpose of a terma statue and of the temple in which it was placed.35 Chokgyur Lingpa’s answer inscribes all their activities in relation to this temple and statue in the logic of terma prophecies, whose fulfillment had immediate beneficial impacts – notably, it seems, on the production of the Five Treasuries, a literary testimony to the Rimé approach.36 In T7, the tertön thus shows himself to influence events in the present in significant ways by fulfilling ancient prophecies, all the while showcasing his participation in the compilation of the Five Treasuries and by extension the Rimé movement.

The third collection that this thesis draws upon is composed of songs of advice collectively entitled “The Essential Elixir of Profound Meaning: a practice cycle of oral instructions and advice bestowed upon fortunate followers, eye-opener to what is to be adopted and abandoned.”37 These texts reveal Chokgyur Lingpa’s temporal role as he advises contemporaries with regards to current events, advocating a non-sectarian approach in the face of conflict and controversies in the Treasure tradition. Relying heavily on scripture and prophecies to that end, Chokgyur Lingpa presents himself foremost as a traditionalist, drawing on ancient wisdom to support the contemporary Rimé revival. Though not strictly autobiographical, the texts of this collection participate in a performative way in

35 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 149.

36 The Five Treasuries (mDzod lnga), into which Jamgön Kongtrül’s literary production is usually organized, are the Treasury of Knowledge (Shes bya mdzod, Shéja Dzö), the Treasury of Kagyü Tantras (bKa’ brgyud sngags mdzod, Kagyü Ngakdzö), the Treasury of Precious Terma (Rin chen gter mdzod, Rinchen Terdzö), the Treasury of Spiritual Instruction (gDams ngag mdzod, Dam-ngak Dzö) and the Uncommon Treasury (Thun mong ma yin pa’i mdzod, Tünmong Mayinpé Dzö). According to Gene Smith, “together with the gsung ’bum of ’Jam dbyangs Mkhyen brtse’i dbang po (1820-92), the Rgyud sde kun btus and Sgrub thabs kun btus collections, the Five Treasuries (Mdzod lnga) into which the writings of Kong sprul are traditionally divided represent our chief literary sources for the nonsectarian movement, one of the most important developments in the nineteenth-century Tibetan Buddhist world.” For more details on these seminal works, see Gene E. Smith and Kurtis R. Schaeffer, “’Jam mgon Kong sprul and the Nonsectarian Movement,” in Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Tibetan Plateau (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2002), 262-67.

37 mChog gyur gling pa, “rJes ’jug skal bzang rnams la bstal pa’i zhal gdams bslab bya nyams len gyi skor spang blang mig ’byed zab don snying gi bdud rtsi,” in mChog gling bka’ ’bum skor, vol. 36 of mChog gling bde chen zhig po gling pa yi zab gter yid bzhin nor bu’i mdzod chen po, 75-131 (Kathmandu, Nepal: Ka-nying Shedrub Ling monastery, 2004).

drawing a portrait38 of the tertön as a temporal agent seeking to influence the course of political and religious events in nineteenth-century Kham. Two translations (T8 and T9) belonging to this collection are presented below. Both texts approach contemporary events from the standpoint of Rimé ideals. In the first (T8), Chokgyur Lingpa expresses his point of view on controversies surrounding the tertön Kajö Dorjé (mKha’ spyod rdo rje), 39 admonishing against rash judgments of a tertön’s authenticity. The author belittles the arguments of Kajö Dorjé’s opponents by drawing parallels with controversies surrounding past tertöns who had since been widely recognized as part of the hundred great tertöns. Chokgyur Lingpa uses this historical evidence to demonstrate the applicability of general Mahāyāna principles of impartiality to the case of Treasure revealers. Thus the tertön argues for a non-sectarian approach that is rooted in the basic ethical principles of Mahāyāna.

The following text (T9) is a similar condemnation of sectarian strife and defense of non- sectarianism, based upon general ethical principles and historical evidence. Indeed, in T9, within a broader discussion of the principles of non-sectarianism, the tertön addresses the controversies surrounding the lineage of Nyima Drakpa and the Mindroling tradition, highlighting the futility of their conflict. In doing so, he advises his correspondent, whose questions were at the origin of the present text, to remain equanimous towards all parties, lest he commit the grave karmic offense of denigrating the true teachings of the Buddha. The importance of this text is two-fold, as it further grounds the non-sectarian approach in basic Mahāyāna principles, and also shows that Chokgyur Lingpa’s opinion was in fact sought out on these current issues. Thus, T9 portrays the tertön as an influential figure who used his authority to mount a traditionalist defense of non-sectarianism.

38 As argued by Joshua Schapiro throughout his thesis, such texts of ethical advice indeed serve to create an image of the author as teacher, not only drawing his portrait but in fact molding “his identity as a spiritual guide for himself.” Thus the performative aspect of such writings not only influences the reader in his behavior and in his view of the author, but also participate in creating the author’s persona in a transformative way. Joshua Schapiro, “Patrul Rinpoché on Self- Cultivation: The Rhetoric of Nineteenth-Century Tibetan Buddhist Spiritual Advice” (PhD diss., Harvard University, 2012), 221.

39 No other name is given for this tertön, and it is unclear who this might refer to.

The final translation presented in this thesis (T10) belongs to the collection of autobiographical writings presented above, however its style and subject matter rather correspond to those of T8 and T9. Indeed, T10 is primarily a rhetorical piece, which “expounds on the philosophical values of the ecumenical tradition and the role of the Treasure tradition within this movement,”40 once again highlighting the Rimé influence of Chokgyur Lingpa’s approach to current events. Abundant in ancient Indian scriptural references and Mahāyāna ideas, T10 further portrays the tertön’s temporal influence as a Rimé master as largely based on continuity with ancient Buddhist ideals and tradition. The ten texts analyzed in this study all suggest notions of temporality, continuity and innovation that intertwine and blur into one another throughout the tertön’s life and activities. Further analysis of these concepts as presented in these texts shows the tertön’s particular status as a figure of the past and the present, of the temporal and the a-temporal, whose activity, grounded in the very source of tradition, is above all characterized by its timeliness.


A survey of Western academic discussions of continuity versus innovation in the

Treasure tradition

In much of Western academic literature, the specifity of the tertön’s role has been analyzed predominantly in terms of a tension between its apparent innovative power and the underlying continuity with tradition that it belies. Indeed, the charismatic, visionary aspect of the tertön’s persona, which empowers him to introduce seemingly new teachings into the accepted canon, could easily lead one to portray the tertön’s role as innovative, that is, as making “changes in something established, especially by introducing new methods, ideas, or products.” 41 The tension often

40 Doctor, Tibetan Treasure, 76. 41 This is the definition of the verb “to innovate” according to the online Oxford Enligsh Living Dictionary.

discussed by modern scholars, then, is how this relates to the tertön’s manifest place within tradition, which is precisely defined as “a long-established custom or belief that has been passed on from one generation to another.”42 In this section I will survey the main literature discussing this tension. Indeed, this conceptual dichotomy forms the backdrop of my own examination of the tertön’s particular relation to time, which I argue renders the categories of innovation (as something entirely of the present) and tradition (as something necessarily from the past) somewhat inadequate from an emic perspective.

In her article “Ontology of the Past and its Materialization in the Treasure Tradition,” Holly Gayley examines to what extent Treasure revelation can be regarded as an “invented tradition.”43 In doing so, the author examines what she defines as the “ontology of the past” in the Treasure tradition, namely the fact that the past both recedes into timelessness – as the Nyingma accounts trace the transmission of teachings through historical figures back to timeless beings – and remains present in the visionary experience and activities of Treasure revealers. The author thereby demonstrates that the “invented” or innovative aspect of Treasure revelation is mitigated by the requirement that “in order to act as innovators – introducing hitherto unknown scriptures and relics – tertöns reach back through an idealized, distant past to a timeless, transcendent authority.”44 She thus presents Treasure revelation as constitutive of a tradition in that it demonstrates “an effort on the part of the tertön to establish continuity with an authoritative past removed in time and space.”45 This continuity is made possible, despite the interrupted nature of the Treasure lineage, precisely by the ontological status of the past, which renders it ever-accessible to the tertön.46 Gayley moreover demonstrates how the processes of revelation and dissemination of Treasures actually mirror the original transmission of

42 “Tradition,” Oxford English Living Dictionary, Emphasis is mine. 43 Holly Gayley, “Ontology of the Past and its Materialization in Tibetan Treasures,” in The invention of sacred tradition, 213-240, ed. Lewis, James R., and Olav Hammer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007). 44 Ibid., 216. 45 Ibid., 216-17.

46 To this effect, Gayley writes: “Here we can see the ontology of the past most saliently, since the trope of decline and revival is based on a disjunction in surface continuity (on the plane of historical time) and an underlying ontological continuity (accessible through the visionary talents of the tertön). Ibid., 224.

the teachings, by evoking the presence both of timeless beings and of the past through ritual.47 Bringing new meaning to old customs, the Treasure tradition thus permits the revival of ancient Buddhist teachings in the face of contemporary challenges. Indeed, with a brief discussion of the place of Treasure revelation in modern-day Tibetan ares of China, Gayley concludes that the “invention of tradition” can in fact be an important mechanism for the indigenous preservation and revival of cultural heritage.48

Matthew Wheeler’s article “Keeping the Faith Alive: The Tertön as Mythological Innovator in the Treasure Tradition” is a further analytical development on this final point. 49 Indeed, Wheeler demonstrates how innovation is in fact generally necessary in order to make tradition relevant in changing times; a process which in the context of the Treasure tradition he terms the “mythopoeic function of the tertön.” Wheeler defines mythopoesis “as the adaptive quality by which the worldview of a particular community—comprised of a people with a shared sense of history and destiny, of values and hopes—can attune itself to the needs of the historical moment for its own preservation.”50 The tertön’s innovative function as a recreator of myths – or adapter of tradition – is thus, according to Wheeler, an important factor in the continuing relevance of the Nyingma tradition, which “has effectively institutionalized its version of Buddhism with an agency of mythopoeia.”51 Wheeler nuances his thesis by conceding that from an emic perspective, the tertön is not technically engaged in any act of innovation, since he is “merely retrieving fragments of a mythological corpus that has not been fully realized in the empirical, historical realm.”52 Nevertheless, the apparent innovation lies in the fact that new scriptures are being introduced in the Nyingma canon. Moreover, Wheeler argues that within the Nyingma school, the soteriological value of these scriptures takes precedence over their historical origin in determining their authenticity. This soteriological value, he continues, is

47 Ibid., 226-27. 48 Ibid., 236. 49 Matthew Wheeler, “Keeping the Faith Alive: The Tertön as Mythological Innovator in the Tibetan Treasure Tradition,” Expositions 9, no. 1 (2015), 1-18. 50 Ibid., 2. 51 Ibid., 4. 52 Ibid., 5.

necessarily contextual, and defined in terms of “whether or not it [the Treasure] will serve the people of that immediate time and place”53 – in other words, in terms of its timeliness. Nevertheless, to instil faith in the teaching’s soteriological value even in an age of decline, the tertön’s privileged link to the golden age of the imperial period is a crucial element of his mythopoeic capacity. Thus, according to Wheeler, the tertön’s mythopoeic function is not as much an act of outright innovation as a revival of faith and hope in the established tradition, which is simply recast in a form adapted to contemporary challenges.

In his article “gTer ston and Tradent – Innovation and Conservation in Tibetan Treasure Literature,” Robert Mayer questions the innovative quality of terma through a philological study of Treasure texts, which reveals tremendous intertextuality within a context of fluid authorship in the larger Tibetan Buddhist tradition.54 According to Mayer’s findings, one can broadly distinguish three types of Treasure texts: found manuscripts; truly innovative pieces; and predominantly conservative texts, which bring little novelty and are the prevailing type of Treasure literature. Thus, the majority of Treasure texts share extensive passages with older revelations, and moreover cite passages from the Canonical Transmission literature (bKa’ ma, Kama)55 in order to establish scriptural authenticity. For these reasons, Mayer argues that “Treasure Revealers do not primarily act as innovative creative writers, or authors, in the modern sense. Rather, they offer, in communion with their spiritual companions of the past and present, their contributions as tradents, that is to say, as transmitters of the ancient traditions within lineage communities deemed authentic.”56 According to Mayer, the novelty of Treasure teachings lies not in their content, but in their purported direct transmission from the original source of the teachings. Thus, he writes, “it is the blessings that are fresh, and their

53 Ibid., 6-7. 54 Mayer, “gTer ston and Tradent.”

55 Kama (bka’ ma), the Canonical Transmission lineage, also called the ‘Long Lineage of Canonical Transmissions’ (ring brgyud bka’ ma) is the lineage of transmission that claims to have originated in India and been transmitted from master to disciple to the present day. This can be contrasted to the ‘Short Lineage of Treasures’ (nye brgyud gter ma), which in a sense cuts out the middle-men by putting the Treasure revealers directly in contact with Guru Rinpoché, from whom they receive teachings without intermediaries. See Gyatso, Apparitions, 149. 56 Mayer, “gTer ston and Tradent,” 232.

redissemination which is new, far more than any changes in actual ritual content.”57 The tertön in this respect fulfills the function of a tradent rather than an innovator, acting as a “psychic bridge between the present day community and the golden age of Tibet’s imperial past.”58 However, beyond this function, Mayer finds little to distinguish Treasure literature from canonical literature, both being modular in nature, in keeping with the larger Tibetan Buddhist literary tradition.

In her exploration of the self-conception of Treasure revealer Jigme Lingpa as portrayed in his auto-biographies, Janet Gyatso shows the Treasure revealer’s persona to be in constant negociation between a position of unique individuality and one of interconnectedness.59 Pointing notably to the same convoluted issue of authorship as Mayer does, Gyatso notes that the prime example of this interconnectedness, or “permeability of the Treasure – to time, to language, to others – is its infinitely deferrable authorship.”60 Thus, according to Gayley, though the Treasure revealer certainly has his part to play, a charismatic agency necessary to his fulfillment of Padmasambhava’s legacy, he is first and foremost a transmitter and mediator, passing down meaning through time and incarnations in order to perpetuate the tradition.61 Indeed, the Treasure revealer’s potentially innovative agency is largely mitigated by his status as Padmasambhava’s emissary, as well as his dependence on and embeddedness in the social fabric of his time, as expressed by the determining role of interdependent origination in the process of Treasure revelation and dissemination.62 Therefore, despite being a unique, charismatic figure within Tibetan Buddhism, according to Gyatso, “both the discoverer and the Treasure are phenomena of tradition.”63

57 Mayer, “gTer ston and Tradent,” 234. 58 Ibid., 239. 59 Gyatso, Apparitions of the Self. 60 Ibid., 178. 61 Ibid.

62 Tulku Thondup discusses the significance of rten ’brel in the following manner in relation to terma: “In Mahāyāna Buddhism, the ultimate meaning of all phenomena is emptiness, free from conceptualizations and beyond reasoning. In relative reality, apparent phenomena are generated and degenerate totally because of positive and negative circumstances, the causes and conditions. If favorable circumstances coexist, every possible result will occur as a magical display. Thus the discovery of Terma totally depends on the occurrence of favorable circumstances. Even a good omen, such as someone’s saying an auspicious word, greatly affects the discovery of a Terma and its effectiveness. In Tibetan philosophical texts Ten drel (S. Pratītyasamutpāda) is translated as interdependent causation, but in other contexts it means sign and omen.” Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 243. 63 Gyatso, Apparitions of the Self, 178.

Having surveyed some of the main academic discussions of the tension between continuity with tradition and innovation within the Treasure tradition, let us now turn to the concept of time in tertön Chokgyur Lingpa’s own writings, which appears to be vastly different from the linear conception of time which necessarily underpins the categories of innovation and continuity. Indeed, the collapse of time that is apparent in the Treasure revealer’s experience renders these categories inadequate in describing the specificity of the Treasure revealer’s role from an emic perspective.

The tertön as bridge to the historical source of tradition

A figure of the past and present

As highlighted by all the authors discussed above, the tertön’s authority to take on his visionary role within the Tibetan Buddhist tradition hinges upon the belief that he was appointed as a Treasure revealer in the ‘golden age’ of the imperial period. This appointment is confirmed in the present by terma prophecies as well as by the tertön’s ability to connect to that past and even manifest it by means of his terma revelations. Thus, the tertön’s persona is necessarily linked to both the past and present, with a role determined in the distant past but actualized in the present by contacting the past. As such, the Treasure revealer is cast as a religious figure with privileged access to the historical source of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition.

Tertöns’ authority to both reveal and transmit new Treasure teachings in their present day stems from the belief that they themselves already received the transmission for these teachings from the source. Indeed, as explained by Tulku Thondup in his traditional presentation of the Treasure tradition, tertöns are “the realized beings to whom the Termas were transmitted, mind-mandated and entrusted by Guru Padmasambhava.” 64 Treasure revealers must therefore be identified as reincarnations of Guru Rinpoché’s disciples who in that past lifetime created the karmic link and the merit that would permit them to act as his emissaries (rgyal tshab) in the future through their Treasure

64 Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 46.

revealing activity. To that purpose, the termas they reveal usually feature the history of their initial transmission to the future Treasure revealer by the founding figure of the lineage (often, but not always, Padmasambhava), establishing both the authentic origin of the teaching and the authority of its revealer.

In Chokgyur Lingpa’s case, most of the teachings that he would later reveal as termas were received in his previous incarnation as Prince Murub Tsenpo, a prominent disciple of Guru Rinpoché in the imperial times. Chokgyur Lingpa’s terma cycle The Dispeller of All Obstacles,65 for instance, includes an account of its transmission by Guru Rinpoché to Prince Murub Tsenpo.66 In this text, Guru Rinpoché explicitly predicts the future reincarnation of the prince as Chokgyur Lingpa, the tertön who would reveal The Dispeller of All Obstacles. The terma’s account of its own history thus contains a prophecy about the identity of its revealer that has necessarily been fulfilled at the time of its revelation. Such prophecies serve to confirm the place of the tertön within the historical lineage, at the very inception of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition in the imperial period.

The future return of a historical lineage master and student of Guru Rinpoché in the form of the Treasure revealer enables the direct introduction of a lineage of tantric teachings in the times for which it is meant. The tertön therefore acts as Padmasambhava’s messenger, reviving his teachings through terma revelation, in a form unadulterated by the passage of time.67 This purpose of terma is also illustrated by the account of the transmission of The Dispeller of All Obstacles, as recounted by Chokling Tersar lineage holder Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoché:68

65 The Dispeller of All Obstacles (Thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel, Thukdrub Barché Kunsel). mChog gyur gling pa, Thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel, vol. 1-10 in mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986).

66 Thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel, vol. 5 in mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986), 517-520.

67 Indeed, preserving the teaching in a pure form is an essential purpose of terma transmission, which is therefore called ‘the short lineage of terma.’ Tulku Thondup explains this purpose in the following way: “Firstly, many of the teachings given in ancient times have disappeared but the reappearance of the teachings as Termas again and again in a time like the present is helpful for maintaining them and making them available to people. Secondly, a fresh teaching coming from the source ‘with warm breath’ without going through the hands of different kinds of people in a lineage maintains the authenticity of the instructions. Thirdly, maintaining the purity and athenticity of the teachings helps to keep their blessings intact. Fourthly, within the lineage there is no one between Guru Padmasambhava in the ninth century and a Terton today, since the Terton received the teachings from Guru Padmasambhava then as his disciple. So discovery of Termas shortens the lineage.” Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 62.

68 Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoché (O rgyan stobs rgyal rin po che, b. 1951) is the son of the third Neten Chokling reincarnation.

She [Yeshé Tsogyal] then asked him [Guru Rinpoché] whether it would be best to spread these teachings straightaway or to keep them for the sake of future generations. In reply, the Guru said, “Just now, these are fortunate times – and I, Padma am here teaching in Tibet. Now is the time for practicing these teachings yourselves, not for spreading them far and wide.” He [Guru Rinpoché] then prophesied the future lives of Chokgyur Lingpa and Jamyang Khyentsé, saying that, during their time in Tibet, other teachings would be losing their power due to the damaging influence of samaya breakers.69 This would be the appropriate time to propagate the teachings of The Dispeller of All Obstacles.70

The use of tertöns by Guru Rinpoché thus serves to preserve the full potency of a lineage bestowed in the imperial period, by avoiding the potentially corrupting influence of transmission through time from master to disciple. Moreover, the tertön’s predestined incarnation ensures that the original teaching will be introduced at the very time at which it is most needed, a time that has fallen into decline since the golden age of Tibetan Buddhism.

As he conveys ancient teachings in the form of terma, the tertön thus acts as a link between the historical source of Tibetan Buddhism and contemporary times characterized as degenerate. This rhetoric of decline, which is generally prevalent in Tibetan Buddhism, is central to the Treasure tradition. Indeed, according to Holly Gayley “through this trope [of decline], the Nyingma were able to embrace the idea that the imperial period collapsed into a dark age and yet claim special access to its authority through treasure revelation.”71 The tertön, by virtue of his link to the imperial period, therefore plays a special role in times of decline. This is illustrated by a visionary exchange between Chokgyur Lingpa and Guru Rinpoché recounted in T3, in which the latter declares to the tertön that he has a particular responsibility towards his unfortunate contemporaries: “Since in these times that show the signs of degeneration, / there is no one but you to help, / it is time for you to support Dharma practitioners.”72 Guru Rinpoché moreover tells Chokgyur Lingpa that his illustrious past lifetimes

69 Samaya (dam tshig) are tantric vows to which student and teacher are bound in the process of transmission of any tantric teaching. The more a teaching is transmitted, the greater the chance for its samaya to be violated, thereby lessening the power of the teaching itself. Tulku Thondup explains this in the following way: “The effective connection between cause and result is the only means which generates and maintains all phenomenal existents. For spiritual development a strong spiritual connection between a realized master, the source of transmission of esoteric power, and the disciple, and between the esoteric teachings and the practitioner are crucial for strengthening conventional attainments in order to reach the ultimate goal, the fully enlightened state.” Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 244.

70 Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoché, “The Dispeller of All Obstacles—The legacy of Murub Tsenpo,” in The Great Tertön, 165. 71 Gayley, “Ontology of the Past,” 223. 72 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 134.

have prepared him for this very role, exhorting his disciple to remember how he “aroused bodhicitta73 in the past”74 in order to make use of his spiritual resources in the present. As an important religious figure of the golden age of Tibetan Buddhism, the tertön is meant to bring some of the light of that age of spiritual flourishing to the contemporary dark times. In order for the tertön to fulfill his role, however, he must be repeatedly reminded, in the present, of his pre-determined destiny. Chokgyur Lingpa’s autobiographies feature many such instances of reminders of his past, in which the tertön receives confirmation of his status as Padmasambhava’s emissary, sometimes from the Lotus Guru himself. This is for instance the case in Chokgyur Lingpa’s account of a visionary dialogue he reports having with Guru Rinpoché, in T4. On this occasion, Padmasambhava reveals to the tertön the various factors75 that are conducive and necessary to the opening of a Treasure teaching,76 the cycle of the Great Compassionate One—the first and foremost factor being the presence of the appointed Treasure revealer. Guru Rinpoché thus starts by listing the various marks of Chokgyur Lingpa’s destined incarnation, declaring: “Son, through the power of your previous aspirations, you are now blessed by Gyalwa Chokyang.77 Fortunate Chokgyur Lingpa, you are the doctrine holder of Ratna Lingpa,78 originary of Kham with the name of ‘Könchok,’ a synonym of Ratna Lingpa’s79 name.”80 With this statement, Guru Rinpoché is designating Chokgyur Lingpa as the successor of one of his original twenty-five disciples (Gyalwa Chokyang), and of one of the early, influential tertöns (Ratna Lingpa). Padmasambhava is thus directly confirming the Treasure

73 Bodhicitta, literally “mind of awakening,” is the wish to reach awakening for the benefit of all beings. 74 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 135.

75 In general, a series of factors must necessarily be present for Treasure to be revealed. Indeed, according to Hieatt- Jacoby, “the key elements that must gather together properly for successful Treasure revelation include: 1) the proper time, 2) the proper place to spread the teachings, 3) the proper disciples (usually referred to as the proper doctrine holders, chos bdag), 4) the place where disciples will be, 5) auspicious connections (rten ’brel), and 6) the proper prophesized consorts. This list is a variation adapted to the Treasure revelation process of the more standard Buddhist orienting structure for establishing the positive qualities of a Buddhist scripture called the five excellences (phun sum tshogs pa lnga) including an excellent teacher, retinue, place, teaching, and time.” Hieatt-Jacoby, “Consorts and Revelation,” 99. 76 “The opening of a Dharma teaching” (chos sgo phe) is a phrase commonly used in a variety of contexts, including religious conversion, revival… Here, in reference to a specific Dharma text, it can be understood as the act of opening up the maṇḍala in order to bestow the empowerments and thereby ‘open up’ the line of transmission of this particular Treasure, beginning its propagation.

77 Gyalwa Chokyang (rGyal ba mchog dbyangs) was one of the twenty-five close disciples of Guru Rinpoché. 78 Ratna Lingpa Pal Zangpo (Ratna gling pa dpal bzang po, 1403-78) was a famous and influential Treasure revealer. 79 Könchog (dkon mchog), meaning jewel (literally ‘rare and supreme’), is the Tibetan equivalent for the Sanskrit ratna. 80 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 143.

revealer’s status as his disciple and emissary, invested with the authority to fulfill his role as tertön. Such confirmation is an important step in actualizing the Treasure revealer’s destiny in present times. Indeed, the tertön may have accumulated the necessary karma in the past to prepare him for his present role, but this karmic potential must now be awoken in order for him to fulfill destiny. Confirmations and reminders of the tertön’s authoritative status as a disciple and emissary of Guru Rinpoché are therefore central in awakening his karmic destiny.

This karmic awakening has is in fact also been pre-determined, as it is facilitated by the very terma that were concealed in the past for future discovery by the tertön. One particular type of terma meant to actualize the Treasure revealer’s karmic potential is the prophetic guide (kha byang). This is a list of Treasures and instructions usually received by the tertön prior to revelation, which indicates the particular place, time, retinue, and methods of revelation appropriate to each Treasure. 81 According to Daniel Hirshberg, the prophetic guide—which he calls ‘cache certificate’—plays the following role:

For the one who comes into its possession it is much more than just a guide: the certificate confirms a karma-based authority of eminent domain over the site it identifies and its contents that has persisted for centuries, latent yet persistent throughout many lives and deaths, to finally become fully actualized in the present one.82

The reception of a prophetic guide is thus an important step in actualizing the tertön’s latent karma and marking him as the Treasure’s predestined revealer. Many tertön biographies indeed mention prophetic guides as first revelations, enabling the discovery of further terma.83 In T2, Chokgyur Lingpa likewise describes revealing a prophetic guide at the age of thirteen, and again at fifteen, signaling the beginning of his Treasure revealing career.84 The tertön’s revelation of ancient terma thus appears as both the cause and result of the fulfillment of his destiny. It is entirely due to his link with the past that Chokgyur Lingpa is allowed and empowered to take on the role of Treasure revealer and revive ancient lineages in the present.

81 Samuel, Civilized Shamans, 137. 82 Daniel A. Hirshberg, “Treasure before Tradition,” in Delivering the Lotus-Born: Padmasambhava in the Memory of Tibet’s Golden Age (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2016), 157. 83 See Jamgön Kongtrül, The Hundred Tertöns. 84 mChog gyur gling pa, “Nyin byed ’od snang,” 198-99.

As illustrated by Chokgyur Lingpa’s case, tertöns are thus inherently figures of both past and present, pre-destined for their contemporary roles by virtue of their lifetimes in the imperial period as disciples of Padmasambhava. This link to the golden age of Tibetan Buddhism permits the Treasure revealer to bring some of the light of that time of spiritual flourishing into the dark times of his current incarnation. In order to do so, however, the tertön must repeatedly be reminded in the present, by means of prophecies, visions, and terma revelations, of the karmic potential he accrued in the past. The awakening of this karmic potential then enables him to fulfill his role as Treasure revealer, which entails bringing back teachings and objects from that past into the present. Thus the very role and persona of the tertön bridge the gap between an idealized past and declined present, thereby blurring the conceptual divide between past and present, and making his revelatory activity possible.

A mediator and agent of the past in the present

As a bridge to the golden age of Tibetan Buddhism, the tertön’s role entails manifesting fragments of that past in the present in the form of terma. These Treasures are a means for the tertön to materially connect his contemporaries to the imperial period, bringing them the power and blessings of that time of spiritual wealth. The Treasure revealer thereby acts as a mediator for Guru Rinpoché’s intent to continue benefiting beings into the future. He even becomes an agent of Guru Rinpoché’s will in the present as he fulfills ancient terma prophecies that record the Lotus Guru’s intent for future times. Through the seemingly innovative act of revelation, the tertön is therefore believed to tap into the historical source of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition and revive its spiritual potency in contemporary times.

An essential feature of the tertön’s activity is the revelation of material terma, objects that carry special historical significance for Tibetan Buddhists, and are often relics of founding figures of important tantric lineages. These types of revelations are a means to connect disciples in the tertön’s

own time with seminal religious figures of the past in a concrete way in the present.85 In T2, Chokgyur Lingpa thus devotes much of his text to listing some of the material terma that he discovered early on in his career. These include reliquaries of Garab Dorjé (Prahevajra), the first human patriarch of most Great Perfection lineages;86 the clothes of king Trisong Deutsen, Guru Rinpoché’s main patron, and of Yeshé Tsogyel and Mandāravā, his two main consorts; the robes of Vairocana, an important translator of the imperial period, disciple of Guru Rinpoché, and Great Perfection lineage master; and relic pills of the ancient master Prachenhasti, or Prabhahasti,87 one of the eight vidyādharas of India.88 All of these objects belong either to central figures of the imperial period or to founding figures of essential tantric lineages, namely those of the Great Perfection and of the Eight Sādhana Teachings. By manifesting these material witnesses of the origins of Tibetan Buddhism in a form that is palpable and visible to his contemporaries, Chokgyur Lingpa purports to facilitate physical contact in the present with the very sources of the tantric tradition. Thus the tertön enables his contemporaries to experience founding religious figures not as abstract notions but as actual persons with which they can interact in the present through the intermediary of their material relics. Connecting his contemporaries to religious figures of the past, the tertön’s mediation serves to manifest Guru Rinpoché’s kindness in the present day. Indeed, many of the revealed terma substances

85 Indeed, according to James Gentry, Treasure substances, as a particular form of oath substance (dam rdzas), are thought to concretely create connections between all those who are somehow related to them: “As samaya in material form, oath and Treasure substances possess the particular feature of binding those who encounter them via the senses to one another, to the substances themselves, and through the substances to all the masters, buddhas, bodhisattvas, and deities who were once in contact with them, or had a hand in their creation, ritual treatment, distribution, and consumption. Oath substances and Treasure substances are thus by definition sensory media that bind on a number of different registers.” James Duncan Gentry, Power objects in Tibetan Buddhism: the life, writings, and legacy of Sokdokpa Lodrö Gyeltsen, Brill’s Tibetan Studies Library, Vol.40 (Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2017), 11. 86 Dudjom Rinpoche and Jikdrel Yeshe Dorje, The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism, Its Fundamentals and History, tr. and ed. Gyurme Dorje and Matthew Kapstein (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1991), 191-194.

The Great Perfection (rDzogs chen, Dzogchen) is considered the highest practice of the Nyingma school. Ibid., 294. 87 Prabhahasti was one of the eight vidyādharas of India who, together with Guru Padmasambhava, are said to each have received one of the Eight Sādhana Teachings (Kabgyé) cycles. Prabhahasti received and practiced the Vajrakīlaya cycle. Dudjom, Nyingma School, 481.The Eight Sādhana Teachings (sGrub pa bka’ brgyad, Drubpa Kabgyé or bKa’ brgyad, Kabgyé) is, according to Tulku Thondup, “a sādhana of eight maṇḍalas, cycles, of eight deities; one of the most important esoteric sādhana scriptures in the Nyingma tradition. It belongs to the Mahāyoga category in the classification of the nine yanas or six tantras of the Nyingma.” Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 226. A sādhana (sgrub thabs) can literally be translated as ‘means of accomplishment.’ Tulku Thondup defines sādhanas as “texts used in the tantric practices of worshipping, reciting, visualizing and meditating on the maṇḍala of a deity.” Ibid., 241. 88 mChog gyur gling pa, “Nyin byed ’od snang,” 203.

have descended in time carrying blessings meant to bring concrete benefit to the practitioners of present times, out of Guru Rinpoché’s beneficent foresight. Thus Padmasambhava’s blessings are believed to endure and retain potency in the numerous oath substances (dam rdzas, short for dam tshig gi rdzas)89 that Chokgyur Lingpa cites as part of his revelations—many of which are said in his biographies to liberate by sight or taste.90 According to the third Dodrub Chen Rinpoche, all terma objects are therefore a “demonstration that Guru Rinpoche watches over Tibet with his kindness, forever, without ceasing,”91 as he ensured that his blessings would forever remain accessible through terma revelation. By revealing material terma, the tertön thus actualizes Guru Rinpoché’s compassionate intent to continuously benefit beings far into the future.

In fact, the tertön’s activity manifests not only Guru Rinpoché’s kindness, but even his physical presence in contemporary times. Indeed, Chokgyur Lingpa mentions that he revealed two physical representatives (sku tshab) of Guru Rinpoché,92 a particular type of terma statue thought to be equivalent to the Lotus Guru’s own physical body93 and usually attributed with the power to liberate

89 According to James Gentry, the term dam tshig gi rdzas was most probably a translation of the Sanskrit samaya- dravya that appears in Buddhist scriptures, and usually refers to the tantric sacraments of five meats and five ambrosias. According to Gentry, the term's meaning expanded in the Tibetan context to include “a broader range of objects and substances, inclusive of any kind of sacred material object said to possess transformational power.” Moreover, Gentry notes, “ the wider semantic range of damdzé in Tibet means that oath substances are often regarded as extensions or materializations of awakened buddhas and bodhisattvas, and thus treated in practice as though they possess their own transformational properties, above and beyond any subsequent ritual treatment.” For a more detailed discussion of oath substances, see Gentry, Power Objects, 8-11. 90 Though this is not explicitly mentioned in the tertön’s own writings, other biographies of Chokgyur Lingpa often mention his terma substances’ power to liberate by taste, which was a specialty of Chokgyur Lingpa’s activity. Many other channels of liberation may also be involved, but sight and taste are the two main channels mentioned explicitly in descriptions of Chokgyur Lingpa’s material terma found in his biography by Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo, ’Jam dbyangs mkhyen rtse dbang po, “gTer chen rnam thar las ’phros pa’i dris lan bkra shis dbyangs snyan bskul ba’i dri bzhon,” in sPrul pa’i gter chen o rgyan mchog gyur bde chen zhig po gling pa phrin las ’gro ‘dul rtsal gyi zab gter yid bzhin nor bu’i mdzod chen po, Vol. 39 (Kathmandu: Ka-Nying Shedrub Ling Monastery, 2004).

91 Dodrub Chen Rinpoche, “Wonder Ocean,” in Tulku Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 151-152. 92 mChog gyur gling pa, “Nyin byed ’od snang,” 199.

93 According to Gayley, “the use of the term “representative” [tshab] here implies that this type of image serves as a stand- in for Padmasambhava himself, as opposed to more common terms for images, such as “likeness” (sku ’dra) or “physical support” (sku rten).” Holly Gayley, “Ontology of the Past,” 229. According to Dodrub Chen Rinpoché, some of these statues were “built by Guru Rinpoché himself by means of his miraculous power,” while “others have been blessed by Guru Rinpoché as inseparable from himself by merging his wisdom power into the images.” Dodrub Chen, Wonder Ocean, 151.

upon seeing (mthong grol). Being in the presence of a sku tshab is meant to hold the same power and blessings as being in the presence of Guru Rinpoché himself.94 As Gayley explains: A kutsab is not just a passive “object” of veneration; rather it is envisioned as a means by which Tibetans can come into contact with Padmasambhava and a vehicle through which his benevolent activity continues. Elsewhere a kutsab is proclaimed to be “the future regent (rgyal tshab) of the guru and tamer of beings, which remains as a support for [his] limitless activity, benefiting others by creating meaningful connections with karmically- endowed individuals. 95 Such statements emphasize Padmasambhava’s beneficent foresight on behalf of future generations as well as his enduring presence and power localized in this type of image.96

The tertön’s revelation of sku tshab is therefore a means to embody Guru Rinpoché in the present and actualize his power to influence contemporary beings through his continued activity. The tertön also has direct agency in implementing Guru Rinpoché’s will as recorded in ancient prophecies. Indeed, many terma texts include prophecies that are attributed to Guru Rinpoché in the imperial period. In his own writings, Chokgyur Lingpa claims several times to rely on such prophecies to guide his own and others’ conduct, aiming to bring about an outcome both foretold and intended by Guru Rinpoché. Prophecies, however, require interpretation, and the tertön is shown to fulfill that role in several of his writings, sometimes upon other masters’ requests. Indeed, throughout his writings, the Treasure reve aler appears to make Guru Rinpoché’s ancient prophecies both available and accessible to his contemporaries through his revelation and subsequent interpretation of terma texts. The account given in T7 illustrates the role taken on by the tertön in both interpreting and implementing terma prophecies. Chokling writes this text in response to a request by Jamgön

94 Moreover, according to Dodrub Chen Rinpoche, sku tshab have the power to benefit the teachings and beings in numerous important ways. Thus, “if some of the images remain in [important seats such as] the palaces of kings or meditation places, that will become the source by which the essence of the doctrine shall remain instead of disappearing. If they remain at geographically important places, it will repair the decay of the energy or spirit of the area and will prevent wars and cut off the path that is frequented by harmful spirits. The images that are discovered with the Terma teachings will help to ensure that the symbolic scripts are decoded without any difficulties, and they will increase the beneficial effects of the teaching: that is, if the Discoverer has performed the preparatory practice of Terma [the effectuation of the Ter: gTer sGrub] using the image as an object for the practice. So the images will help to perfect various actions according to the various wishes expressed by Guru Rinpoché when he concealed them.” Ibid., 152. 95 Gayley is in fact quoting Chokgyur Lingpa’s own revelations here. mChog gyur gling pa, “Ma ʾongs gu ru ma mjal dad ldan gyi don du sku tshab,” in vol. 29 of mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982–86), 386:2–3.

96 Holly Gayley, “The Soteriology of the Senses,” Numen 54 (2007): 479.

Kongtrül for him to elaborate on the purpose of a protector statue that the tertön had given him, despite the fact that Chokling had already told him about the statue’s history.97 The text thereby indicates that the tertön was called upon to deliver the following interpretation of prophecies. In response, Chokling explains that according to “all of Guru Padmasambhava’s / secret, general, and other prophecies,” offering Kongtrül a protector statue was a powerful means of protection for the teachings.98 Therefore, Chokgyur Lingpa writes, “as prescribed, I made the offering to the supreme guru.”99 The tertön thereby claims to have actively fulfilled Guru Rinpoché’s prophecy. Moreover, the statue was placed in the Heruka temple in Tsadra, which is designated in the prophecies cited in T5 as “the supreme site of awakened mind,”100 one of the twenty-five major sacred sites for which Chokgyur Lingpa had revealed a prophetic guide.101 According to these prophecies, the Heruka temple in Tsadra was destined to be of vital importance, “the life force of the essential teachings.”102 By citing these prophecies, the tertön suggests that establishing the temple with the protector statue in its shrine was a means to fulfill Guru Rinpoché’s intentions to preserve the buddhadharma in Tibet.

97 Regarding this event, Chokgyur Lingpa writes: “The lord guru Kongtrül Rinpoché requested, / Though I had already offered him the history and revelation account/ Of the protector statue Treasure I had offered him – / Which was to be instituted as the main receptacle / Of the protector shrine inside the Heruka temple – / That I tell him about the purpose of all this.” mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 149.

98 The text reads: “Since the omniscient Kongtrül Gargyi Wangpo / Is the actual manifestation of the great translator Vairocana, / If he was offered a Dharma cycle of the glorious protector / And a protector statue, this would form a rampart

/ For the essential teachings — the prophecies are utterly clear on this.” mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 149-50. 99 Ibid., 150 100 Ibid., 146-147.

101 This prophetic guide, or “narrative map,” is discussed in Alexander Gardner’s thesis at length. It is a guide to forty- two (though in name twenty-five) major sites that form a network of religious sites in Kham. Chokgyur Lingpa revealed this guide in 1857, at the time of the consecration of the sacred site of Tsadra. According to Gardner, “Mchog gyur gling pa’s narrative map of Khams, presented in the text titled “A Brief Inventory of the Great Sites of Tibet Composed by Padmasambhava, the Wise One of Oḍḍiyāna,” sets forth a system of religious geography very much in keeping with its precursors. Like the anuttarayoga tantra pīṭha system and the myth of the supine demoness, each site on Mchog gyur gling pa’s map made use of some preexisting sites of religious importance and rendered new sites significant by virtue of inserting them into a network of religious sites.” Gardner, The Twenty-Five Major Sites, 21-22. The characterization of Tsadra as the main site awakened mind also corresponds to classifications that are presented within the prophetic guide. Thus in the guide, “the forty-two sites are organized into five categories of the enlightened body, speech, mind, activities and attributes of the buddha, which are themselves divided into five according to the same categories. This enumeration is commonly known as the “twenty-five attributes of fruition” (’bras chos nyer lnga). The list, however, included also a main site of each category, thus producing thirty: a main site of buddha body, a body-aspect of the buddha body, a speech-aspect of the buddha body, and so forth.” Ibid., 53. 102 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 149.

Indeed, in T5, the tertön goes so far as to affirm that no other means is necessary “to ensure the welfare of Tibet and Kham” than following prophecies in establishing temples at sacred sites.103

In effect, according to the tertön’s account in T7, fulfilling the terma prophecies regarding Tsadra influenced current events in significant ways. Thus, Chokgyur Lingpa writes that at first, despite his own and Jamgön Kongtrül, Khyentsé Wangpo, and Zhechen Öntrül’s104 efforts, they were unable to garner the resources necessary to accomplish Jamgön Kongtrül’s vast projects.105 Indeed, as described in the beginning of that text, Kongtrül was engaged in the compilation of his Five Treasuries. As a collection of texts representative of most Tibetan Buddhist lineages – including obscure ones on the brink of disappearance –106 these were a hallmark of the Rimé movement. However, after these masters together with the fourteenth Karmapa and the tenth Tai Situ Rinpoché performed the Medicinal Great Accomplishment gathering (sman sgrub, mendrub)107 of the United Intent of All Gurus108—as prescribed in this terma’s prophecy—as well as two of Chokgyur Lingpa’s

103 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 86. 104 dBon sprul of Zhechen monastery, Zhechen Öntrul Gyurmé Thutop Namgyal (b. 1787), appears repeatedly in the biographies of these other three masters. According to Richard Barron, he was an important lama who “was the master of many great figures, including the Nyingma masters Dza Paltrul Rinpoché Orgyen Chökyi Wangpo (1808-1887) and the second Kathok Situ incarnation, Chökyi Lodrö (1820-1879?).” Kong-sprul Blo-gros-mthaʼ-yas and Richard Barron, The Autobiography of Jamgön Kongtrül: A Gem of Many Colors (Ithaca, N.Y.: Snow Lion Publications, 2003), 296. 105 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 149.

106 Notably in the case of the Treasury of Precious Terma, beyond merely collecting texts, Jamgön Kongtrül went to much lengths to receive transmission for lineages that were in decline or whose transmission line had sometimes completely been broken. In the latter case, Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo was often instrumental in receiving direct transmission (nye brgyud) of broken lineages in pure visions, or reviving the lineage as a rediscovered Treasure. Thus, Schwieger writes, Jamgön Kongtrül’s role largely consisted in “the boost and repair of the empowerment lineages and the reading transmissions of the gter ma tradition. To ensure the living practice of the gter ma teachings for the future and to make their transmission easier Kong sprul had not only collected a cross-section of the gter ma tradition. He also composed an extensive prescription on how to bestow the empowerment for the whole Rin chen gter mdzod in one go.” Schwieger, “Arranging and Collecting,” 331.

Conspicuously missing from the collection, however, are the Gelukpa. Indeed, according to Schwieger, “the fifth Dalai Lama (1617-1682), present as an author in the Rin chen gter mdzod, does not appear as a representative of the dGe lugs tradition but clearly as a figure of the rNying ma one. In this context he is closely linked with gTer bdag gling pa and rDo rje brag sprul sku Padma ’phrin las. Their cooperation is not only proved by gTer bdag gling pa's biography but by many colophons in the Rin chen gter mdzod as well.” Ibid., 322-23. 107 A Medicinal Great Accomplishment gathering (sman sgrub, mendrub) is a group sādhana practice during which sacred medicine is produced and consecrated. 108 bLa ma dgongs ’dus (Lama Gongdü). Sangs rgyas gling pa, bLa ma dgongs ’dus (Paro: Lama Ngodrup and Sherab Drimey, 1981-1984). Though Chokgyur Lingpa does not specify which dGongs ’dus text he is referring to here, Jamgön Kongtrül’s autobiography cites the title more precisely as the United Intent of all Gurus (bLa ma dgongs ’dus, Lama Gongdü) an important Dzogchen Treasure cycle discovered by Sangyé Lingpa (Sang rgyas gLing pa, 1340-1396). Kong sprul, A Gem, 127; 301.

own Treasures,109 the necessary sponsors were found.110 Thus one prophecy—from the United Intent of All Gurus—served to fulfill another, enabling the success of Jamgön Kongtrül’s Rimé endeavors. The direct consequence of this, according to Chokgyur Lingpa, was to protect the great Kagyü and Nyingma masters from the Nyag Rong war.111 Indeed, the tertön writes: “While these days, all flee from the tumult of the Rong armies / with incomparable suffering, all the doctrine holders / Of Kagyü and Nyingma have managed to stay on:/ this is also a blessing of this temple”112 of Heruka in Tsadra Rinchen Drak. Chokgyur Lingpa thus interprets the terma prophecies in a way that links ritual activity in Tsadra to the unfolding of political events in the favor of the religious figures he was associated with, and to the success of their Rimé activities. The tertön thereby portrays himself as actively participating in the fulfillment of Guru Rinpoché’s ancient prophecies to benefit the Buddhist teachings in the present, notably by supporting the Rimé movement, which was instrumental in preserving many smaller lineages that I might have disappeared without it.

109 The two termas that were practiced on this occasion are cited as the Wisdom protector, Six Armed Vajra (Ye shes mgon po rdo rje phyag drug pa, Yeshé gönpo Dorjé chak drukpa) and the Dharma Protector Nagas, Tsan Spirits and Blazing Ones (bKa’ srung klu btsan ’bar ba, Kasung Lutsen Barwa). The first probably refers to the protector practice for the Lotus Crested Great Compassionate One cycle (Thugs rje chen po padma gtsug tor, Thukje Chenpo Padma Tsuktor). mChog gyur gling pa, Thugs rje chen po padma gtsug tor gyi bka’ srung rdo rje phyag drug pa’i phyi sgrub dang las byang bstan dgra tshar gcod bcas gter gzhung, in vol. 10 of mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-86), 267-291. The second refers to the protector practice for Accomplishing the Guru’s Wisdom Mind, Wishfulfilling Jewel cycle (bLa ma’i thugs sgrub yid bzhin nor bu). mChog gyur gling pa, bla ma’i thugs sgrub yid bzhin nor bu las bka’ srung klu btsan ’bar ba spun bdun gyi sgrub thabs, in vol. 29 of mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-86), 85- 97 110 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 151.

111 The Nyag Rong war erupted in 1863, when “the armies of Mgon po rnam rgyal, the Nyag rong chieftain, swept over Sde dge, capturing all the fortresses and seizing Sde dge’s widozed queen and her son. The Lhasa government dispatched an expedition under Phu lung ba to drive back the invaders. The countryside was plagued with constant war and famine until the eighth month of 1865, when the corener Mgon po rnam rgyal was burnt to death with all of his family in his besieged castle by Khri smon’s force.” Smith, “’Jam mgon Kong sprul,” 249. According to Jamgön Kongtrül’s autobiography, all the masters mentioned by Chokgyur Lingpa above became involved in the conflict immediately after the Medicinal Great Accomplishment. Jamgön Kongtrül in particular was called upon by all sides to perform rituals, and especially had to assist the Tibetan army with divinations. Thereby incurring their good favors, he obtained their assurance that no one connected to Palpung monastery, to which Tsadra is related, would be harmed. Thus Jamgön Kongtrül relates in his autobiography: “At that point I was required to give counsel and do divinations to find out when the Nyarong foe would strike and from which direction he would come. Such affairs are hardly covered in the explanations concerning divination procedures, so I just spoke whatever came to mind and by the blessings of the Three Jewels everything I said turned out to be accurate. Even the commander was impressed. On the actual day of battle, the central Tibetan forces were victorious and congratulations were heaped on me. I made a petition on behalf of everyone connected with Palpung, mentioning every name I knew, and this landed well on the ear of the commander, who gave me his promise that everyone under the jurisdiction of Palpung, both the monastery and the surrounding country-side, would be spared any aggression. Then, while the war with the Nyarong forces was still raging, I returned home.” Kong sprul, A Gem, 139. 112 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 152.

Chokgyur Lingpa’s writings reveal that the central role of the tertön’s relation to the past destines him to act as a bridge between the golden age of Tibetan Buddhism and the present. Indeed, the Treasure revealer not only has privileged access to the source of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition; he also permits his contemporaries to access it through the intermediary of his terma revelations. In fact, through his revelation of relics, samaya substances, and physical representatives, the tertön manifests the blessings and physical presence of founding religious figures in present times. In doing so, he acts as a mediator of Guru Rinpoché’s intent to benefit beings of the future, intent which he moreover actively fulfills by implementing ancient terma prophecies in the present. As a mediator and agent of the past in the present, the tertön thus appears to revive the historical source of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition in his own times, notably in support of the Rimé movement. As the past thereby achieves some immortality in the present, the boundaries between past, timelessness, and present113 are effaced in the Treasure revealer’s self-portrayal, and the new blends in with the old.

The tertön as a bridge to the timeless source of tradition

In parallel with his access to the past, the tertön also appears to be in visionary contact with an a-temporal plane of reality from which spiritual beings, and ultimately the Buddhist teachings themselves, emanate. Moreover, according to Chokgyur Lingpa’s accounts, the Treasure revealer’s visionary power enables him not only to experience this timeless dimension personally, but also to manifest it in the experience of his contemporaries, in the present moment. The tertön is thus portrayed as acting both on the temporal and the a-temporal plane. During his visionary experiences, the Treasure revealer is moreover said to receive advice and prophetic instructions regarding current

113 Gayley goes so far as to say that the past has in effect receded into timelessness in the Treasure tradition, a phenomenon which she calls ‘ontology of the past.’ Gayley defines this expression in the following way: “By the ontology of the past, I mean that (1) historical time recedes into timelessness in Nyingma accounts of the transmission process that trace a set of teachings through eighth-century masters to primordial buddhas, and (2) the past continues to have an enduring presence that can be evoked in rituals, experienced in visions, embodied in reincarnations, and materialized in tangible form as texts, images, and relics revealed as treasures. As such, through treasure revelation, tertöns are not just making historical claims about the source of particular texts and objects; they are claiming ontological access to the past, which is anchored in timelessness.” Gayley, “Ontology of the Past,” 215.

matters directly from beings who through their enduring presence have receded to an a-temporal sphere. Implementing these instructions to influence the course of events, the Treasure revealer appears as an agent of timeless wisdom in the present. Thus, the tertön’s ambiguous status with regards to temporality enables him to tap into the spiritual source of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition to retrieve timely knowledge meant for his own time.

Translating timeless wisdom into timely advice

Throughout his autobiographical writings, Chokgyur Lingpa shows himself to be in constant contact with Guru Rinpoché and other important religious figures by means of visionary experiences. These encounters are so frequent that over fifty pages of his otherwise sparse writings are entirely devoted to them, published as a collection entitled “The Lucid Jewel Mirror—A collection of texts of prophetic instructions and visionary dialogues bestowed upon the great emanated Treasure revealer by Guru Padmasambhava from Uḍḍiyāna, in order to clarify doubts.”114 Other autobiographical material also refers to his visionary experiences, which thus appear to have been a central feature of his life story. In T2, for instance, Chokgyur Lingpa relates the first of his mystical encounters with the following words: “When I was young, I met with the precious master from Uḍḍiyāna in person in [a place] called Maṇikasapa, and received a revelation on the existence of a practice cave of the one from Uḍḍiyāna there.”115 The seemingly matter-of-fact tone with which the tertön recounts having met with an eighth-century master in the nineteenth century is indicative of the fact that Guru Rinpoché is commonly accepted by Tibetan Buddhists as a timeless figure having transcended history.116 In fact, as the awakened master who brought Buddhism to Tibet, Padmasambhava is

114 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 133-189. 115 mChog gyur gling pa, “Nyin byed ’od snang,” 198.

116 In general, in tantric Buddhism, important Buddhist historical figures including Guru Rinpoché are elevated to a timeless status by becoming similar to sambhogakāya deities in that they can always be propitiated and encountered through certain practices. According to Samuel, such historical figures thereby become trans-historical: “Any of these culture-heroes may appear in visions, give teachings, and aid the practitioner to achieve this-worldly power and ultimate Enlightenment. The practitioner can also assume the identity of many of these figures directly in the course of Tantric practice. Thus within the ‘shamanic Buddhist’ perspective these culture-heroes appear as trans-historical sources of power and authority.” Samuel, Civilized Shamans, 20.

considered in the Nyingma school as the ‘second buddha.’117 For the purposes of spiritual practice, he is both a historical figure and a timeless principle equated with the spiritual source of the Buddhist tradition.118 The tertön’s account of his visionary encounters therefore portray him as having direct access to the a-temporal realm from which the Buddhist teachings originate, and which manifests in the Treasure revealer’s experience in various ways, notably in the form of timeless beings.

In the tertön’s account, a-temporal figures at times appear in his own temporal realm, while at other times it is he who travels to them. In T4, for instance, the tertön is said to journey to a transcendental realm119 after being visited in his dreams by a ḍākinī who leads him to the “celestial abodes” where he meets Guru Rinpoché surrounded by his retinue and “vividly and magnificently seated in a celestial palace made up of self-appearances.”120 A world of “self-appearances” (rang snang) does not follow the temporal laws of dependent arising (according to which nothing arises by itself): it is beyond the relative world of cause and effect situated in time and space, and therefore a- temporal. In contrast, in T3, Padmasambhava clearly appears to the tertön in the latter’s own time

117 Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 50.

118 In fact, there has long been a philosophical tension between Padmasambhava’s historical and spiritual status in Tibetan Buddhism, as exemplified by the debates surrounding his various and sometimes contradictory life-stories, as discussed by A.M. Blondeau, who focuses on the discussion of the master’s birth. Two main approaches to this debate can be discerned, namely the ‘rationalist’ one which predominantly pinned him down as a historical figure, and the ‘spiritual’ one which favored his mythical persona. These reflect the two main biographical traditions of Padmasambhava, which are identified by Jamgön Kongtrül in the Treasury of Precious Terma as “that of the gter ma which, with the exception of Ba-mkhal smug po, adopt the version of the rdzus-skyes, ‘miraculous birth’, and that of the bka’-ma which adopt the version of the mngal-skyes, ‘birth in the womb’.” A.M. Blondeau, “Analysis of the Biographies of Padmasambhava According to the Tibetan Tradition: Classification of Sources,” in Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson, ed. Michael Aris and Aung San Suu Kyi (Warminster: Aris and Phillips Ltd., 1980), 46. According to Blondeau, this classification of Padmasambhava’s life-story seems to have been widespread by the sixteenth century, and led some to reconcile the two versions with reference to the common Buddhist trope of buddhas appearing in ways appropriate to tame each disciple. In fact, the tertön Sokdokpa (Sog zlog pa blo gros rgyal mtshan, 1552-1624) identified two other types of life-story, those who do not decide between the two types of birth and those who hold both to be true. He himself reconciled the two versions by arguing that “Padmasambhava adopted one or the other form of birth depending on the nature of the beings to be subjugated,” that is, womb birth to tame those born from a womb and miraculous birth to tame the others. Ibid., 46.

On the more ‘rationalist’ side, Tāranātha, however, argued that though it is true that the facts of Padmasambhava’s life- story are relative to the pure perception of his disciples, nevertheless, “what was the general opinion of men at that time [of Padmasambhava’s life] has to be regarded as more correct than anything else.” He therefore recommends relying on the earliest sources, whose accounts are similar to that of the Canonical Transmission (bka’ ma) tradition, and therefore favor the womb birth version. Ibid., 48. 119 Indeed, Guru Rinpoché, as an a-temporal figure, likewise has his own transcendent realm. Thus, “uniquely, Padmasambhava was elevated to a timeless occupant of his own pure land, the Copper-Colored Mountain (zangs mdog dpal ri) and, thus immortalized, remains accessible to ordinary Tibetans through prayer and ritual.” Gayley, “Ontology of the Past,” 222. 120 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long, 139.

and place, which is explicitly situated in the opening of the text: the meeting takes place one day at dawn in the first half of the seventh month, at the end of the tertön’s three-year retreat.121 Beyond Guru Rinpoché’s appearance, there is no further indication that the tertön’s reality has shifted to allow for this meeting: no limit seems to be drawn between the temporal and the a-temporal. Chokgyur Lingpa thus appears to engage seamlessly with both the temporal and a-temporal, which blend together in his experience.

In fact, Chokgyur Lingpa’s many accounts of visionary experiences suggest that the tertön could not pursue his Treasure revealing activity without having this privileged access to the a- temporal plane. Indeed, though he may have been empowered and instructed in past lifetimes regarding his terma revelations, Chokgyur Lingpa still relies on his visionary access to Guru Rinpoché in his current lifetime. Thus, in T4, for instance, the tertön requests Padmasambhava for instructions related to the dissemination of his terma cycle, The Great Compassionate One, especially regarding “whether or not it is time to open the Dharma door”122 to the cycle.123 The Treasure revealer’s ability to access Guru Rinpoché beyond time thus allows him to seek immediate guidance in his present situation. To this, Padmasambhava responds that he had already given the tertön a “symbolic prophecy” which he had not recognized, but nevertheless proceeds to bestow upon him the necessary empowerments and instructions. 124 These instructions concern all the auspicious connections (rten ’brel)125 which must come together for the successful revelation and dissemination of the Treasure: the factors and events which must manifest in the right moment to lead to the desired outcome. Thus, in his encounter with timeless wisdom—as embodied by Guru Rinpoché—the tertön receives the practical knowledge he needs to ensure the success of the terma in the temporal realm.

121 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 134. Though the location of the retreat is not mentioned in the text, one can infer from his longer biographies that he was in the hermitage above Tölung Tsurphu, Gyalwa Karmapa’s monastery. Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoché, The Life of Chokgyur Lingpa, transl. Tulku Jigmey Khyentsé and Erik Pema Kunsang (Rangjung Yeshé Publications, 2000), 19.

122 See footnote 29. 123 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 141. 124 Ibid., 142-43. 125 Auspicious connections (rten ’brel) can very generally be understood as the myriad of factors that come together in creating an event on the relative level. See note 59.

Likewise, Chokgyur Lingpa’s various accounts of visionary experiences repeatedly show that he generally engages with the a-temporal with regard to temporal matters. In T3, notably, Padmasambhava himself opens his speech with an emphasis on timeliness, arousing his disciple with these words: “Do not sleep, get up now! / Your three years of hiding in the mountains are over, / it is time for you to watch over the happiness of Tibet and Kham.”126 Guru Rinpoché thus manifests from his timeless abode in order to exhort Chokgyur Lingpa as to the urgency of immediate action. In response, Chokgyur Lingpa requests specific instructions on the particular means he will need to employ to benefit his contemporaries. The Lotus Guru then gives the tertön a series of specific, time- sensitive instructions, including lists of rituals to be performed on certain dates.127 The tertön is thereby shown to act “as a mediator between the specificity of [his] own temporally-situated religious community and the primordial state of awakening,”128 as he taps into the spiritual source of the teachings, channeling Guru Rinpoché’s timeless wisdom to the needs of his own specific time and context.

Manifesting the transcendent in the temporal realm

The instructions received by Chokgyur Lingpa in visionary encounters take the form of both advice and prophecies, allowing the tertön agency in implementing the timeless intent of Guru Rinpoché, just as he fulfilled his past words. Prophecies, whether formulated in the distant past or in a timeless realm, are in fact an integral part of the process of terma revelation, from the inception of the Treasure teaching—its first transmission by Guru Rinpoché in the imperial period129—to its

126 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 134. Tibet and Kham (Bod Khams) is a common expression that designates the larger Tibet, in the sense of central Tibet and the Kham region of eastern Tibet. 127 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 137-38. 128 Hieatt-Jacoby, “Consorts and Revelation,” 93.

129 In fact, prophecies constitute the fourth out of six initial transmission stages (brgyud pa drug), the stage of the prophetic authorization (bka’ babs lung bstan) “in which Padmasambhava gives a prophecy to the future Treasure revealer (gter ston) indicating the specific time and place that the Treasure revealer will disclose Padmasambhava’s teaching.” Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 80. The six transmission stages include three transmissions common to most inner tantras of the Nyingma school—the Mind, Indication and Aural Transmissions—and three uncommon transmissions specific to Nyingma Treasure teachings—the Aspirational Empowerment, Prophetic Authorization and Entrustment to Ḍākinīs. Ibid., 45-47.

revelation and dissemination centuries later.130 In T4, for instance, Guru Rinpoché foretells the particular time and circumstances conducive to the success of The Great Compassionate One, and moreover reveals the ensuing benefits that might be expected in the near and distant future. By opening the terma cycle in the prescribed manner, the tertön would ensure that the teachings spread far into the future, and that the cycle’s empowerment holders would be relieved from obstacles that year and protected from danger, seeing their lives prolonged.131 Prophetic instructions received by the tertön in the a-temporal realm therefore appear to enable him to influence events in time in very concrete ways.

The privileged nature of the tertön’s access to this source of timeless wisdom is further highlighted by the fact that other contemporary masters are said to seek him out for spiritual verification of their activities by means of his mystical insight. In T4, for instance, it is upon Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo’s request that Chokgyur Lingpa consults Guru Rinpoché in a vision with regards to the opening of The Great Compassionate One. In T6, Chokgyur Lingpa uses his visionary insight to answer a query by Jamgön Kongtrül concerning the literary activities that were such an integral part of the Rimé movement. Indeed, Kongtrül asks Chokgyur Lingpa about the collection of teachings from many lineages of Tibetan Buddhism into what would become the Treasury of Precious Terma, a project to which Khyentsé and Chokling were major contributors. The tertön supplicates accordingly and receives confirmation for Kongtrül’s project as “various visions arose in which permission was given.”132 In this way, as noted by Schieffer, “’Jam dbyangs mkhyen brtse and mChog gyur gling pa had the strongest influence on Kong sprul’s commitment to collect the gter ma—not only by encouraging him but also by actively contributing numerous texts to the collection,

130 In particular, with regards to the opening of a Treasure cycle after its revelation, terma theorist Dodrub Chen Rinpoché III explains: “It is necessary to wait in case there is further instructional prophecy concerning the importance of a particular time for disclosing the teaching and spreading it, or what sort of appropriate circumstances are necessary in order to arrange an auspicious opportunity. Should such instructional prophecies be received after the Terton has already started transmitting and spreading the discovered teaching, it will have become too late, like a dam after a flood.” Dodrub Chen Rinpoché, “Wonder Ocean,” 161.

131 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 145. 132 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 148.

clarifying which gter ma should be included and providing hints which gave Kong sprul the perception that he had the approval of Padmasambhava for his activities.” 133 Thus Chokling’s visionary prowess was instrumental not only in the foundation and propagation of his own Treasure lineage, but also in the broader contemporary movement in which he was involved, notably through his encouragement of Kongtrül’s literary projects for the Rimé movement.

Through his role as a mediator between the a-temporal and the temporal, the tertön revives timeless wisdom in a form adapted to the situations at hand. Thus, Chokling describes how while investigating the issue of the Treasury of Precious Terma, he has a vision in which Padmasambhava gives him instructions on the manner in which to collect and disseminate these teachings. The Lotus Guru emphasizes the importance of transmitting and fully practicing those broken lineages which Kongtrül has restored and is now certain to hold. 134 Guru Rinpoché’s instructions are thereby specifically used to justify and promulgate recent efforts on the part of Kongtrül and Khyentsé in re- establishing lineages of Tibetan Buddhism which are on the decline, an activity which is central to the ideals of the Rimé movement. Thus, in his accounts of visionary experiences, the Treasure revealer’s access to the timeless wisdom that is the spiritual source of Tibetan Buddhism permits him to receive insights that relate directly to the situations of the current day and age. As discussed by Wheeler, the tertön’s mediation between the temporal and the a-temporal indeed functions as an act of mythopeia, defined as the “re-visioning or reinventing [of] earlier mythical concepts and expressions”135 to adapt to changing historical contexts – in this case, the imperatives of the Rimé movement in the face of sectarian strife and Geluk dominance, which had imperiled many smaller lineages.

133 Schieffer, “Collecting and Arranging,” 329.

134 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 148.

135 “Mythical” here does not imply any judgment on the reality or truth of the underlying beliefs. Rather, Wheeler uses the term ‘myth’ in the sense of a belief system that creates “a sense of meaning and purpose:” “it is a way of seeing, sensing, arranging, and interpreting experience.” Wheeler, “Keeping the Faith,” 1-2.

The Treasure revealer’s mediation is in fact essential in permitting Guru Rinpoché’s influence to reach across a-temporality into temporality. As explained by Wheeler, Treasure revealers’ activities “serve as tangible signals of the Buddha’s proactive presence in an age tipping further and further into decline and destabilization.” 136 Indeed, Chokgyur Lingpa’s descriptions of his own experience as a Treasure revealer repeatedly attest to this ‘proactive presence’ of awakened beings in his present day. This is best exemplified by a series of prophecies bestowed upon the tertön by Padmasambhava at the end of T3, which list the various times and locations at which Chokgyur Lingpa can expect visionary encounters with Guru Rinpoché, ḍākas, ḍākinīs, yogis, or more abstract spiritual signs to guide him in his activities.137 Padmasambhava concludes his predictions by advising Chokgyur Lingpa to “look for signs all over the kingdoms,”138 indicating that the timeless principles of awakening, as embodied by mystical beings, will be omnipresent influences throughout Chokgyur Lingpa’s lifetime. Thus the tertön’s visionary prowess—as related in his writings—enables the confirmation of spiritual beings’ influence across the seeming divide between their a-temporal realm of awakening and the temporal realm of humans.

Moreover, according to Chokgyur Lingpa’s account, this confirmation is not limited to his own subjective experience, but perceived by others as well, as the tertön’s mediation allows for visionary experiences in his entourage. In T2, for instance, Chokgyur Lingpa describes the numerous collective visions that he induces through his ritual activity. By provoking shared mystical experiences, the tertön appears to bring the a-temporal into the reality of the public realm, the shared temporal realm of dates and locations. In fact, the very structure of T2 suggests this shift,139 as Chokgyur Lingpa’s main focus throughout the text is both on factual evidence—namely the date, place, and nature of his

136 Wheeler, “Keeping the Faith,” 9. 137 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 138-39. 138 Ibid., 139.

139 This progression is, in fact, the very purpose of storytelling, and in particular autobiography, according to anthropologist Michael Jackson. Indeed, in his book The Politics of Storytelling, Jackson explores the publicization of private experience through storytelling, which permits the individual to be grounded in the world in a way that the private realm does not: in Hannah Arendt’s words, the private is “deprived of the reality that comes from being seen and heard by others.” Cited in Michael Jackson, Politics of storytelling violence, transgression and intersubjectivity (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2002), 11.

events—as well as on the signs of his visionary powers. For instance, on the occasion of the ritual opening of one his most important terma cycles, The Dispeller of All Obstacles, “as an announcement of their oaths to the deities and demons,140 the doctrine holder Zhabdrung Rinpoché had a vision of the sky filled with extraordinary vidyādharas.141 Others received signs that they had received the precious master from Uḍḍiyāna’s blessings. All alike had a vision of purifying smoke142 swirling as five-colored rainbow light, and the entire sky filling with dots and spheres of such light.” The tertön then describes similar experiences occurring during a Medicinal Great Accomplishment (mendrub) of Vajrakīlaya 143 practices. These accounts claim that ritual activity, often based on Chokgyur Lingpa’s termas, induces various kinds of mystical visions, which takes on more defined and elaborate forms for accomplished masters, but are nonetheless also experienced by ordinary people. It thereby appears that the tertön’s visionary power enables him to manifest the a-temporal in the temporal realm for all to experience, in a public act of confirmation of his role as a mediator for timeless wisdom. The tertön’s writings further intimate that his privileged access to the timeless stems from the fact that he himself does not perceive a clear divide between the temporal and the a-temporal, as suggested by his constant, seamless shift from one to the other. T4’s conclusion best supports this interpretation, as Chokgyur Lingpa ends his account of the visionary encounter by stating, “Finally, he [Guru Rinpoché] became a sphere of light and dissolved into me.”144 The tertön’s vision thus dissolves in the manner of tantric visualizations, as Padmasambhava displays his ultimately empty nature by melting into light and merging with Chokyur Lingpa, demonstrating their indivisibility. In the tertön’s experience, the boundaries between the temporal and the a-temporal seem definitively

140 As part of the preparatory practices that accompany the opening of a Treasure cycle, its guardian deities must be bound under oath. Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 76. 141 Vidyādhara (rig ’dzin) or awareness-holder is a title that designates “a sage of the esoteric tradition of Buddhism, holder of esoteric wisdom, power and teachings.” Ibid., 248-249. 142 Purifying smoke (bsang) refers to a smoke ritual used both for offering and purification. 143 Phur pa, the deity of action. Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 226. 144 mChog gyur gling pa, “Rab dwangs nor bu’i me long,” 145.

blurred, and Chokgyur Lingpa finally appears as not only connected to, but united with the transcendent.

Throughout the texts presented in this section, Chokgyur Lingpa is shown to be in constant contact with an a-temporal plane of reality, a locus of timeless wisdom that the Treasure revealer’s mediation translates into timely advice regarding current situations. As he receives specific prophecies and instructions from a-temporal religious figures, Chokgyur Lingpa is empowered to act as their agent in the temporal realm, notably as a key figure of the contemporary Rimé movement.145 The tertön’s privileged relationship with founding figures of Tibetan Buddhism who have transcended into timelessness therefore gives him access to the “trans-historical sources of power and authority”146 which they have become. This authority is moreover publicly confirmed by the tertön’s ability to manifest the transcendent in the perception of his contemporaries. The Treasure revealer who, as an extension of Padmasambhava, has direct access to and is active on both the historical and the transcendental planes, is therefore, as Eva Dargyay writes in her early academic study of Treasure revelation, “a person embodying in himself the poles of temporality and extra-temporality.”147 As such, the tertön’s activity in the present appears as a temporal manifestation of the timeless wisdom that is the spiritual source of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, transcending concepts of it being either old or new.

The tertön as timely reviver of tradition

With privileged access to both the historical and the spiritual sources of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, tertöns are invested with the authority to reveal teachings and establish their practices anew

145 Indeed, according to Smith, though there were many important masters involved in the non-sectarian revival of nineteenth century Kham, “if one studies the character development of any of these teachers, the names of Kong sprul, Mkhyen brtse, Mi pham, and Mchog gling occur again and again.” Smith, “’Jam mgon,” 250. 146 Samuel, Civilized Shamans, 20. 147 Eva Neumaier-Dargyay, The Rise of Esoteric Buddhism in Tibet (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1977), 65.

in their own day and time. As visionary masters who found new terma lineages, Treasure revealers are therefore often charismatic figures who can wield significant influence in their own temporal context.148 In Chokgyur Lingpa’s case, beyond his role as founder of the Chokling Tersar lineage, the tertön explicitly states the influence that he wishes to have on the temporal planes of religion and politics in his rhetorical writings. Indeed, throughout his texts of advice, Chokgyur Lingpa uses his religious authority to advocate for a non-sectarian approach in the face of rampant sectarian conflict in Tibet at the time, particularly within the Treasure tradition itself. In line with his role as a persona bridging the past and the present, the temporal and the a-temporal, Chokgyur Lingpa defends his non- sectarian position by rooting it in the very source of Buddhist teachings, both in the historical and in the spiritual sense. Thus, while he could superficially appear to make use of his charisma as a religious innovator to influence his contemporaries, the tertön in fact portrays himself first and foremost as a reviver of the original Buddhist tradition, which he applies to the specific circumstances of his epoch.

Though he is vocal in his own opinion throughout his rhetorical writings, Chokgyur Lingpa does not present his non-sectarian manifestos as personal statements, but rather as a stance that is backed by prophecy and scripture. This is highlighted in the opening of T10, which cites a prophecy by Guru Rinpoché predicting that since auspicious connections had not been properly arranged during the reign of King Trisong Deutsen, there would be conflict among Tibetan Buddhists in the future. Acting as usual as both conveyer and interpreter of Guru Rinpoché’s message, the tertön affirms that “this [prophecy] refers to the teachers and students doing practice these days.”149 Indeed, Chokgyur Lingpa evokes the rampant conflict between scholars and practitioners of his epoch, and the further division of each of these groups into competing factions. Though he concedes that for the sake of teaching people of various dispositions, distinct lineages have emerged that make use of different teaching styles and techniques, ultimately, he affirms, any sectarianism “is complete delusion,” and a sign that “the teachings these days are troubled by malignant forces,”150 as foretold by Guru

148 Janet Gyatso discusses the importance of the tertön as a charismatic figure in her study of the autobiography of Jigme Lingpa. Gyatso, Apparitions of the Self, 4. 149 mChog gyur gling pa, “Nyin byed ’od snang,” 209. 150 mChog gyur gling pa, “Nyin byed ’od snang,” 213.

Rinpoché. Thus, the tertön opens his non-sectarian manifesto with a clear indication that he is following in the footsteps of the founding figures of Tibetan Buddhism as he sets out to bestow timely advice on contemporary practitioners.151

Chokling further argues that the principles of non-sectarianism are inherent to the Buddhist tradition from its inception. In T10, for instance, the tertön cites the All-weaving Sūtra,152 in which the Buddha disavows any differentiation or categorization of his teachings into different vehicles, stating that he has taught only one Dharma.153 Śākyamuni moreover condemns sectarianism as an act of “forsaking the Dharma,” enumerating all types of judgemental attitudes that fall under the umbrella of this act of particularly dire consequences.154 With this sūtra citation, Chokgyur Lingpa is keeping to the tradition in both form and content as he makes use of the general philosophical tenet that holds that both scripture and reasoning are valid ways of ascertaining reality in the Buddhist tradition. In fact, as he addresses current controversies surrounding certain terma lineages in T8, the tertön himself reminds his audience that the true gauge of authenticity of any teaching, whether terma or other, is conformity with the scripture and benefiting beings.155 Chokgyur Lingpa thereby implicitly appeals to the old Mahāyāna adage that “whatever is well spoken is the word of the Buddha,” which, according to John Powers, “is often taken to mean that anything not fundamentally at variance with Buddhist doctrine and practice can legitimately be adopted.”156 Thus the tertön relies on the early

151 Chokgyur Lingpa’s claim is in fact not insubstantiated. Indeed, according to Smith, “the roots of eclecticism and tolerance are sunk as deep into the soil of Tibetan tradition as those of sectarianism and bigotry. From the very beginning, when Bon and Buddhism fought for the faith and patronage of Tibetan nomads and peasants, there have been those who would erect a barrier between the two so great that it could not be crossed. Yet there have also been those who viewed the two as kindred traditions that shared common cultural content and that probably sprang from a single source (…) The pattern in the south (Lho brag and Lho kha) and east (Khams and A mdo), on the other hand, seems to have been one of good-natured synthesis, or at least mutual tolerance.” Smith, “’Jam mgon Kong sprul,” 237. 152 Tib. ’Phags pa rnam par ’thag pa thams cad bsdus pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo, Skt. Ārya-sarvavaidalya- saṃgraha-nāma-mahāyāna-sūtra. Chos kyi ’byung gnas, “rNam par ’thag pa thams cad bsdus pa’i mdo,” in bKa’ ’gyur (sDe dge par phud), 63: 355 - 378 (Delhi: Delhi Karmapae Chodhey Gyalwae Sungrab Partun Khang, 1976-1979.)

153 mChog gyur gling pa, “Nyin byed ’od snang,” 215. 154 Indeed, Chokgyur Lingpa counts forsaking the Dharma as an “inexpiable deed” (mtshams med las). This type of negative karma ripens immediately at the time of death, bringing immediate rebirth in hell without an intermediate state. 155 mChog gyur gling pa, “Mig ’byed zab don snying gi bdud rtsi,” 123. 156 John Powers is here citing the Aiiguttara-nikaya IV. 163. However, this is a common trope often found in Buddhist scriptures. John Powers, Hermeneutics and tradition in the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra (Leiden: E.J. Brill., 1993), 159.

scriptural tradition to warn his contemporaries against sectarianism and present non-sectarianism as the original teaching of the Buddha. Chokling moreover repeatedly appeals to fundamental Mahāyāna ethics to defend his non- sectarian stance in the face of sectarian conflict. Essentially, the tertön argues in T10 with another sūtra quotation, simple human decency is the very essence of Dharma. 157 In practical terms, Chokgyur Lingpa bluntly states in T9 that great beings (dam pa rnams) do not indulge in slander and gossip, but above all maintain the basic rule of “having a good heart” and holding the pledge “never to criticize anyone,”158 which is part of elementary Mahāyāna discipline.159 Chokling further points out that, just as it is said that only a realized being can recognize for certain a bodhisattva, so it is difficult to judge tertöns: they have often been falling in and out of grace with the changing tides of events, and their reputation is therefore no basis on which to form judgment. In order to illustrate his point, the author cites several examples of former opposed factions that have come together with time and erased their differences, as if “mixed as one river.”160 Drawing parallels between past and present controversies, Chokgyur Lingpa makes a compelling case for the Mahāyāna approach that prohibits judgment when lacking the wisdom to evaluate teachings correctly. The tertön thereby presents his non-sectarian advocacy with regards to Treasure lineages as a vindication of traditional Mahāyāna principles.

By relying on ancient scriptures and fundamental ethical principles throughout his non- sectarian writings, Chokgyur Lingpa intimates a desire to present non-sectarianism as the original Buddhist teaching. In fact, according to Phuntso, this emphasis on origins is characteristic of the Rimé

157 Thus Chokgyur Lingpa writes: “Indeed, as it is said in the four sections of Vinaya scriptures: ‘How much must monks do in order for the Sublime Dharma to be said to endure? As long as monks exert themselves and fulfill their duties, it is said to endure.’ ” mChog gyur gling pa, “Nyin byed ’od snang,” 217. 158 mChog gyur gling pa, “Mig ’byed zab don snying gi bdud rtsi,” 125. 159 Criticizing a bodhisattva is one of the major downfalls of discipline in the Mahāyāna; and since only a realized being is able to recognize bodhisattvas, this amounts to refraining from criticizing anyone, lest one accidentally slanders an actual bodhisattva. This is expounded in the seminal Tibetan Mahāyāna text of the Thirty-Sevenfold Practice of a Bodhisattva in the following way: “If, impelled by negative emotions, I relate the faults / Of other bodhisattvas, I will myself degenerate. / Therefore, to not talk about the faults of anyone / Who has entered the Mahāyāna is the practice of a bodhisattva.” Ngulchu Thogme, “Thirty-Sevenfold Practice of a Bodhisattva,” in The Heart of Compassion, by Dilgo Khyentsé, trans. Padmākara Translation Group (New Delhi: Shechen Publications, 2006), 34. 160 mChog gyur gling pa, “Mig ’byed zab don snying gi bdud rtsi,” 125.

movement. Indeed, Phuntsho explains that “to stem (…) the doctrinal controversies arising from partisan interpretations, the ris med teachers promoted the reorientation of religious study to the Indian originals and an eclectic approach of professing the essential teachings of all Tibetan traditions in spite of one’s religious affiliation.”161 Chokgyur Lingpa himself uses this approach in T10, as he quotes the Indian master Vasubandhu162 and the early Tibetan master Gampopa163 to foreground the foundation blocks of Buddhism—namely, study and discipline—as shields against the moral decadence of sectarian partisanship. 164 Chokling’s rhetoric thus participates in the discourse of traditional revival that is characteristic of the Rimé movement, as his entire argument in favor of non- sectarianism is an appeal to a return to origins.

Applying his non-sectarian logic to conflicts and controversies surrounding certain tertöns and terma lineages, Chokgyur Lingpa defends them by arguing that they too are inscribed in the continuation of older, more established traditions. In T9, for instance, Chokling defends the Mindroling tradition by associating it with eminent Nyingma masters of the past, including three of of the seminal masters from the Canonical Transmission lineage (So, Zur and gNub),165 the three Kathok patriarchs likewise linked to the Canonical Transmission lineage (Dam, gTsang, and Byams),166 and three esteemed early tertöns (Nyang, Gur and gLing).167 By establishing the validity

161 Karma Phuntsho, Mipham’s dialectics and the debates on emptiness: to be, not to be or neither (London: Routledge, 2005), 51. 162 Vasubandhu (dByigs gnyen) was a 4th to 5th c. Indian Mahāyāna master. 163 Gampopa (Dwags po Lha rjethis is his title, not his name, better to include his more common name here 1079-1153) was one of the two main students of Milarepa, considered as the founder of the Dakpo Kagyü lineage. Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 263. 164 mChog gyur gling pa, “Nyin byed ’od snang,” 216.

165 The Bod rgya tshig mdzod chen po cites them as the “three great Nyingma ācāryas who are at the source of the Canonical Transmission (bka’ ma) lineage of Nyingma Tantra: 1. So ye shes dbang phyug, 2. Zur Śākya ’byung gnas, 3. gNubs chen sangs rgyas ye shes” so zur gnubs gsum/ gsang sngags snga ’gyur bka’ ma’i brgyud pa’i chu ’go rnying ma’i slob dpon chen po gsum gyis mtshan te/” Bod rgya tshig mdzod chen mo (Pe cin: mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1987), 2957. 166 Katok(pa) Tampa Deshek (Kah thog (pa) Dam pa bde gshegs, 1122-92); Katokpa Gyeltsap I, Tsangtönpa Dorjé Gyeltsen (Kah thog pa Gyal tshab gtsang ston pa rdo rje rgyal mtshan, 1126-1216); and Katokpa Gyeltsap II, Campabum (Kah thog pa rgyal tshab byams pa ’bum, 1179-1252). The first of these, ‘Dam,’ was the founder of the Kah thog monastery in Eastern Tibet in 1159, which largely contributed to the consolidation of the Nyingma School at the time, according to Franz-Karl Ehrhard. ‘Tsang’ and ‘Jam’ were his immediate successors. Franz-Karl Ehrhard, “Kah Thog Pa bSod Nams rGyal mTshan (1466-1540) and his Activities in Sikkim and Bhutan,” Bulletin of Tibetology 39, no.2 (2003): 9. 167 mChog gyur gling pa, “Mig ’byed zab don snying gi bdud rtsi,” 128. This most likely refers to Nyangrel Nyima Özer (Nyang ral nyi ma ’od zer, 1124-1192), Guru Chökyi Wangchuk (Gu ru chos kyi dbang phyug, 1212-1270) and one of the ‘Lingpas’.

of the Mindrolling terma by virtue of its lineage history and links with the Canonical Transmission lineage, the tertön suggests that terma lineages, despite their apparent novelty, no less have their place in the history of traditional lineage transmission and are validated by their conformity to the Canonical Transmission scriptures.

In fact, the tertön displays this approach to the terma tradition in his own self-potrayal, as he chooses to present himself first as a master inscribed in the continuity of historical Nyingma and Treasure lineages in his main autobiographical writing, “The Illuminating Sun of the Victorious Ones’ Teachings: A brief, first-hand account of the liberating life-story of the great emanated Treasure revealer” (T1). Indeed, in the typical manner of outer autobiographies, most of T1 is dedicated to an enumeration of the teachers whom Chokgyur Lingpa followed and the transmissions that he received, from both the Kama and Terma traditions. The first teaching transmission Chokgyur Lingpa mentions is that of the Eight Sādhana Teachings of the Sugatas,168 a prominent cycle of teachings believed to have been brought from India to Tibet by Guru Rinpoché, and later hidden as terma. 169 The second transmission in his account is that of the Heart Essence of the Great Perfection,170 seminal Dzogchen instructions primarily attributed to Vimalamitra and Guru Rinpoché, and transmitted as both Kama and Terma. Finally, the only other two transmissions the tertön specifically mentions by name are Ratna Lingpa’s Accomplishing the Guru’s Wisdom Mind171 and

168 Eight Sādhana Teachings of the Sugatas (bDe gshegs sgrub pa bka’ brgyad, Deshek Drubpa Kabgyé). Pad ma ’byung gnas, bDe gshegs sgrub pa bka’ brgyad skor (Leh: Tseten Namgyal, 1971). 169 Indeed, the Eight Sādhāna Teachings are believed to have been received by Padmasambhava in India and then brought to Tibet, where he transmitted them to eight of his closest disciples, before having them concealed as terma. Dargyay, The Rise of Esoteric Buddhism, 33-35.

170 Heart Essence of the Great Perfection (rDzogs chen snying thig, Dzogchen Nyingtik). These are commentaries and arrangements by Longchenpa (kLong chen rab ’byams, 1308–1364) of the Heart Essence teachings of Guru Rinpoché and Vimalamitra. Moreover, according to Keith Dowman, “besides referring to a category of lineages, foremost amongst them the kLong chen snying thig, a tradition established by the thirteenth [sic] century yogin and sage kLong chen rab ’byams pa (Longchenpa), who fused the gter ma and bka’ ma teaching into a unitary, systematized corpus of theory and practice” (…) “the term indicates a metaphysical reality, the all-encompassing bindu at the heart centre, the thig le nyag gcig, the Cosmic Seed.” Keith Dowman, The flight of the Garuda: The Dzogchen tradition of Tibetan Buddhism (Boston: Wisdom, 2003), 206.

171 Mentioned briefly as Ratna Lingpa’s Heart Essence (Thugs sgrub, Tukdrub), this may refer to the Treasure teaching, Thugs sgrub yang snying ’dus pa (Tukdrub Yangnying Düpa). Thugs sgrub yang snying ’dus pa (Mysore: Pema Norbu Rinpoché, 1984). Ratna Lingpa (1403-1478) was an important tertön who compiled the first edition of The Collected Nyingma Tantras (rNying ma rgyud ’bum, Nyingma Gyübum). Dudjom Rinpoché, The Nyingma School, 793-795.

The Assembly of the Sugatas of the Eight Teachings,172 both of which are important termas revealed by earlier influential tertöns. A closer look at the masters and transmissions that Chokgyur Lingpa chooses to cite—among the presumably numerous other transmissions he would have received— indicates that Chokgyur Lingpa wishes to present himself foremost as a holder of the early Kama and Terma lineages of the Nyingma school, part of a long line of descent of authentic Nyingma masters and tertöns. Despite the seemingly innovative role of the tertön, Chokgyur Lingpa’s self-portrayal primarily speaks to the importance of tradition and historical roots for terma lineages. In fact, his claim is supported by the tremendous intertextuality in terma texts described by Mayer, with the majority of Treasure texts examined drawing heavily on previous revelations as well as Kama texts, and therefore presenting very little true innovation.173

Appeal to tradition is thus Chokgyur Lingpa’s main argument in favor of a non-sectarian approach to terma, and, indeed, of the very non-sectarian nature of the terma tradition. In T10, Chokling declares, “Regarding us tertöns, aside from being impartial and unbiased towards localities, communities, disciples, teachings, and sects, there is no ‘tertön religion.’ The union of Sūtra and Tantra taught by the buddhas is the teaching of the tertöns.”174 Thus, according to Chokgyur Lingpa, tertöns are by definition the revivers of the original teachings, which logically implies that they uphold non-sectarianism as well.

As a successful tertön, Chokgyur Lingpa uses his influence to condemn religious conflict and advocate non-sectarianism, particularly within and about the Treasure tradition. Though Rimé ideals were benefiting from a recent revival in Kham at the time, the tertön does not present his non-sectarian position as part of an innovative movement, but rather as a return to the historical source and spiritual essence of the Buddhist teachings. Just as Chokling has elsewhere portrayed tertöns as representatives

172 The Assembly of the Sugatas of the Eight Teachings (bKa’ brgyad bde gshegs ’dus pa, Kabgyé Deshek Düpa) is a Treasure discovered by Nyang ral Nyi ma ’od zer (Nyangrel Nyima Özer, 1124–92), the first of the Five Tertön Kings. This was the first major complete Kabgyé cycle to be revealed. Janet Gyatso, “The Logic of Legitimation in the Tibetan Treasure Tradition,” History of Religions 33/1 (1991: 97-134), 106.

173 Mayer, “gTer ston and Tradent,” 232. 174 mChog gyur gling pa, “Mig ’byed zab don snying gi bdud rtsi,” 215-16.

of both the temporal and a-temporal source of Tibetan Buddhism, it logically follows, in his own reasoning, that tertöns should adopt non-sectarianism as an expression of the original Buddhist tradition. At a time when Chokling, Khyentsé and Kongtrül were collaborating to compile the Treasury of Precious Terma as an expression of their Rimé ideals, this advocation of a broad acceptance and peaceful cohabitation of Treasure lineages can be said to have been particularly timely: age-old wisdom adapted to the needs of the time.


Throughout his writings, Chokgyur Lingpa demonstrates the fluidity of his relation to time, as his activity as a tertön unfolds on all temporal planes and beyond. The Treasure revealer fulfills in his current incarnation a destiny that was predetermined centuries earlier in his lifetime as a disciple of Guru Rinpoché, of whom he remains an emissary. This destiny is awakened in the present by signs from the past—in the form of prophecies and terma objects—and from an a-temporal realm that manifests through dreams and visions. Thereby appointed to newly introduce ancient teachings and relics in his present time, he fulfills the intent of past masters and remains in logical continuity with his predecessors. As shown by the emphasis in his autobiography on lineage and transmission, Chokgyur Lingpa is not breaking with the past or tradition; he merely actualizes that past by fulfilling his predestined role. In fact, the tertön even materializes some of that past in the form of terma objects that convey the blessings and spiritual power of the imperial period in the present. The tertön thus appears as a bridge between the golden age of Tibetan Buddhism and his present degenerate times, acting as a mediator and agent of Guru Rinpoché’s past intent to continue benefiting beings far into the future.

At the same time, the key figures of the imperial period—and foremost among them the Tibetans’ second Buddha Guru Rinpoché—have transcended into timelessness and remain forever accessible to Chokgyur Lingpa, who appeals to them for instructions and transmissions. Through his visionary encounters and ritual activity, the tertön not only transmits and interprets their messages for his contemporaries, but also manifests some of that timeless realm for all to see, bringing the a- temporal into the temporal. Accessing the timeless wisdom of awakened beings through visionary encounters, Chokgyur Lingpa therefore also acts as mediator and interpreter for the timeless, testifying to the pro-active influence of timeless beings in the present. Thus, the tertön’s fluid relation to past and present, temporal and a-temporal, casts him as representative of the historical and spiritual origins of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition in the present, all the while defying any notion of temporal continuity or interruption. Indeed, in the tertön’s own experience, the different temporal planes are inherently intertwined, precluding the linear conception of time that is indispensable to distinguishing between continuity with tradition and innovation.

This fluid relation to time enables Chokgyur Lingpa to fulfill the intent of the historical founders and timeless source of the tradition by implementing prophecies and visionary instructions in a way appropriate to the specific circumstances of his own time. Through his mediation, ancient and timeless wisdom conveyed by terma prophecies or mystical beings is expressed as specific advice tailored to the needs of current circumstances. By applying this advice, the tertön becomes an agent of the historical and spiritual sources of wisdom, wielding a significant impact on his society through his activity, notably in support of the non-sectarian Rimé movement. The tertön’s privileged access to the past and the a-temporal therefore constitutes an important source of authority and temporal influence for him, which is by association conferred onto the Rimé movement in his visions and prophecies. Chokgyur Lingpa not only uses visionary prowess to justify and promulgate the activities of his Rimé associates, but also his personal influence to advocate for non-sectarianism at a time when sectarian conflict was rife in Tibet. Like Treasure revelation, the tertön portrays non-sectarianism as

an ideal that is firmly anchored in the historical and spiritual sources of the Buddhist tradition. Himself an emissary of these sources, the tertön advocates for a return to origins in defense of non- sectarianism. In particular, Chokgyur Lingpa presents non-sectarianism as the logical legacy of the Treasure tradition, which should by nature be upholding the original intent of the Buddhist teachings, namely an impartial and respectful attitude towards all lineages of teachings.

Chokgyur Lingpa demonstrates his temporal authority throughout his writings, as he uses his spiritual insight to guide some of the most prominent masters of his time. Nevertheless, he appears to use this influence primarily to preserve traditional values in the face of changing circumstances. The tertön’s access to the a-temporal and the past permits him to introduce teachings and instructions that are seemingly new to his present world, yet believed to originate at the very source of Tibetan Buddhism. By manifesting and revitalizing the wisdom of past and timeless masters in the present, the tertön expresses tradition in a way that is meant to best suit the needs of his own place and time— and thereby keep the tradition alive. This is the process described by Wheeler as mythopeia, which he argues is essential for the survival of religious traditions in the face of changing times. In effect, Chokgyur Lingpa makes use of this method to preserve Tibetan Buddhism against the dangers posed by contemporary sectarian conflict, drawing on his extraordinary experience as a tertön – a visionary with partial knowledge of the past, the present, the future and the a-temporal – to promulgate the timeliest version of his tradition.

The Nyingma School privileges Treasure teachings for the very reason that they are custom- made for the needs of the people living in the time period of their revelation. Considered in his lineage as the last of the hundred major tertöns, Chokgyur Lingpa is therefore believed to be the tertön meant for our times, with teachings that are particularly potent for our day and age.175 In fact, in these times of rapid change and of the cult of novelty, perhaps his message of returning to the source of the teachings and upholding their essence is what contemporary Buddhists need to hear the most. Thus, throughout Chokgyur Lingpa’s writings, it seems that the main role of the tertön is to be a timely

175 Phakchok Rinpoché, Personal communication.

advocator of the continued relevance of both ancient and timeless wisdom in the present – a task that transcends any notion of what is old and what is new.


The Illuminating Sun of the Victorious Ones’ Teachings

A brief, first-hand account of the liberating life-story of the great emanated Treasure revealer


To the sublime masters who have guided me On the path to liberation, I pay homage

Due to the compassion of Padma Thötreng Tsal,176 Who looked after me throughout successive lifetimes, I obtained the supreme freedoms and riches,177 joined the Buddha’s teachings, And, driven by karmic propensities, engaged178 in the Dharma of Treasures.

176 Padma Thötreng Tsal (Padma thod phreng rtsal), “Lotus whose expression is a garland of skulls,” is the epithet of one of the twelve manifestation of Padmasambhava. Dudjom, The Nyingma School, 471.

177 The supreme freedom and riches (dal ’byor) refer to the eighteen freedoms and riches of a precious human life, which are listed in the Chos rnam kun btus as follows: “According to Mipham’s Gateway to Knowledge, the eight freedoms refer to being free from the eight following states: the four unfree non-human state, ie. beings from the three lower realms and perceptionless gods; and the four unfree human states, namely barbarians from the borderlands; people with mistaken views; [coming from] a land where a Buddha has not appeared; and possessing defective faculties, such as being imbecilic, mute or incapable of communicating. Out of the ten riches, five are from one’s own side: 1) being human; 2) having all one’s faculties; 3) being born in a place where the Dharma has been propagated; 4) having an unperverted livelihood; 5) and having faith. These are from one’s own side. From the side of others, there are five: 1) That a buddha has appeared in this world; 2) that he taught the Dharma; 3) that the teaching endured; 4) that there are those who practice it; 5) that there are those who teach it. These are from the side of others.”

“mi pham mkhas pa’i tshul la ’jug pa’i sgo las byung ba ste / dal ba brgyad ni / ngan song gsum dang ’du shes med pa’i lha ste mi m yin pa’i khoms pa bzhi / mtha’ ’khob kla klo / log lta can gyi rigs / sangs rgyas ma byon pa’i zhing / dbang shes blun lkug brda mi ’jal ba ste mi’i mi khoms pa bzhi bcas brgyad po de dag dang bral ba’i dal ba brgyad/ 2. ’byor pa bcu las rang ’byor lnga ni/ (1) rang mir gyur pa / (2) dbang po tshang ba / (3) chos dar ba’i yul dbus su skyes pa / (4) las kyi ntha’ ma log pa / (5) dad pa yod pa ste rang ’byor ro / gzhan ’byor lnga ni / (1) sangs rgyas ’jig rten du byon pa / (2) des chos gsung ba / (3) bstan pa gnas pa / (4) de la ’jug pa / (5) chos ston pa yod pa ste gzhan ’byor bcas so / /” Nor brang o rgyan, Chos rnam kun btus, Vol. 3: 3008. 178 “Engaged” here has been chosen to translate the Tibetan spyod. According to Khyabje Khenpo, spyod in this context should be understood in the sense of receiving and transmitting Treasure teachings. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 18/12/15.

Until the age of thirty-five, due to obscurations,

My childish mind made me inconstant in view and behavior. Now that I am somewhat familiar with the nature of mind, I make sure that my view and conduct always conform to the Dharma.

In my present situation, then, why am I writing my life-story? Well, [193] it is so as not to disappoint the faithful.

In the vicinity of Sky Treasury,179 I entered human existence.

At the foot of Secret King,180 I was born from my mother’s womb. At the foot of First King,181 I was raised, And in Upward-Spiraling Place,182 the wish for Dharma arose.

My guiding Master, Künzang Choktrül183 gave me the refuge vows, And thus I crossed the threshold into the Buddha’s teachings. I obtained authorization184 for White Tārā185 and the Peaceful Guru.186 In Shedrub Ling,187 I met with Tsewang Trinley.188

179 Sky Treasurey (Nam mkha’ mdzod) is a sacred mountain in Nangchen. Alexander Gardner, “Chokgyur Lingpa,” Treasury of Lives (2009), 180 Secret King (gSang rgyal) seems to be a hill which, according to Gardner, is part of Sky Treasury along with the following to sites. Gardner, “The Twenty-five Great Sites,” 24. 181 First King (Ye rgyal).

182 Upward Spiralling Place (Yar ’khyil gnas). 183 Künzang Choktrül (Kun bzang mchog sprul) was the reincarnation of the Treasure revealer Mingyur Dorjé (Mi ’gyur rdo rje, 1645-1667). Gardner, “Chokgyur Lingpa.” 184 An authorization (rjes gnang) is similar to a tantric empowerment (dbang). According to Khyabje Khenpo, a rjes gnang is given in the context of the three outer tantras (kriya, upa, and yoga) while a dbang is given in the context of the inner tantras (maha, anu and ati yoga). Moreover, a rjes gnang can only authorize its recipient to perform the practice himself, but not to transmit it to others. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 06/01/16.

185 White Tārā (sGrol dkar) is the White Savioress, a female enlightened deity. 186 The Peaceful Guru (Gu ru zhi ba) is a peaceful manifestation of Guru Rinpoché. 187 Shedrub Ling (Shes sgrub gling). It is unclear which monastery this is.

188 Tsewang Trinley (Tshe dbang phrin las), is also called rGyal sras bla ma tshe dbang phrin las in Könchok Gyurme’s biography of the tertön. dKon mchog gyur med, gTer chen mchog gyur bde chen gling pa’i rnam thar bkra shis dbyangs kyi yan lag gsal byed ldeb, in sPrul pa’i gter chen o rgyan mchog gyur bde chen zhig po gling pa phrin las ’gro ’dul rtsal gyi zab gter yid bzhin nor bu’i mdzod chen po, Vol. 39 (Kathmandu: Ka-Nying Shedrub Ling Monastery, 2004), 57.

During the preparation for the Guru empowerment, feeling intense faith,

I had a vision [of the guru], who in his kindness bestowed the four empowerments.

[194] In my own home area, Könchok Döndrub189 and others Instructed190 me how to read and write.

Instructed by Tengye,191 I did my first retreat,

The approach practices of White Tārā and the Peaceful Guru.

From the mantra-holder Rigdzin Pal,192 I received practical instructions For mantric rituals, and then headed to Central Tibet.

I saw that I was under the care of the Three Roots,

And that a mantrika guru pacified an illness-producing spirit. In Palme193 monastery, I stayed as a monastic recruit194 Under the care of Lord Chönyi Norbu.195

189 Könchok Döndrub (dKon mchog don grub). According to Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoché, Chokgyur Lingpa learned to read with his uncle. Since he however does not name this uncle, we can only guess that it might be the same person referred to here. Orgyen Tobgyal, The Life, 2. 190 Instructor is chosen here as a translation for slob dpon (Lopen, Skt. ācārya). Lopen is a title usually given to learnt monks who have completed a certain number of years of study in the monastic colleges. It can however also just designate an instructor in a religious context, and will be therefore alternately translated as instructor or master. 191 Tengye (bsTan rgyas).

192 Rigdzin Pal (Rig ’dzin dpal). 193 Palme (dPal me) monastery refers to the Drigung Kagyü monastery Palme Tekchen Evaṁ Gatsel Ling (dPal me theg chen e vaM dga’ tshal gling) in Nangchen. Gardner, “Chokgyur Lingpa.” 194 Monastic recruit here translates grwa rgyun. This translation is based on Dreyfus’ own translation of the word as “new recruit.” George Dreyfus, The Sound of Two Hands Clapping (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2003), Kindle location 1123. 195 Chönyi Norbu (Chos nyid nor bu) was a Drikung lama cited as one of his main teachers in his long biography. dKon mchog gyur med, gTer chen mchog gyur, f. 26.a.

I obtained empowerments and instructions196 for the Eight Sādhana Teachings of the Sugatas.197

I trained well in the practices of ritual dance, maṇḍala proportions, and melodies. For ten years, I joined in the monastic assembly of Tsechu monastery,198 And sublime masters bestowed upon me countless empowerments and instructions.

I trained in everything from the highest Great Perfection Down to the simplest dance, And I realized the immense kindness of my preceptors199 and instructors.

From Tendzin Chöki Wangpo200 I received direct instructions for Mahāmudrā201 and Dzogchen.

The pith instructions of sublime masters

On the Heart Essence of the Great Perfection mingled with my mind

I trained in the Nyingma melodies and dances from Phuntsok Ling,202 [195] And received ordination from the great vinaya-holder, Taklung Rinpoché.203

He taught me the way of monkhood.204

This incomparable protector, supreme emanation

196 Empowerments and instructions here translates smin grol, which means literally “ripening and liberation,” namely, the ripening empowerments and liberating instructions. Jamgön Kongtrül defines these two as the “two vital parts of Vajrayana practice: the empowerments which ripen one’s being with the capacity to realize the four kayas and the liberating oral instructions enabling one to actually apply the insight introduced through the empowerments.” Kong-sprul Blo-gros-mtha’-yas, Padma Sambhava, and Mchog gyur gling pa, The Light of Wisdom, Vol.1, trans. Erik Pema Kunsang (Boston: Shambala, 1995), 280.

197 Pad ma ’byung nas, bDe gshegs sgrub pa bka’ brgyad skor (Leh: Tseten Namgyal, 1971). 198 Tsechu monastery (Tshes chu khang) was Chokgyur Lingpa’s first monastery in Nangchen. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 18/12/15. 199 Preceptor here translates mkhen po (Khenpo, Skt. upādhyāya).

200 Tendzin Chöki Wangpo (bsTan ’dzin chos kyi dbang po). 201 Mahāmudrā (Phyag rgya chen po) is considered the highest practice of the Kagyü school. 202 Phuntsok Ling (Phun tshogs gling). It is unclear which monastery this is. 203 Taklung Rinpoché (sTag lung ma Dpa’ bo gtsug lag ’phreng ba VIII Chos kyi rgyal po, c.1782-c.1840). Gardner, “The Twenty-five Great Sites,” 26. 204 “The way of monkhood” is a translation for dge slong ngang tshul. dGe slong technically refers to one who has received full ordination. 205 This is probably still Taklung Rinpoché.

Gave me the ripening empowerment for Ratna Lingpa’s Accomplishing the Guru’s Wisdom Mind.206

In Misty Fortress,207 I met with Chögyel Dorjé,208

Who gave me the secret pith instructions and taught me the Great Perfection.

Following the command of the protector of beings, Situ Padma Nyinchey,209

Venerable Tendzin Namgyel bestowed upon me Accomplishing the Guru’s Wisdom Mind.210

Following the master’s command, I went to Palpung Monastery211 And encountered the second Maitreya.212

Offering my undivided faith to the kind

Ngédön Tendzin Rapgyé,213 I received the bodhicitta vows. From then on, I received many empowerments and instructions, And in particular, cut through all superimposition on the view.

Jamgön Lama Kongtrül Rinpoché bestowed upon me

Empowerments, tantric explanations, and the ultimate pith instructions. The omniscient master Jamyang Khyentsé gave me Boundless empowerments and instructions, the quintessence of the profound truth.

206 Ratna Lingpa’s Innermost Condensed Accomplishing the Guru’s Wisdom Mind (Thugs sgrub yang snying ’dus pa, Thukdrub Yangnying Düpa.) Ratna gling pa, Thugs sgrub yang snying ’dus pa (Bylakuppe: Pema Norbu Rinpoché, 1984). 207 Misty Fortress (Na bun rdzong) is a sacred site in Nangchen where Chokgyur Lingpa revealed his first Treasure casket. Gardner, “The Twenty-five Great Sites,” 171.

208 Chögyel Dorjé (Chos rgyal rdo rje, 1787-1859) was a Drukpa Kagyü tertön. Ibid., 26. 209 Padma Nyinchey (Padma nyin byed) was the ninth Tai Situ Rinpoché (1774-1853). Dudjom, The Nyingma School, 198. 210 Tendzin Namgyel (bsTan ’dzin rnam rgyal).

211 Palpung (dPal spungs), Situ Rinpoché’s main monastic seat. According to Gardner, “Dpal spungs thub bstan chos ’khor gling, a Karma bka’ brgyud monastery, was founded in 1727 by Si tu VIII Chos kyi ’byung gnas (c.1700-1774), whose previous seat had been Karma dgon, in Lha stod, south of Nang chen.” Gardner, “The Twenty-five Great Sites,” 1. 212 The second Maitreya (Mi pham mgon po gnyis pa) Khyentséhere might refer to Jamgön Kongtrül. 213 Ngedön Tendzin Rabgyé (nGes don bstan pa rab rgyas, 1808-1864) was a Dabzang tulku (Zla bzang sprul sku). Gardner, “Chokgyur Lingpa.”

These three were the masters who showed me the threefold kindness.214 From the supreme emanation body, Zurmang Tendzin,215 [196] I received the ripening empowerment for the Assembly of the Sugatas of the Eight Sādhana Teachings.216 Moreover, I relied on many other kind lamas,

Such as Gajé Sang-ngak Tendzin 217 And Tendzin Jangchup Nyima.218 I also listened to many sacred teachings and, As I received explanations on Sūtra and Tantra

From Jamyang Ngédön Kewang Zhendön,219 my consciousness was liberated. I revealed profound Treasures in the sight of all, Received their empowerments in visions, and brought them into my experience. The omniscient Lord Karmapa, the eminent Sakya,220 protector of beings,

214 The masters who showed the threefold kindness (bka’ drin sum ldan) is an expression that refers to teachers who, in the tantric tradition, confer empowerments, explain the tantras, and give pith instructions. The Chos rnam bkun btus lists them as follows: “1. bla ma gcig nyid kyi drung nas rang nyid la dbang bskur ba’i bka’ drin rgyud bshd gnang ba’i bka’ drin

man ngag gnang ba’i bka’ drin no” Nor brang, Chos rnam, Vol.1, 175. 215 Zurmang Tendzin (Zur mang bstan ’dzin) refers was the Zurmang Tengah Tulku. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 18/12/15. 216 The Assembly of the Sugatas of the Eight Sadhana Teachings ( bKa’ brgyad bde gshegs ’dus pa, Kabgyé Deshek Düpa) was a Treasure discovered by Nyangrel Nyima Özer (Nyang ral nyi ma ’od zer, 1124-92). Gyatso, “The Logic of Legitimation,” 106. mNga’ bdag nyang ral nyi ma a’od zer, bKa’ brgyad bde gshegs ’dus pa (New Delhi: B. Jamyang Norbu, 1971). 217 Gajey Sang-ngak Tendzin (sGa rje gsang sngags bstan ’dzin). 218 Tendzin Jangchub Nyima (bsTan ’dzin byang chub nyi ma).

219 Jamyang Ngedön Kewang Zhendön (’Jam dbyangs nges don mkhas dbang gzhan don). 220 The eminent Sakya most probably refers to Drolma Podrang Thegchen Tashi Rinchen (sGrol ma pho brang theg chen bkra shis rin chen, 1824-1865), thirty-fifth Sakya Trizin, throne-holder of the Sakya school. TBRC “bKra shis rin chen,”!rid=P961.

The Lord Drukchen,221 and many noble beings

Of the Drigung and Taklung [lineages],222 practiced this sacred Dharma. The profound Treasure teachings spread far and wide, And a great number of scholars and practitioners became my disciples.

They nurtured the Buddhadharma of both teaching and practice. The three masters of Riwoché –223 the teacher and disciple Jédrung224 and Phakchok,225 along with Zhapdrung –226 gave me property And the following sites were established:

The Palace of Secret Mantra in Akaniṣṭha Karma

Sky Treasury, the Unchanging Sanctuary of Neten Chok,228 The Lotus Crystal Cave in the sacred site of Dzomnang,229 And the mountain hermitage of the Turquoise Lake in Gyamgyel Glacial Slopes.230 [197]

221 The Lord Drukchen is a reference to the head of the Drukpa Kagyü, who in that time would have been the Ninth Drukchen, Mingyur Wangyel (’Brug chen IX Mi ’gyur dbang rgyal, 1823-1883). TBRC, “Mi ’gyur dbang rgyal,”!rid=P1374. 222 The above-mentioned were all guardians of Chokgyur Lingpa’s Treasure teachings. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 18/12/15. 223 Riwoche (Ri bo che) is an important Taklung Kagyü (sTag lung bka’ brgyud) monastery in Kham. John Powers and David Templeman, Historical dictionary of Tibet (Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press, 2012), 662.

224 Jedrung (rJe drung) here refers to the sixth rJe drung incarnation, Rinchen Öbar (Rin chen ’od ’bar, 1830? - 1855?). The Jedrung were one of the main incarnation line of Riwoche monastery. The Treasury of Lives, “The Sixth Riwoche Jedrung, Rinchen Ober,” 225 Phakchok (’Phags mchog) here refers to the fourth Phakchok incarnation, Rinchen Lhundrub Drakpa Kunsel Nyima (Rin chen lhun grub grags pa kun sel nyi ma), the nineteenth throne-holder of Riwoche, born in 1830. Phakchok Rinpoché website, “Previous Incarnations,” 226 Zhabdrung (Zhabs drung).

227 Akaniṣṭha Karma (’Og min karma) was one of Chokgyur Lingpa’s Treasure sites in Nangchen. Gardner, “The Twenty- five Great Sites,” 171. 228 Neten Chok Gyurmey Ling (gNas bstan mchog ’gyur med gling) was the monastery established by Chokgyur Lingpa, and the seat of the Neten Chokgyur Lingpa (gNas bstan mchog ’gyur gling pa) line of incarnations. According to Gardner, “it is located in modern Ri bo che country, T.A.R., just south of the border with Qinghai province.” Ibid., 24. 229 The Lotus Crystal Cave (Padma shel phug) in Dzomnang (’Dzom nang), Derge, is a cave opened jointly by Chokgyur Lingpa and Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo, that was to become the main hermitage of the latter. Ibid., 49.

230 The Turquoise Lake in Gyamgyel Snowy Slopes (rGyam rgyal gangs mgul g.yu mtsho). Gardner describes this site as follows: “Four thousand seven hundred fifty meters (15,580 feet) above sea level, to the west of Rdzong sar monastery in Sde dge, lies Seng rgod g.yu mtsho, the Wild Lion Turquoise Lake, a small blue mirror of water at the base of jagged cliffs.” Gardner also notes that “there are alternate names for this lake, including G.yu mtsho gtan khyil (the Permanently Abiding Turquoise Lake) and Seng rgod g.yu mtsho gtan ’khyil (the Permanently Abiding Wild Lion Turquoise Lake;

Thus I initiated teachings of both exegesis and practice===

Then, with the kind support of the omniscient guru Khyentsé Wangpo,

I performed many Great Accomplishments,231 the foundation of the teachings. These good deeds are [now] recorded in one place.

I have no other qualities than this.

My greatest virtue has been doing three-year retreat, And now too, I practice one-pointed virtuous altruism.

Many years have passed since the mantra holder, Padma Düdül232 Requested these words from Gyamgigül.233 This year, I put an end to the difficulty of that long interval, And applied myself to write this brief, genuine account, On the tenth day of the seventh month of the Bull Year,234 In the Fortress Sanctuary235 and Sky Treasury.

I dedicate this virtue so that all beings may reach awakening. May the blazing splendor of auspiciousness adorn the world!

Mchog gling A, 186 and 189), Seng ngu g.yu mtsho (Lion’s Roar Turquoise Lake; Blo gros phun tshogs 2004, 36), Ma pham seng rgod g.yu mtsho (Invincible Wild Lion Turquoise Lake; Mkhyen brtse A, 31), and simply Seng ge g.yu mtsho (Lion Turquoise Lake; thang ka).” Ibid., 59. 231 Great Accomplishments (sGrub chen, drubchen) are extensive group sādhana practices. 232 Padma Düdül (Padma bdud ’dul).

233 Gyamgigül (rGyam gyi mgul) is idenetical to Gyamgyel, above. See footnote XX. 234 August 31st, 1865. All dates are given based on the date equivalence chart of Dieter Schuh. Dieter Schuh, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der tibetischen Kalenderrechnung (Wiesbaden: F. Steiner, 1973), 203-213. 235 Yangdzong Ling (Yang rdzong gling).

Text 2 (T2)


A Melody to Delight the Fortunate

A brief history of the Treasure revelations

of the great emanated Treasure revealer, Chokgyur Lingpa

From within the expanse of space – the non-duality of non-conceptuality and great bliss – I bow down to the guru, sovereign of the ocean of maṇḍalas, Original protector of unity, endowed with the seven aspects of union,236 [198] Vajradhara237 who performs the dances of the net of illusion.238

With this I offer homage.

It does seem like all scholar-practitioners agree that fortunate disciples’ qualities relating to scripture and realization unfold entirely based on generating faith and devotion towards their teacher. Furthermore, since historical accounts, or liberating life-stories, are indispensable to first instill such trust, I will at this stage say a little bit about myself. I am the one known as the emanated great Treasure revealer, Chokgyur Lingpa. When I was still young, I met with the precious master from Uḍḍiyāna239 in person, at a place called Maṇikasyapa, and received a prophecy regarding the location of a practice cave of the one from Uḍḍiyāna. At the

236 “Endowed with the seven aspects of union (kha sbyor bdun ldan) is an epithet for Vajradhara. According to the Chos rnam kun btus, the seven aspects of union are: 1. Complete enjoyment; 2. Union; 3. Great Bliss; 4. Naturally non-existent;

5. Completely filled with Compassion; 6. Uninterrupted; 7. Unceasing. “1. longs spyod rdzogs pa; 2. kha sbyor; 3. bde chen; 4. rang bzhin med; 5. snying rje yongs gang; 6. rgyun mi ’chad pa; 7.’gog pa med pa’o.” Nor brang, Chos rnam, vol.2, 1618. 237 Vajradhara (rDo rje ’chang) is an emanation of the primordial Buddha Samantabhadra. Dudjom, The Nyingma School, 120. 238 The net of illusion (sgyu ’phrul drwa ba) is a collective term for the manifestations of enlightenment to tame whoever needs in whichever way is necessary, but also the name of a collection of important Mahāyoga scriptures. 239 Orgyen Rinpoché is an epithet of Guru Padmasambhava.

age of thirteen, I found a prophetic guide240 in the Crystal Cave of Yarlung.241 When I was fifteen, I had many deluded visions, not knowing whether they were deities or demons.242 It turns out that most were obstacles, but a few were omens portending the appearance of profound Treasures. Apart from these few, any others that I have written down have turned out to be meaningless. Then, in Namru,243 in the midst of many river banks, [199] I found a concise prophetic guide, written on a paper scroll. At the age of twenty, on the tenth day of the eighth month in the Earth Monkey Year [October 7th, 1848], I invited the Dharma cycles of Accomplishing the Guru’s Wisdom Mind, Dispeller of All Obstacles244 out of the rock in the Entrance Valley to the Sun and Moon.245 They were placed under a seal of secrecy for eight years. When I was twenty-two,246 in the year of the Rooster [late February 1849—late February 1850], I invited the Lotus-Crested Great Compassionate One247 out of Misty Fortress. However, since some auspicious coincidences did not fall into place, there were also signs of obstacles.

240 Prophetic guide (kha byang), see 24-25. Hirshberg explains the term as follows: “In Nyang-rel’s biographies a cache certificate is received first. Its contents vary depending on whether it is relied on alone or with the aid of other certificates, but its most important function is to confer authority to the treasure revealer who possesses it and thus is destined to reveal the cache/s it describes. Kha specifically designates the “mouth” or aperture of the treasure cache itself, whether that space is closed and concealed or opened and revealed. Jang alone can signify an expansive quality while its diminutive jangbu (byang bu) denotes a “piece.” Both meanings seem to be at work here: khajang signifies a brief note on a scrap of paper or small scroll that belies the vast significance of its contents. For the one who comes into its possession it is much more than just a guide: the certificate confirms a karma-based authority of eminent domain over the site it identifies and its contents that has persisted for centuries, latent yet persistent throughout many lives and deaths, to finally become fully actualized in the present one.” Hirshberg, Treasure, 157.

241 The Crystal Cave of Yarlung (Yar klung shel brag) is one of the eight great caves visited by Padmasambhava. Kong- sprul, The Light, 240. 242 I have based my translation of this phrase on its wording in the extensive biography by Könchog Gyurme, which is clearer: “lha ’dre gang yin ngo mi mkhyen pa’i zhal gzigs.” dKon mchog gyur med, gTer chen rnam thar, f. 26.a. 243 Namru (Nam ru). According to Könchog Gyurme’s version of the biography, Nam ru refers to Ye rgyal nam ru (nam mkha’ dzod), Chokgyur Lingpa’s birth area (“ye rgyal gnam ru’i gram grod nas.”) Ibid.

244 Accomplishing the Guru’s Wisdom Mind, Dispeller of All Obstacles (Thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel, Thukdrub Barchey Künsel). mChog gyur gling pa, Thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel, vol. 1-10 in mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986). 245 Danyin Khala Rongo Rock (Zla nyin kha la rong sgo brag). According to Gardner, this site “is in the Zla chu (Mekong) valley to the north of Shor mda’, the capital of Nang chen county in Qinghai.” Gardner, “The Twenty-five Great Sites,” 79.

246 According to Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo, this may have been when he was twenty-one. ’Jam dbyangs mkhyen rtse dbang po, “gTer chen rnam thar las ’phros pa’i dris lan bkra shis dbyangs snyan bskul ba’i dri bzhon,” in mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986), ff. 26. 247 Lotus-Crested Great Compassionate One (Thugs rje chen po padma gtsug tor, Thukje Chenpo Padma Tsuktor.) mChog gyur gling pa, Thugs rje chen po padma gtsug tor, in mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982- 1986), vol.10-11.

When I was twenty-five, I met with the Protector Situ Rinpoché, and offered him some Treasure teachings and samaya substances, among other things. When I was twenty-six, in the Tiger Year [February 1854—February 1855], ancillary teachings to Accomplishing the Guru’s Wisdom Mind248 appeared from White Lady Rock. 249 When I was twenty-eight, on the fifteenth day of the Sagadawa month in the Fire Dragon Year [May 19th, 1856], the Sevenfold Cyle of Profundity250 appeared as a secret Treasure251 from Oath-Bound Cliff252 in Akaniṣṭha Karma. On the tenth day of the Monkey month of that same year [July 12th or August 10th, 1856],253 out of Rainbow Sky Treasury Vanishing Rock,254 I invited statues, including two physical representatives255 and a protector statue; various samaya substances such as that of the Great Display;256 seven cycles of prophetic guides such as the guide for Yu;257 and sections of teachings on various papers, including the sheet for the five nectars258 (note: these are ancillary teachings to the Sevenfold Cycle of Profundity). Later, from the Sun and Moon rock259 appeared several sections of Accomplishing the Guru’s Wisdom Mind and various samaya substances that carried a seal of secrecy. In the ninth month [late October—late November] of that same year, in Open-Eye Rock260 in Kham, I found the crown belonging to the brahmin Black Heruka, and a Dharma Treasure that did not come out. On the fifteenth day of the eleventh month [January 10th, 1857], the seal of secrecy of

Accomplishing the Guru’s Wisdom Mind, Dispeller of All Obstacles broke open, and I opened up the

248 Accomplishing the Guru’s Wisdom Mind is the abbreviated title of Accomplishing the Guru’s Wisdom Mind, Dispeller of All Obstacles (Thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel). 249 White Lady Rock (dKar mo brag) at Rainbow Mountain (Ri bo dbang zhu), in the Terlung (gTer klung) valley to the East of Palpung. Gardner, “The Twenty-five Great Sites,” 36-37. 250 Sevenfold Cycle of Profundity (Zab bdun skor, Zabdün Kor). mChog gyur gling pa, Zab pa skor bdun, in mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986), vol. 12-19. 251 A secret terma (gsang gter) is revealed in the presence of only a few chosen people, as opposed to a publicly revealed Treasure (grong gter). Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 77. 252 Oath-Bound Cliff (Dam can brag). 253 The year 1856 had two Monkey months, spanning July and August. 254 Vanishing Rock at Rainbow Sky Treasury (Yal brag gnam ru nam mkha’ mdzod) is another site in Chokgyur Lingpa’s birth region. 255 Physical representatives (sku tshab), see page 28. 256 Great Display (Rol pa chen po, Rölpa Chenpo). 257 Yu (g.Yu) could be a reference to rGya rgyal g.yu mtsho, Ma pham seng ge g.yu mtsho, or g.Yu brag. 258 It is unclear which text this refers to. 259 Dakala (Zla kha la) is an abbreviation of Danying Kala Rongo (Zla nyin kha la rong go). 260 Open-Eye Rock (Mig dbye brag, Migye Drak).

maṇḍala. That night, as an announcement of their oaths to the deities and demons,261 the doctrine holder Zhabdrung Rinpoché had a vision of the sky filled with extraordinary vidyādharas.262 Others received signs that they had received the precious master from Uḍḍiyāna’s blessings. All alike had a vision of purifying smoke263 swirling as five-colored rainbow light, and the entire sky filling with dots and spheres of such light. The Medicinal Great Accomplishment gathering (mendrub)264 that we performed on that occasion was my first. On the tenth day of that month, I invited Garab Dorjé’s reliquary out of the summit of that sacred site. I also invited a minor Treasure out of the vicinity. On the third day of the twelfth month [January 28th, 1857], I invited The Three Sections of the Great Perfection265 out of Lotus Crystal cave in the highlands of Meshö Dzomnang266 for all to see, and this was the first of my public revelations. On the first day of the new Fire Snake Year [February 25th, 1857], I invited the Concise Prophetic Guide to the Twenty-five Major Sacred Sites267 (Néchen Nyerngé Dojang) out of the Great Power Cliff of Warrior Cave.268 In the Lama’s residence at Palpung, I disclosed the terma which introduces the holy site known as Cārita-like Jeweled Cliff.269 A few prophetic guides appeared out of that site too. On the eighth day, after Kongtrül, Öntrul and Zhabdrung Rinpoché [Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo] had finished a Medicinal Great Accomplishment in the capital, they came to Lion

261 As part of the preparatory practices that accompany the opening of a Treasure cycle, its guardian deities must be bound under oath. Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 76. 262 Vidyādhara (rig ’dzin) or awareness-holder is a title that designates “a sage of the esoteric tradition of Buddhism, holder of esoteric wisdom, power and teachings.” Ibid., 248-249. 263 Purifying smoke (bsang) refers to a smoke ritual used both for offering and purification. 264 A Great Accomplishment Medicine gathering (sman sgrub, mendrub) is an extensive group sādhana practice (sgrub chen, drubchen) during which sacred medicine is produced and consecrated. 265 The Three Sections of the Great Perfection (rDzogs chen sde gsum, Dzogchen Desum). mChog gyur gling pa, rDzogs chen sde gsum, in mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986), vol. 21-23

266 Lotus Crystal cave in Meshö Dzomnang Phu (sMed shod ’dzom nang phu padma shel phug) 267 Prophetic Guide to the Twenty-five Major Sacred Sites (gNas chen nyer lnga’i mdo byang, Nechen Nyerngé Dojang). mChog gyur gling pa, “gTer kha bcu gcig pa dpa’ bo dbang chen brag nas bzhes pa bod kyi gnas chen rnams kyi mdo byang dkar chag o rgyan gyi mkhas pa padma ’byung gnas kyi bkod pa,” in vol.24 of mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986), 95-124. 268 Power Cliff of Warrior Cave (dPa’ bo phug dbang chen brag, Pawo phug Wangchen Drak). This site, according to Gardner, “is connected to the main site of buddha attribute, the mountain Ru dam gangs kyi ra ba above Rdzogs chen monastery in the Yid lhung region of Sde dge. It is listed as one of the four intermediate valleys, associated with the deity Hayagrīva.” Gardner, “The Twenty-five Great Sites,” 2. 269 Cārita-like Jeweled Cliff (Tsa ’dra rin chen brag), Tsadra for short, is a Treasure site above Palpung monastery which would become the site for Jamgön Kongtrül’s hermitage Kun bzang bde chen ’od gsal gling. Ibid., 1.

Sky Rock.270 There, on the fifteenth day, within sight of everyone present, I invited a life elixir out of the rock and medicinal water out of the earth, both of which still flow today. Other than that, I revealed the secret robes of the one from Uḍḍiyāna, his brocade cloak and hat; Vajradharma’s271 wheel that liberates on sight; a piece of the Buddha’s robes; a pair of Tsogyal’s earrings, made from sapphire, ruby and emerald, and thin leaves272 of finest gold as well as gold from the river Jambu; the clothes of Trisong Deutsen, Tsogyal and Mandāravā;273 [202] the robes of Vairocana; a Vajrasattva statue made from unknown material; a physical representative of the Guru made out of the nose blood of the one from Uḍḍiyāna; many different samaya substances; a reliquary box filled with accomplished medicine; the seal of the one from Uḍḍiyāna; and a volume of Treasure teachings bound with the seal of secrecy, which turned out to be the anuyoga cycle containing the Sacred Dharma in Six Sections (Damchö Dédruk) and six great scriptures. Even though the Treasure also contained about six grams of camphor, the crowd snatched it all up greedily. (Note: It seems a list for Jewel Heaped Cliff274 was also present.) In addition, I invited the Dharma robes of Khenpo [Bodhisattva Śāntarakṣita] out of Dzi Lotus Crystal Cave,275, and a longevity substance out of Kerong.276 In the vicinity of these sites, I found several gem Treasures. In the fourth month of that year [May—June 1857], I performed my ninth Medicinal Great Accomplishment, which was a practice of Vajrakīlaya.277 On that occasion too, there appeared signs

270 Lion Sky Rock (Seng gnam brag, Sengnam Drak). According to Gardner, “the site of the activities-aspect of the buddha attribute is known as Seng gnam brag at the head of the Ka ’dzom [valley] in the ’Bri region.” Gardner, “The Twenty- five Great Sites,” 213.

271 According to Jamgön Kongtrül’s Mirage of Nectar, “it is said in The Guhyasamaja Tantra that the tantras were entrusted to Vajradharma. This is explained as being the name by which Vajrapani was known when being entrusted with the tantras and empowered.” Kong-sprul, A Gem, 423. 272 “Thin leaves” here translates phra khor can, though the meaning is not entirely clear. 273 King Trisong Deutsen, the king who invited Guru Rinpoché to Tibet and was one of his main students, as well as Guru Rinpoché’s two main consorts. 274 Jewel Heaped Cliff (Brag ri rin chen brtsegs pa, Drakri Rinchen Tsekpa). 275 Dzi Lotus Crystal Cave (’Dzi padma shel phug, Dzi Padma Shelpu) is a sacred site in Nangchen. Gardner, “The Twenty-five Great Sites,” 173-175. 276 Bell Cave in Kerong (Ke rong cong phug), in Derge. Ibid. 277 Vajrakīlaya (Phur pa) is the deity of action. Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 226.

of accomplishment for all to see, as nectar278 poured from the torma279 and overflowed from the vase, and sublime beings had visions of their yidams.280 Extraordinarily, there were amazing outer and inner signs of accomplishment, such as our teacher, the Buddha, confirming prophecies. After that, before the eyes of more than a thousand fortunate ones gathered there, including Garzur281 and Chöje282 Rinpoché [203], samaya substances and Dharma Treasures appeared at the supreme sacred site of Lotus Power Cave in Bumdzong,283 as the five classes of ḍākinīs284 identified the sacred site. Others saw only vultures [in place of the ḍākinīs].

Inside a lake,285 the nāga286 demon Kala Rākṣa entrusted me with a stone casket. I went inside287 Ancient Place Cave,288 and the precious master from Uḍḍiyāna together with an ocean retinue of ḍākinīs arrived. The father and mother289 lovingly gave me advice, manifesting many amazing physical displays290 and behaving very playfully. From the throne of the one from Uḍḍiyāna, I revealed the Tārā statue of self-arising compassion, the relic pills of Prabhahasti,291 the Six Practice Cycles of Zurza, Flower Beacon,292 and the Dharma cycle of the Lotus Net of Illusion of the Great

278 Nectar (Tib. bdud rtsi, Skt. amṛtā) refers to “nectars in liquid, powder or pill forms prepared with esoteric rituals. It is believed that special attainments can come just by tasting them with faith.” Ibid., 261. 279 Torma (Tib. gtor ma, Skt. naivedya/bali) are “offering cakes ceremonially presented to deities or spiritual beings for diverse purposes connected with rites of service and attainment.” Dudjom, The Nyingma School, 380. 280 Yidam (yi dam) are personal deities who are objects of meditation and propitiation in tantric practices. 281 Garzur (Gar zur).

282 Chöje (Chos rje). 283 Lotus Power Cave in Bumdzong (’Bum rdzong padma dbang phug, Bumdzong Padma Wangphuk). According to Gardner, “the site of the attribute-aspect of buddha mind, called [’Bum] is Mkha’ ’gro ’bum rdzong in Lower Nang chen.” Gardner, “The Twenty-five Great Sites,” 210. 284 The five classes of ḍākinīs (mkha’ ’gro sde lnga), according to the Chos rnam kun btus, are the ḍākinīs (female awakened beings, literally sky-walkers) associated with the five Buddha families: vajra, jewel, lotus, activity, and buddha. Nor brang, Chos rnam, Vol. 1, 975. 285 This entire episode takes place in Bumdzong. Doctor, Tibetan Treasure, 91. 286 Nāga (klu) are snake-like local spirits. 287 gdeng khang du, according to Khyabje Khenpo, this just refers to the inside of a cave. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 18/12/15. 288 Ancient Place Cave (gNas rnying phug, Nenying phuk). 289 The father and mother (yab yum) are Guru Rinpoché and his consort. 290 ‘Physical aspects’ here translates sku’i bkod pa. According to Khyabje Khenpo, this phrase signifies that Guru Rinpoché displayed his various emanations, in different sizes and aspects. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 18/12/15.

291 Prachenhasti, commonly known as Prabhahasti, he was one of the eight vidyādharas of India who, together with Guru Padmasambhava, are said to each have received one cycle belonging to the Kabgyé cycle. Prabhahasti received and practiced the Vajrakīlaya cycle. Dudjom, The Nyingma School, 481. 292 Six Practice Cycles of Zurza, Flower Beacon (Zur bza’ me tog sgron gyi thugs dam skor drug, Zurza Metok Dröngyi Thukdam Kordruk). mChog gyur gling pa, Zur bza’i thugs dam skor drug, in Vol. 26 of mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986), 27-239.

Compassionate One.293 Later, in Chongjang Mugpo,294 I learned that there was a Dharma cycle of the Assembly of All Sugatas295 in the vicinity of Karma.296 Let everyone know that I revealed that Treasure in the year of the Male Iron Monkey [late February 1860—late February 1861].

293 Lotus Net of Illusion of the Great Compassionate One (Thugs rje chen po padma sgyu ’phrul drwa ba, Thukje Chenpo Padma Gyutrül Drawa). mChog gyur gling pa, Thugs rje chen po padma sgyu ’phrul drwa ba, in Vol. 26-28 of mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986). 294 Chongjang Mugpo (mChong byang smug po). 295 Assembly of All Sugatas (bDe gshegs kun ’dus, Deshek Kündü). mChog gyur gling pa, bDe gshegs kun ’dus, in Vol. 30 of mChog gling gter gsar (Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986), 299-526. 296 Karma should henceforth be understood as short for Akaniṣṭa Karma (’Og min karma).

Text 3 (T3)


The Lucid Jewel Mirror

A collection of texts of visionary dialogues and prophetic instructions bestowed upon the great emanated Treasure revealer by Guru Padmasambhava from Uḍḍiyāna, in order to clarify doubts

Close to the end of my three-year retreat commitment, In the waxing phase of the seventh month,297 The Lotus Guru revealed himself One day at dawn and said:

“Kyého! Listen, destined298 son! Do not sleep, but get up now! Finished are your three years of hiding in the mountains!

It’s time you watched over the happiness of Tibet and Kham!299

This age shows all the signs of degeneration, And there is no one but you to help. Time has come for you to support Dharma practitioners. Now, listen well, and I will tell you in brief:

297 The seventh month (gro zhun zla or gro bzhin zla ba). Bod rgya tshig mdzod chen mo, Vol.2, ed. zhang yisun zhu bian, (Pe cin: Mi rigs pa’i skrun khang, 1985), 403. This is equivalent to August-September in the Gregorian calendar. The waxing phase of the moon describes the first half of the lunar month. 298 ‘Destined’ here translates las can, literally one endowed with the karma, that is, one who has the merit and has accumulated the causes for his present fortune. 299 Tibet and Kham (Bod Khams) designates the larger Tibet, in the sense of the Central (Tibet) and Eastern (Kham) regions.

You, a yogin who has realized emptiness,

In this body you have perfected the courage of bodhicitta.300 [135] Bring to mind how you aroused bodhicitta in the past!

On the crest of the helmet that is the Three Jewels,301 Fasten the pennant of the ultimate refuge! On your body, don the armor of patience!

Hoist the banner, the generation stage302 of the deity!

Carry the shield of the Guru’s support!

Tie the bow and arrow, method and wisdom, around your waist! Lead whole armies of ḍākinīs and Dharma protectors!303 Wield the sword of wisdom in your hand!

Mounting the stallion of diligence, Beat it with the whip of firm intention, And gallop on the plain of pure discipline! [136] With the inexhaustible wealth of generosity, Subdue the hordes of your own and others’ afflictions!

300 Bodhicitta here translates sems bskyed, literally generating the mind of awakening, ie. the intention to become awakened. 301 The Three Jewels are the Buddha, Dharma (his teachings) and sangha (his followers).

302 The development stage (bskyed rim). Tulku Thondup explains this as follows: “All the inner tantric practices are classified into two stages or categories: Development Stage (S. utpannakrama, T. bskyed Rim) and Perfection Stage. The Development Stage is meditation on the clarity of perceiving phenomena as pure lands and enlightened deities. The Perfection Stage is generating wisdom, the union of great bliss and emptiness, by means of the channels, energy and essence of the vajra-body, and dissolving all phenomena into the meditative state, the primordial wisdom.” Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 238. 303 Dharma protectors are local deities and spirits who were tamed by Padmasambhava on his arrival in Tibet, and bound by oath to protect the Dharma. Ibid., 243.

The garuḍa,304 king of birds, the realization of emptiness, Extends its wings of bodhicitta And soars aloft on powerful currents of method and wisdom. With his prophesied heart-son, the garuḍa birdling, Together they fly through all noble kingdoms, Displaying their winged dexterity, the two truths interdependent.

With your aspirations and karmic propensity as your wish-fulfilling jewel,

The Dharma of the vast and profound as the array of your wheel of a thousand spokes, With emptiness and compassion, enjoyed as your queen, With the three wisdoms, serving as your ministers,

The diligence to benefit beings, as your thoroughbred horse,305 The relentless strength of patience, as your elephants, And the the four magnetizing activities306 as your generals307—

With these seven royal attributes, vanquish the misconceptions of others!

Thus, Dharma king, steer disciples towards virtue! Ascend to the throne of the view beyond extremes! Put up the canopy of generation and perfection in union!308

304 The garuḍa is a large mythical bird symbolizing the Dzogchen vehicle. Dowman, The flight of the Garuda, 216. 305 The Tibetan cang shes (lit. ‘all-knowing’) is a mistranslation of the Sanskrit ājāneya, which does not in fact come from the root jñā (know), but instead means blooded, or well-bred. Franklin Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1970), 90. 306 The four magnetizing activities (bsdu ba bzhi) are four ways to attract disciples, namely generosity, pleasant words, beneficial conduct, and conformity with the aim. Nor brang, Chos rnam, Vol.1, 695.

307 This list of seven attributes refers to the seven precious royal possessions (rgyal srid rin po che sna bdun): the wish- fulfilling jewel, the thousand-spoked wheel, the queen, ministers, horse, elephants, and generals (sometimes listed as the steward). Nor brang, Chos rnam, Vol. 2, 1631. 308 This is a reference to the development and completions stages of tantric practice.

Hoist the victory banner of the teachings of Sūtra and Tantra! Blow the conch of the Dharma that resonates with its on listeners!

The Great Seal free from mental engagement, The Great Perfection free from effort, The Great Middle Way309 free from all extremes— Take these as the king of views! [137]

In gatherings, practice the Vinaya,310 and likewise bodhicitta, In strict seclusion, the Secret Mantra, And at all times, liberation from the bonds of affliction. Engage in this king of conducts:

Neither explain Mantra through the Vinaya, Nor forsake the Vinaya for Mantra, But through the union of Sūtra and Mantra, Lead vast kingdoms to liberation.”

To this speech, I responded:

“Listen and consider me, great Lord Guru!

At this time, Tibetans are oppressed by misery.311 If a method is needed to protect them from this,

309 The Great Seal (Tib. Phyag rgya chen po, Skt. Mahāmudrā), the Great Perfection (Tib. rDzogs pa chen po, Skt. Mahāsaṅdhi), and the Great Madhyamaka (Tib. dBu ma chen po, Skt. Mahāmadhyamaka) are respectively considered as the highest meditation practices of the Kagyü, Nyingma and Gelug Schools. 310 The Vinaya (’Dul ba) is the corpus of rules of conduct for monastics. 311 Chokgyur Lingpa uses the Sanskrit word (du: kha) for suffering here.

Why did you not direct me as to right and wrong Before, when I was hiding in the mountains? What kind of beneficial methods will I need? What signs will I see of right and wrong? I beseech you to tell me, Lord Guru.”

He responded in the following way:

“Listen, cared-for son!

When conduct in Tibet is bad, And the merit of beings declines, You will need to perform these beneficial activities:

On this coming tenth day of the seventh month,312 In all major sites of the profound mind Treasures, Bringing down the blessings of the great sacred places, Practice in all the vital sites313 [138], Perform averting rituals on the paths of spirits.314

312 Zla ra ba signifies the first month of any season. In this case, since Guru Rinpoché speaks of an immediate occasion, it would seem he means ston zla ra ba, the first month of autumn, which is the seventh month, the same in which this exchange is taking place.

313 Sa gnad. According to Khyabje Khenpo, this is a reference to the vital points of the body of the supine demoness. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 18/12/15. Indeed, according to Gentry, “ ‘Earth’s moxibustion points’ (sa gnad me btsa’) refers to the moxibustion-like treatment of focal points of demonic interference located throughout the body of the landscape through the construction of temples and stūpas at those vital points. This concept is very much related to the notion that appears in the mythology connected with the seventh-century Tibetan king Songtsen Gampo in which the land of Tibet itself is a supine demoness, whose vital organs and limbs needed to be “pinned down” by the construction of sacred architecture before the Jokhang, the most sacred temple in Tibet, could be completed.” Gentry, Power Objects, 156-57. 314 rgyu lam (based on conjectural emendation from gyu lam). According to Khyabje Khenpo, this can be understood as ’gong po’i rgyu lam, which are paths where harmful spirits move about. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 18/12/15.

In order to pacify this age of illness,315

Distribute the nectar of accomplished medicine to all. In order to pacify this age of famine, Make hundreds of thousands of gathering circles316 and fire offerings.

In order to pacify this age of warfare,

Perform the averting rituals of thread-crossing317 and torma. In order to pacify these troubled times, Hide great Treasures and build stūpas.

Bind all the vital sites well.318

Thereafter, on every tenth day of the waxing and waning phases of the month319 Arrange extensive gathering circles. On the eighth day, make offerings to Tārā and the Three Jewels.

On the twenty-ninth, reward the Dharma protectors with tormas.

On the four high holy days,320 convene monastic assemblies and so forth. On the three “ninths,”321 perform the averting ritual of the Kīlaya torma.

315 The following is a reference to the common description of the degenerate times as an age of illness, famine and warfare. 316 Gathering circle (tshogs ’khor, Skt. gaṇacakra) is an impotant Vajrayana practice where male and female disciples are gathered to offer food and drink visualized as all possible enjoyments of the five senses to all enlightened beings and deities.

317 mDos: “A mdos or thread-cross is a wooden-framed structure crossed with many layers of thread or silk. Used as a device for the trapping and exorcising of evil forces, its structure varies in size and appearance depending upon the deity invoked and the function of the rite.” Dudjom, “Notes,” The Nyingma School, 60. 318 Sa gnad, see above. 319 The tenth and twenty-fifth days of the lunar month, respectively Guru Rinpoché day and ḍākinī day. 320 dus bzhi, the four great Buddhist festivals. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 18/12/15. 321 This could refer to various special dates of the Tibetan calendar comporting a nine. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 18/12/15.

Around the sacred site of Karma

You will have omens of inauspicious and auspicious connections.323 On the mountain pass of the Entrance Valley, You will [receive] excellent advice from ḍākas324 and ḍākinīs.

At the supreme site of Misty Fortress, There will be a gathering circle of ḍākinīs.

On the southern slope of Sky Treasury, there will be a tradition

Of disseminating the transmission of wrathful mantra power [139] And the teachings of exegesis and practice.

From the direction of Universal Lion Fortress,325 You will see yogis performing a secret feast. You will see the banner of Northwest Domey326 Hoisted over all of Tibet and Kham.

In Mayogapa of Zé327

You will see the epitome of true reality. At the three glorious centers of doctrine328 The secret ḍākinīs will be making offerings

322 ’Og min karma. 323 ie. whether or not certain auspicious connections have been rightly established or not. 324 The male form of ḍākinīs.

325 sPyi ’byams seng ge’i rdzong, in Klong thang (Derge). Gardner, “The Twenty-five Great Sites,” 172. 326 Amdo, North-Eastern Tibet. 327 gZe yi ma yo ga pa: Ma yo gangs ra in Upper Nang chen, which is calle gZe rgyal gwa pa. This site is said to be an exceptional site “which consolidates all the sites of buddha body.” Gardner, “The Twenty-five Great Sites,” 214. 328 Chos ’khor gnas gsum, the three great doctrinal centers of Samye (bSam yas), Lhasa (Lha sa), and Tradruk (Khra ’brug). Rangjung Yeshé Dictionary, Rangjung Yeshé Publications, 362.

And you will see some signs of happiness for Tibet and Kham.

At the Turquoise Lake of Glacial Slopes in Gyam, You will see the blessings of the vidyādhara guru. From the caves at Clay King Vulture329 You will see a clear sign of good or bad for Tibet and Kham.

To the right side of Kori Rock,330

You will see extraordinary supreme receptacles. Son, look for signs all over the kingdoms.”

At this, I made the following vow:

“Kyého, consider me, Lord Guru!

From the time of the Universal Conqueror, and of you, my Lord, I, a man who [accomplishes] the benefit of beings, Have worn this armor of bodhicitta

And carried the seal of the Teachings— By the powers of my previous aspirations, May I accomplish all benefit for beings! Inseparable from the objects of refuge,

The Three Jewels and the Lord Guru

329 rDza rgyal go bo. 330 Ko ri brag.

I engage in the path of natural devotion.

During my youth, every day I worked to develop

The wisdom that is gained through study, contemplation, and meditation.

Now, I settle in the state of view,

Free from effort, mental engagement, and extremes.

May I accomplish perfect awakening in order to lovingly care for And compassionately accomplish the welfare of

Disciples, beings, wherever space pervades,

Who have all, without distinction, been my mothers. May I endeavor in inspiring those disciples Who are untainted by the poison of the eight worldly concerns.

I pray that I may bring onto the path to awakening All who see, hear, think of, or touch me. May I always keep the unifying doctrine

That is impartial towards both Sūtra and Mantra.

May I teach the Secret Mantra fully to those of Great Vehicle capacity, And individual liberation to those proportionately lesser, And—to all—may I teach the truth of cause and effect ineluctable331 And the resolve to awaken.332

331 Ie. the workings of karma. 332 Ie. bodhicitta.

May I act in accordance with the times And with the minds [of disciples]. May I strive to the best of my abilities in every way of guiding Whosoever I encounter, great or small, near or far,

Towards the dawning of the result they hope for, Temporary benefit and ultimate happiness. May whoever is connected to me, positively or negatively, Achieve ultimate awakening!”

These words are spoken by Chokgyur Lingpa, And are inappropriate instructions, As they will be cause for judgment and discussion, For praise by some, and criticism by others. Even so, I had this proud and self-aggrandizing vision. And even so, I will definitely hold these commitments.

Text 4 (T4)


Homage to the Guru!

On the fourth day of the waxing phase of the monkey month in the Wood Hare year [August 16th, 1855]—the anniversary of the turning of the wheel of Dharma by our great, peerless Teacher— a statement came from the emanated lord Thartsé Zhapdrung Rinpoché Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo,333 saying we must carefully examine whether or not it was time to open the Dharma door to the supreme new Treasure334 of the Great Compassionate One.335 Having arrived that morning at the great seat of Palpung monastery, I supplicated in conjunction with a gathering circle. Then, in the early morning of the fifth, I saw in a dream the Secret Assembly of the Great Compassionate One,336 the size of a finger-width. After that, the ḍākinī Sangwa Yeshé Marmo,337 with four hands and holding a knife and skull, vividly appeared in the sky in front of me, saying “Now we go to the celestial abodes.” Following her, [142] I met with the great master from Uḍḍiyāna at the head of a retinue, vividly and magnificently seated in a celestial palace made up of natural appearances.

Offering the great one from Uḍḍiyāna blue patterned secret robes and a golden wheel, I prostrated to him and said: “Precious master from Uḍḍiyāna, please embrace me and the Tibetan Dharma practitioners with your compassion. In particular, I humbly request that you instruct me on whether or not it is time to open the Dharma door to the Great Compassionate One, and on the manner and purpose of opening it.” Smiling, the one from Uḍḍiyāna took the offerings into his hands. “Before, even though I gave you a symbolic prophecy, you did not understand it. Nevertheless, the pure bodhicitta resolve of the great, sublime men who are your doctrine holders, as well as their persistent

333 Thartse Zhabdrung Rinpoché Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo (Thar rtse zhabs drung rin po che ’jam dbyangs mkhyen rtse’i dbang po). 334 mChog gi gter gsar literally means ‘supreme new Treasure,’ however it is also a shorthand for mChog gling gter gsar, the ‘New Treasures of Chokgyur Lingpa.’ 335 Thugs rje chen po, this is most probably a reference to the Treasure cycle, Thugs rje chen po padma gtsug tor, Lotus- Crested Great Compassionate One. 336 Thugs rje chen po gsang ba ’dus pa, a Nyingma Tantra focusing on a form of Avalokiteśvara. Ratna gling pa, Thugs rje chen po gsang ba ’dus pa (Bylakuppe, Mysore, India: Pema Norbu Rinpoché, 1984).

337 Sangwa Yeshé Marmo (gSang ba ye shes dmar mo) means the Red Lady of Secret Wisdom.

supplications, are utterly excellent. Now I will bestow upon you the empowerments.” And so he gave me the vows for the three lower vehicles, and accumulated merit by reading the Buddha’s teachings. He performed the preliminary rituals, made burnt offerings, and bestowed the empowerments for the maṇḍala of the outer tantras. Later, he accomplished the Assembly of Secrets,338 performing the ripening through the practice empowerment. Finally, he also concluded the ritual with Ratna’s Great Compassionate One.339 [143]

Then Guru Rinpoché said: “Son, through the power of your previous aspirations, you are now blessed by Gyalwa Chokyang.340 Fortunate Chokgyur Lingpa, you are the doctrine holder of Ratna Lingpa, originary of Kham with the name of ‘Könchok,’ a synonym of Ratna Lingpa’s name.341 You are also known as Drodül Lingpa. Therefore, as your secret conduct 342 you should wear the accoutrement of Heruka to bring about optimum results—if auspicious connections align well. Then, for middling results, you can accomplish vast benefit for the teachings and beings both directly and indirectly by means of the superior auspicious connections of the ḍākinīs’ symbolic means.343 Your main doctrine holders—the Sun, Moon, and Vajra344—are the roots of the trees of pacification, enhancement, subjugation, and wrath.345 Splitting into two, these spread out into eight branches, which further split into sixteen, and so forth. Their primary root, the sun ‘nyi’, is Péma Nyinjé, who empowers. Out of the four activity trees, he performs ‘subjugation.’

338 gSang ’dus, short for Ratna Lingpa’s Thugs rje chen po gsang ba ’dus pa, Thukje Chenpo Sangwa Düpa. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 04/04/16. 339 Ratna’i thugs rje chen po, same as above.

340 rGyal ba mchog dbyangs, one of the twenty-five close disciples of Guru Rinpoché.

341 dKon mchog, meaning jewel (literally ‘rare and supreme’), is the Tibetan equivalent for the Sanskrit ratna. 342 Secret conduct (gsang spyod) is a type of tantric conduct engaged in secrecy “in which all mundane influences are shed,” that is, the practitioner no longer follows vows of outer discipline, and takes on the attributes of yogi, including the accoutrement of his yidam deity. Jamgön Kongtrül, The Treasury of Knowledge, Book nine, trans. Richard Barron (Ithaca: Snow Lions Publications, 2011), 29; 101.

343 ’bring mkha’ ’gro brda’ thabs kyi rten ’brel rab kyi dngos dang brgyud pa’i sgo nas rten ’brel gyis bstan ’gror phan pa rgya chen po thob par yod. The meaning of this is not entirely clear.

344 Nyi zla rdo rje gsum. The first, nyi, short for nyi ma meaning ‘sun’, is as specified below, a reference to the ninth Situ Padma Nyin ’byed. The second, zla, short for zla ba meaning ‘moon’, is according to Khyabje Khenpo, a reference to Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo, who is mentioned next. The third, rdo rje, or ‘vajra,’ is unspecified. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 24/01/16. 345 Zhi rgyas dbang drag. Pacification, enhancement, subjugation and wrath are said to be the four types of awakened activities.

Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo, by opening the Dharma doors, will dissolve the symbols346 without mistaking the essential points of profound auspicious coincidence, so that the benefits of these teachings pervades all beings underneath the sun till the end of the aeon. [144] Concerning the manner of opening the Dharma door, as long as the path is not accomplished, the ripening empowerments must be performed. That is, until disciples are matured through gradual involvement in the vehicles, authentic masters who hold the three types of vows confer upon them vows and empowerments while they are maturing, and instructions as they are being liberated. Not settling for a number of years [of practice] or for simply receiving [empowerments and instructions], they lead disciples to the completion of the authentic path. As for disciples who have previously been matured and who follow the path of the vajra-holders, immerse them in the river of lineage blessings. If you then exchange the purposes of the close lineage and of the auspicious connections for the sake of quick accomplishment, there is the practice empowerment and the debshar.347 In the context of the practice empowerment, the three lower vehicles come before the preliminary rituals, and the outer tantras—Kriyā and so forth—come afterwards. Then, after an appropriate number of days of practice, bestow the empowerments of the three yoga tantras—Mahā and so forth. It is acceptable not to recite the mantra continuously during the empowerment, just as one can perform drubchen with a single deity, because the three seats are complete within the aggregates.348

The reason [for opening the Dharma door], is that it is a powerful blessing to easily accomplish the yidam practice. Doctrine [145] holders will have no fear of foreign invasion affecting their own philosophical school. In particular, it will greatly benefit the empowerment holder349 in the face of a major obstacle [that will arise] this year and dangers to his life. And if he practices it and performs

346 brda’ thim. This expression designates the decoding of the symbolic script of the terma. 347 gdeb gshar. The meaning of this is unclear.

348 phung po gdan gsum tsang bas so. This refers to the maṇḍala of the body, as explained by Dilgo Khyentsé Rinpoché, the three seats (gdan gsum) are “the aggregates and elements, ayatanas (the sense organs and their corresponding sense objects), and limbs of one’s body, whose true nature, according to the pure perception of the Mantrayana, is the maṇḍala of the male and female Tathāgatas, the male and female Bodhisattvas, and other deities.” Dilgo Khyentsé Rinpoché, Zurchungpa’s Testament (Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications, 2007), 412. 349 According to Khyabje Khenpo, this is a reference to Situ Rinpoché (Padma Nyinche), who was a doctrine holder of this teaching.

healing ceremonies and complete abandonment350 he could live up to the age of sixty-one, and further prolong his life-span with the profound long-life practices. It is certain to bring vast benefit for the teachings and beings.” Though he gave countless other instructions, advice, and prophecies about specific doctrine holders, that is all for now. Finally, he became a sphere of light and dissolved into me. Seal, seal, seal.

This prophecy that arose out of meditative experience was written down by the supreme great emanated Treasure revealer himself. Gyurmé Tséwang Drakpa351 then made a copy of it on the sixth day of the month of miracles, the first month of the Tibetan calendar, in the year of the Earth Tiger (February 8th, 1878). May all be auspicious!

350 spong dag. According to Khyabje Khenpo, this refers to the practice of giving up all of one’s possessions. 351 Gyurme Tsewang Drakpa (Gyur med tshe dbang grags pa) was Chokgyur Lingpa’s eldest son. Orgyan Tobgyal, The Life, 26.

Text 5 (T5)


In accordance with the command that the sacred site of Cārita-like Jeweled Cliff in Palpung be opened, there exists the following Prophecy of the Ḍākinīs of the Three Roots:352 [146] Tsadra, the supreme site of the awakened mind, ༔

Is like the heart cakra with eight petals. ༔

It is of utmost importance for you to establish a temple ༔

For the glorious Heruka at its Eastern gate, ༔

And to make a statuary and chapel for the site protector, ༔

Thereby opening this sacred site. ༔

In the Brief Manual of Prophecies,353 it is said:

A temple will manifest in Owl Valley.354 ༔

Beyond that, on a mound of human heads to the East, ༔ There will be a temple in Cārita-like Jewel of Palpung,355 ༔ And the emanation of Vairocana356 and Shakya Lodrö357 ༔ Will also erect a statue that liberates by sight, sound, recollection, and touch, ༔

Once it is brought to the glorious site of Heruka. ༔

352 Prophecy of the Ḍākinīs of the Three Roots (rTsa gsum mkha’ ’gro’i lung bstan, Tsasum Kandro Lungten) is presumably a Treasure revealed by Chokgyur Lingpa. 353 Brief Manual of Prophecies (Lung bstan mdo byang, Lungten Dojang) presumably a Treasure revealed by Chokgyur Lingpa. 354 ’Ug pa lung, Ukpa lung. Famous location of early Zur clan. See Blue Annals and Dudjom History. 355 Tswa ’dra rin chen spungs. 356 This is a reference to Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thaye, who was known as an emanation of the imperial translator Variocana, and placed a Treasure statue in the Heruka temple at Tsadra, as indicated in the following text. 357 Shakya blo gros. It is unclear who this is.

Having established a center for the practice of the three sections of the inner tantras ༔

The diligent will definitely reach the celestial abodes… ༔

Thus there are many prophecies. In the Secret Prophecies of the Ḍākinīs,358 it is said: People will certainly destroy the monastic site. ༔ Establish a temple for the Great Glorious One359 to the North! ༔

Thus, it is said that noble beings would appear in each of the main sites, the central twenty-five major sites; and if they built temples there, no other means to ensure the welfare of Tibet and Kham would be necessary. Here [147] too, to the East of the sacred site, at the Eastern door which symbolizes the root of wisdom, a Heruka temple must be built. Since a shrine to the mantra protectors serves as the root of a wish-fulfilling tree, it is of utmost importance to institute a receptacle for the protectors at this Eastern door and open the sacred site. Therefore, all the disciples [of Situ Rinpoché]360 and managers [of Palpung] conferred with each other to see if it was possible to bring this about, and asked [Chokgyur Lingpa] for a clear answer. The seal-possessor361 bestowed them this manuscript.362

358 Secret Prophecies of the Ḍākinīs (mKha’ ’gro’i gsang lung, Khandro Sanglung) is presumably a Treasure revealed by Chokgyur Lingpa. 359 dPal chen, ie. dPal chen he ru ka, the glorious Heruka. 360 sku mched refers to disciples of one masters. According to Khyabje Khenpo, the lama here is Situ Rinpoché, who was the main master of Palpung monastery. 361 Phyag tham can, or dam can, is an epithet of Chokgyur Lingpa, who had revealed and therefore was in possession of the seal of Prince Lhasey, his past incarnation. 362 This last paragraph appears to be a colophon added by someone else, since it is unlikely that Chokgyur Lingpa would refer to himself with the honorary form as it appears here. Other colophons in this selection of texts seem to follow the same pattern.

Text 6 (T6)


Homage to the Victorious One’s heirs, the Three Roots, and protectors — Many arising from one, yet all embodied in one — The assembly which is the illusory display of the three secrets363 Of Padmakara, embodiment of all Victorious Ones!

Drawn from the pure celestial path of basic space

To the chariot of the natural display of primordial wisdom, May the Sun364 who at all times spreads benefit and happiness Illuminate the entire globe, and thereby bring auspiciousness!

Now, the supreme leader Vajrasattva Jamgön Kongtrül Rinpoché, the actual emanation of the great translator Vairocana, was, in his vast outlook towards awakening, collecting those indispensable cycles of profound and important instructions whose disappearance would be our loss, as well as the genuine part of Treasures which, among the three lines of transmission of the Old Translation school—the Canonical, Treasure, and Pure Vision transmissions365—are particularly noble by way of their sixfold transmission.366 [148] At that time, he told me we had to examine if it was not inappropriate for him to do so. Supplicating the three roots persistently, various visions arose in which permission was given. In particular, I had a clear vision in which Guru Rinpoché gathered together many volumes of Treasure cycles and, giving them to me, instructed me to entrust them onto someone

363 Indestructible realities of Buddha body, speech, and mind. Source 364 ’od ’bum can, literally ‘the one with a million lights,’ a common epithet of the sun. 365 bka gter dag snang bab so gsum, the three types of lines of transmission in the Nyingma School. See Doctor, Tibetan Treasure, 17. 366 The six transmission stages include three transmissions common to most inner tantras of the Nyingma school—the Mind, Indication and Aural Transmissions—and three uncommon transmissions specific to Nyingma Treasure teachings—the Aspirational Empowerment, Prophetic Authorization and Entrustment to ḍākinīs. Thondup, Hidden Teachings, 45-47.

else. Thus, I communicated the authorization to Kongtrül Mañjuśrīvajra.367 Also, through various means of trials and investigation [Kongtrül] had obtained the transmission lines for a few minor instructions that did not have any. So that teaching and studying them would not later become pointless, he should compile volumes of the lineages he is certain to hold, and teach and study them.368 Finally, it is important to [transmit] each teaching section only to those who have perfected its approach and accomplishment, so they would not be treated thoughtlessly as easy teachings that it is sufficient to simply receive. May those who engage with this type of text inappropriately—mixing, adulterating, fabricating, altering, composing, adding on and so forth—be punished by the guardians of the teachings. [149] May those who read, write, understand, explain, study, meditate, and accomplish [these teachings] appropriately be protected and supported by glorious Mahākāla369 and his consort, the king of Dharma protectors Vaiśravaṇa, 370 the female deities local guardians of the charnel grounds, Maheśvara,371 male and female white protectors, and the auspicious Tseringma sisters.372 May they accomplish whatever they wish for! Take care and preserve these volumes! Chokgyur Lingpa wrote this, may it bring goodness!

367 ’Jam pa’i rdo rje, Mañjuśrīvajra, is a tantric form of Mañjuśrī, the deity of wisdom. 368 Thus, as described by Dargyay, “mKhyen-brtse’i- dbang-po, together with his disciple sKong-sprul Yon-tan-rgya- mtsho, checked the legitimacy of the separate Discoverers of Concealed Books (gTer-ston). In this process the legitimacy of some Discoverers and some books was contested. However, only those works which were beyond doubt and in every respect reliable Concealed Teachings were included in the collection; this collection is the Rin-chen-gter-mdzod, ‘The Great Treasure of Precious Concealed Books.’ ” Dargyay, The Rise of Esoteric Buddhism, 73.

369 An important wrathful protective deity.

370 rNam mang thos kyi sras. The Buddhist god of wealth, guardian of the Dharma and of the Northern part of the world. Nebesky-Wojkowitz, Oracles and demons of Tibet; the cult and iconography of the Tibetan protective deities (The Hague: Mouton and Co., 1956), 68. 371 lHa chen dbang phyug. According to Nebesky-Wojkowitz, this is a “deity of Indian origin, whom the rNying ma pa regard as an “emanation” of Buddha Amitābha. He is believed to be a nor lha, a “god of wealth”. dBang phyug chen po belongs, however, to the class of the ’jig rten las ’das pa’i srung ma” (protectors who have transcended the worldly realm). Ibid., 94. 372 bKra shis tshe ring ma, or Tshe ring mched lnga. These five mountain goddesses are protectors particular to the mChog gling gter gsar.

Text 7 (T7)


O wonder!

From the remote Eastern mountain hermitage of Palpung, The lord guru Kongtrül Rinpoché requested, Though I had already offered him the history and revelation account Of the protector statue Treasure I had offered him –

Which was to be instituted as the main receptacle Of the protector shrine inside the Heruka temple – That I tell him about the purpose of all this. According to the intent of all of Guru Padmasambhava’s

Secret, general, and other prophecies, if this temple of the Blood-drinker373 Was built, it would become the greatest sacred site in Tibet, And, in particular, it would be the life force of the essential teachings. Since the omniscient Kongtrül Gargyi Wangpo374 [150]

Is the actual manifestation of the great translator Vairocana, If he were offered a Dharma cycle of the glorious protector375 And a protector statue, this would form a rampart For the essential teachings—the prophecies are utterly clear on this.

373 Khrag ’thung, literally ‘blood-drinker’ is an epithet of Heruka. 374 Kong sprul gar gyi dbang po, an epithet of Jamgön Kongtrül. 375 dPal ldan mgon po, an epithet of Heruka.

Therefore, as prescribed, I made the offering to the supreme guru. Whoever holds the sacred objects and teachings must hold them dearly; It is of great importance not to forsake them. This is not my own thought, but follows Padmasambhava’s prophecies.

It is very important. In these degenerate times,

When the old monasteries, the foundational sites, are unkept, It is useless to go through the hardship of building new ones. However, so they would not be dispersed,

The lord guru Gargyi Wangchuk collected together Profound Dharmas, the heart Treasures Of the Old and New teachings, into a precious chest.376

Among these, for the Treasure teachings of the profound Mar-ngok maṇḍalas377

He wrote numerous ritual arrangements, empowerments, Transmissions, teachings, and instructions.378 Not having enough time to build a temple, Nor resources enough to sponsor

376 This is clearly a reference to Jamgön Kongtrül’s compilation of the five Treasuries. 377 Mar rgnog. This is short for the names of two early Kagyü masters, Marpa and his student rNgog chos sku rdo rje, through whom the Ngok lineage was transmitted. According to his autobiography, Jamgön Kongtrül received the transmissions for the seven maṇḍalas of Ngok and bestowed empowerments and teachings for this cycle many times. Furthermore, he was insistently requested by Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo and other eminent masters to write the necessary additional materials for this practice cycle. He complied, and as he writes in his autobiography, the second of the five Treasuries he compiled, The Tantric Treasury of the Kagyü School (bKa’ brgyud sngags mdzod, Kagyü Ngakdzö), takes as its basis the “seven maṇḍalas of Ngok,” the primary tradition of the lineage that has come down from the master Marpa.” Kong sprul, A Gem, 264.

378 It was a common practice for later masters, notably Treasure revealers and their doctrine holders or students, to supplement Treasure teachings with necessary complementary material. Indeed, according to Hirshberg, “treasure cycles typically acquire many supplementary texts over the course of their transmission and so expand considerably beyond the original compendiums. In many respects this is of necessity as the pithy foundations of a cycle may lack much of the ritual and commentarial architecture to support and transmit it.” Hirshberg, “Treasure,” 144.

Those inclined to renunciation and mountain retreats,

He nevertheless sincerely requested my Treasure prophecies And accepted them trustingly. With many hardships, he established receptacles and temples.

The life-force tree of the teachings, Öntrül Rinpoché, [151]

Provided material support and performed inner and outer miracles.379 Both the omniscient Khyentsé Wangpo and I Offered him whatever valuable religious items we had.380

Though much was needed, still no one achieved it.381 The omniscient Khyentsé Wangpo had particularly Constructed the chief practice sites of Lotus Crystal Cave382

And Lotus Power Cave,383 so they would be sources of benefit and happiness.

379 According to Kongtrül’s biography, Öntrül Rinpoché had supervised the construction of the Heruka temple in Tsadra. Kong sprul, A Gem, 124. Moreover, Öntrül Rinpoché was an important posthumous sponsor of the printing of the Treasury of Precious Terma. According to Schwieger, “dBon sprul rin po che of dPal spungs monastery promised to sponsor the printing of the new collection [completed in 1871]. Since he died in 1874, he was [not] able to do so.

Therefore 1,300 bricks of tea were taken from his personal estate to serve as funds for the printing.” Schwieger, “Collecting and Arranging,” 327. 380 This seems to be a reference to Khyentsé Wangpo’s and Chokgyur Lingpa’s substantial contributions to Kongtrül’s Treasury of Precious Terma. Indeed, according to Schwieger, these two masters together with Kongtrül produced nearly half of the Treasury of Precious Terma. Thus Schwieger writes, “for sure ’Jam dbyangs mkhyen brtse and mChog gyur gling pa had the strongest influence on Kong sprul’s commitment to collect the gter ma—not only by encouraging him but also by actively contributing numerous texts to the collection, clarifying which gter ma should be included and providing hints which gave Kong sprul the perception that he had the approval of Padmasambhava for his activities.” Ibid., 328-29. 381 This seems to be a reference to the ongoing time and effort that went into the compilation and printing of the Treasury

of Precious Terma. Indeed, the endeavor took Kongtrül a total of thirty-seven years, and necessitated the collaboration and sponsorship of many masters and wealthy patrons. Ibid., 328. 382 Padma shel phug was Jamyang Khyentsé Wangpo’s main hermitage. Gardner, “The Twenty-Five Great Sites,” 13. 383 Padma dbang phug. Jamgön Kongtrül mentions that he stayed in this cave while his hermitage at Tsadra was being rebuilt. The cave must therefore be in its vicinity. Kong sprul, A Gem, 201.

In the monkey year, following the prophecy

Of the Medicinal Great Accomplishment of the Embodiment of Awakened Minds,

At the Heruka temple of the mountain hermitage of Palpung on Cārita-Like Jeweled Cliff, The powerful lord, the fourteenth Black-hatted one,384

The supreme emanation Péma Künzang385 and others

Performed a Medicinal Great Accomplishment for the Embodiment of Awakened Minds. Due to the activity rituals of the Wisdom protector, Six Armed Vajra,386 And the Dharma Protector Nagas, Tsan Spirits387 and Blazing Ones,388

Great men, kings and ministers, manifested as sponsors.389 While these days, all flee from the tumult of the Rong390 armies With incomparable suffering, all the doctrine holders Of Kagyü and Nyingma have managed to stay on:

This is also a blessing of this temple. [152]

Unfortunately, there is still much fighting all around the country. In both Tibet and Kham, there is much pain.

384 Zhwa Nag, literally black hat, is an epithet of the Karmapas. 385 Padma Kun bZang, the 10th Tai Situ Rinpoché (1854-1885). 386 Ye shes mgon po rdo rje phyag drug pa. Several protector sādhanas by similar names appear in the Chokling Tersar. 387 Philippe Cornu describes the various worldly spirits of Tibet, including nagas and tsan: “The lu are aquatic deities. Of pre-Buddhist origin, they were very quickly assimilated to the Indian nagas. They live underground, in springs, lakes and rivers… [They1 can be vindictive when their natural home is disturbed.” The tsen are red spirits who live in the rocks. They are all male, and are the spirits of past monks who have rejected their vows. Tsen who have been tamed by great practitioners often become protectors of temples, sanctuaries, and monasteries. One makes red offerings to them.” Cited in Samuel, Civilized Shamans, 162.

388 bKa’ srung klu btsan ’bar ba, Kasung Lutsen Barwa. this a protector sādhana for the Wish-Fulfilling Jewel Guru cycle (bLa ma yid bzhin nor bu, Lama Yishin Norbu) revealed by Chokgyur Lingpa. The full title is From the Wish-fulfilling Jewel, Accomplishing the Guru’s Wisdom Mind, The Sādhana of the Dharma Protector Nagas, Tsen Spirits, and Seven Blazing Brothers (bla ma’i thugs sgrub yid bzhin nor bu las bka’ srung klu btsan ’bar ba spun bdun gyi sgrub thabs). The ‘seven blazing brothers’ seem to be a reference to the local deities of the sacred site of the Blazing Precious Mountain at the Three Jeweled Brothers of Kela (Ke la nor bu spun gsum gyu brag rin chen ’bar). 389 Indeed, it appears the royal family of Dergé was one of the sponsors for the printing of the completed Treasury of Precious Terma. 390 Rong, short for Nya Rong. See Gardner, “The Twenty-Five Great Sites,” 145-52.

This temple, which is a step towards averting all this,

Will serve the happiness of Tibet and Kham, as prophesied. In the future, this temple, as well as the practice tradition With its pith instructions, will not fall into decline. This is an important matter, future generations.

Moreover, it is not a matter of personal self-interest, But will certainly benefit practitioners of all sects. This was written by Chokgyur Lingpa in the southern mountain hermitage of Karma, In between practice sessions during his three-year retreat, As a reply to his guru. Offering it, may there be joyful music!

Since this text conveys important points, it is very important for those in the present or future who have concern for the teachings, both specific and general, not to disregard them.

Text 8 (T8)


The Essential Elixir of Profound Meaning: Instructions and advice to fortunate disciples about practice, eye-opener to what is to be adopted and abandoned


Homage to Guru Padmasambhava, Please grant me your blessings! I will utter some words of truth here.

The fathers and sons391 greatly rebuke The tertön Kajö Dorjé.392 These are their reasons:

Claiming there is no reason for tertöns to appear now

Is one justification they rely upon— This is like chasing after an echo. In the past, various scholars, practitioners, and eminent figures Strongly rejected Zhikpo Lingpa,393

391 yab sras, literally “father and son” this term usually refers to lineage masters and their disciples. In light of what follows, it seems it is here a reference to the Kagyü masters and disciples.

392 mKha’ spyod rdo rje, Sky-dwelling Vajra. No biographical information was found regarding this figure. However, verses below seem to indicate he was a tertön of the Drukpa Kagyü school. 393 Zhig po gling pa (1524-1583) is considered as one of Chokgyur Lingpa’s past incarnations. He was a controversial figure whose Treasure substances were the target of much skepticism and criticism from New and Old School masters alike. Zhikpo Lingpa moreover came to the center of much political controversy after his death, as the Great Fifth Dalai Lama banned the practice of his Treasure revelations, and discredited his lineage in his writings. According to Gentry, this was due to the fact that Zhikpo Lingpa’s Treasures emanated from a context of anti-Geluk and anti-Mongol sentiment, and were used by his main student, the “Mongol-Repeller” Sokdokpa Lodrö Gyeltsen to conduct rituals aimed at repelling the pro-Geluk Mongols. The Zhikling lineage moreover maintained close alliances with Tsang loyalists, who in the early seventeenth century staged “collective efforts to limit Geluk power in Central Tibet and rid Tibet of pro-Geluk Mongol forces.” The controversies surrounding the Treasure revealer during his lifetime were thus magnified in the Fifth Dalai

Saying his teachings were false.

These days, he is reckoned among the twelve Lingpas Of the one hundred great tertöns. He has been of great benefit to the Embodiment of Realization394 lineage.

His Dharma lineages of Treasure empowerment and transmission, Are now rooted in the Mindrolling tradition. [123] The Treasure teachings of Kajö Dorjé Are now vastly practiced and propagated,

Principally by the lower Drukpa,395

Venerable master Kamtrül396 and his disciples.

His liberating life-story conforms to the Treasure scriptures, And is extremely accurate in terms of the prophecies.

Therefore, is he not genuine?

His teachings appear to be gradually spreading. The sacred site he opened, The supreme site of Blazing Light Jewel,397

Is very beneficial to do practice in.

Lama’s prolific criticisms of his lineage, and carried on even later in other master’s writings. Gentry, Power objects, 384- 408. 394 Embodiment of Realization (dGongs ’dus, Gongdü) is a Treasure revealed by Zhikpo Lingpa. 395 Medruk (sMad ’brug) is a branch of the Drukpa Kagyü school. 396 Khamtrül (Kham sprul) was an important master of the Drukpa Kagyü line. 397 Nor bu ’od ’bar.

Prostrate and circumambulate it well.

To have excellent experiences and dreams, Think that this site is genuine. Since this tertön’s writings398

Include a mending ritual by Nyima Drakpa,399 He is rejected on that basis. Both the tertön Mingyur Dorjé400

And the tertön Nyima Drakpa Unkindly criticized each other much. It is said ‘Copper-kettle Head too Is seated in the lama’s presence’401—think about this.

Even with talk of tiger skins and bone ornaments If an accomplished tertön speaks to the king, The secret will not leave its hole.402 Thus in the past, the two tertöns

Zhikpo Lingpa and [124] Ngari Panchen Padma Wang403

398 mdzad chos. Khyabje Khenpo glossed this as the teachings he has written down. 399 Nyima Drakpa (Nyi ma grags pa, 1647-1710) was a Treasure revealer who was not recognized by the Kagyü school. Therefore, including one of his texts in one’s own writings would have been a cause of rebuke by the Kagyü masters. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 27/01/16. 400 Mingyur Dorjé (Mi ’gyur rdo rje).

401 “Copper-kettle Head (Zangs rdzi mgo) too / Is seated in the the lama’s presence.” According to Khyabje Khenpo, “Copper-kettle Head” was a derisive nickname given to Nyima Drakpa, due to his baldness. Though Chokgyur Lingpa cites this phrase as if it were a common saying, it is unclear who spoke this, or whether it was not Chokgyur Lingpa’s own saying. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 27/01/16. 402 stag dang rus rgyan gleng mo’ng yod / gter ston grub thog rgyal po la / gsung na sbug gsang mi ’da’o. The meaning of these lines is unclear. 403 Ngari Panchen Padma Wang (mNga’ ris paN chen padma dbang, 1487-1542) was a Treasure revealer and influential figure of the Northern Treasures (byang gter) tradition. His brother and close associate, Lekden Dorjé (Legs ldan rdo rje, 1452-1565), was recognized as the reincarnation of Rigdzin Godemchen (Rig ’dzin rgod kyi ldem ’phru can, 1337-1409)

Were in disagreement —

Both lineages criticized each other much.404 Now they are practiced in union.

The Karma and Drukpa fought in the past, And now they are mixed as one river — There are many others like that. It is hard to tell whether or not samayas405 have been broken.

Therefore, apart from the Buddha, Who would be able to judge Teachings and individuals? If it conforms to the sutras and tantras

And is beneficial to beings,

Then, it is said, it should be adopted. Therefore, have pure perception towards all— Do not incur the karma of forsaking the Dharma!

The Victorious One has taught that practicing while in doubt Hinders the Buddha’s teachings—

the revealer of the Northern Treasures, cycle. Harry Einhorn, “Ngari Paṇchen Pema Wanggyel,” Treasury of Lives, published May 2013, 404 According to Gentry, the disagreements between the Zhikpo Lingpa lineage and that of the Northern Treasures was particularly emphasized in the writings of the Great Fifth Dalai Lama, who had close family ties with the latter. By highlighting the tensions between these two lineages, the Fifth Dalai Lama clearly aimed to discredit the Zhikling lineage. Indeed, his writings insist on a serious contention between Zhikpo Lingpa and the masters of the Northern Treasures tradition, as the former used fraudulent prophecies and deceitful behavior to vie for recognition as the preeminent Treasure wielder of the time. For more information on this conflict, see Gentry, Power Objects, 384-408. 405 Samaya (dam tshig) are are the tantric vows that link teachers and students in Buddhist Vajrayāna.

Therefore, it is better to leave it be.

Ask yourself whether you should practice.

If you have no doubt, you can accomplish anything, Just like the old lady and the dog tooth relics.406 Laity and monastics, high and low, all say We must distinguish between the good and the bad.

I really do not know how to distinguish them, But have addressed the current situation honestly. May these words of Chokgyur Lingpa, From the site of Victorious Virtue, [125] bring goodness!

406 This refers to the story of an old lady whose son promises to bring her back relics of the Buddha. Not finding any authentic relics, he brings back dog teeth to his mother, telling her they are the Buddhas’. With complete faith in her son’s word, the old lady worships these relics and attains accomplishment.

Text 9 (T9)

[125 - Song 20]

The hidden yogi who upholds the profound Treasures, The vidyādhara Khyung Götsal407 himself, In his great kindness offered abundant gifts of good fortune

And spoke excellent words of auspicious connection for my long life.

The questions he truthfully asked Were no bother, but truly delighting. I sincerely offer this humble answer Regarding general, specific, and particular points.

In general, if one follows the Dharma,

Whether criticized or praised, one is purifying obscurations. Unfounded blame definitely prolongs one’s life.

Noble beings speak of qualities privately, Ordinary people speak praises shamelessly. Noble beings do not pay attention to hollow fame, Fools pursue food and wealth.

Bodhisattvas strive for others’ benefit,

And though the view and conduct of individual liberation, bodhisattvas, and mantra, are limitless, Having a good heart is the main rule; So though it may be difficult to accept some as bodhisattvas,

407 Khyung Götsal (Khyung rgod rtsal).

Those who took on the conduct of the Victorious One’s heirs Have pledged never to criticize anyone. [126]

In particular, more than a hundred monasteries Accept the Dharma tradition of Nyima Drakpa. However much you refute it by means of scripture or reasoning, They could never change their school of thought.

Mingyur Dorjé classed him as a samaya violator, And his doctrine holders and Treasure practitioners Were univocally rejected by all the fathers and sons Of the Karma, Drukpa, Nedo and Zurmang [Kagyü].408

By whichever scripture or reasoning one tries to justify them, It is to no avail, as all will regard it as mere dry words. Thus there is no sense in my arguing about this. Venerable Situ, having an incurable tongue sickness,

Included Nyima Drakpa in his painting

Of three-hundred tertöns, making him famous.

He thus manipulated auspicious connections in order to alleviate the curse. No one is saying you who have to actually practice it.

Eminent fathers and sons of the past have already put an end

408 Kar ’brug gnas zur, an abbreviation for Karma bka’ brgyud, ’brug pa bka’ brgyud, gnas mdo bka’ rgyud, and zur mang bka’ rgyud, four lineages of the Kagyü school.

To people practicing while holding doubt.

Gena Tertön,409 who was at first seen as a tertön, Was later rejected when obstacles arose.

As for me, I focus mainly on the oral lineage of the Early Translations,410 [127] And supplement them with the Treasure teachings Of the two supreme tertöns, thirteen Lingpas, Five Drimey,411 and twenty-five Nüden.412

So that I may have faith, I practice my own termas. Aside from that, I do not dispute any of the tertöns Who came before, live now, or are yet to come, But leave them all be.

In particular, whenever you are first given a Treasure, You say that it is excellent. You ask about the purpose of the empowerments and so forth Of the lord root guru from Karma monastery:413

In these degenerate times, there are numerous tertöns, good and bad, It is best to either receive them all, like boiling noodle soup,414 Or to leave them all aside equally.

409 sGes sna gter ston. One of the first tertöns, according to Khyabje Khenpo. Khyabje Khenpo, personal communication, 27/01/16. 410 sNga ’gyur bka’ ma, the Nyingma lineage of canonical transmission, in contrast to the Treasure lineage. 411 Drimey (Dri med). 412 Nüden (Nus ldan). 413 Karma dgon, or Karma monastery, was the main seat of the Karmapas in Tibet. According to Khyabje Khenpo, Chokgyur Lingpa’s root guru there would have been Dabzang Rinpoché (zLa bzang rin po che). 414 long thug bkol bzhin, ie. mixing all the ingredients together in boiling water.

Otherwise, receiving some and not others

Is a cause for attachment and aversion, and a condition for breaking samaya. Those are my thoughts on the matter. Lord, with you wisdom sight,415 you receive them all:

You have no particular experience of mistrust or criticism.

That is why we met as teacher and disciple.

Derogatively saying that tertöns never talk to each other, [128]

Biased people who praise and criticize are ablaze with exaggeration and denigration. The behavior of people of these degenerate times is pointless;

In particular, when confused by māras416 and evil forces,

It harms the teachings and is an obstacle to the paths and levels.417 Therefore, it is of utmost importance to be careful with one’s thoughts. I hear there are people who criticize the Mindrolingpa —

This is the primary basis of the Old Translation teachings!

It follows from scriptures and reasoning that it accords with the genuine tantras. If So, Zur and Nub418 have an authentic lineage, Then their lineage holders Minling419 also conforms to the tantras.

415 This might be a reference to the Karmapa. 416 Māra (bdud) are demons or malevolent forces. 417 The path and levels (lam dang sa) are the five paths and ten bhumis of the bodhisattva vehicle. 418 So, Zur and Nub (So zur gnub) were three early masters from the Canonical Transmission lineage of the Nyingma school. See note 138. 419 Minling (sMin gling) is an abbreviation for Mindroling.

If Dam, Tsang and Jam420 conform to the scriptures,

Then the related Minling conform to the Conqueror’s scriptures. If Nyang, Gur and Ling421 are authentic Then their followers Minling are proven by factual reasoning.

For you too, it would be excellent to practice this tradition. The Karma Kagyü are also closely connected to Minling: Why would their view and philosophies be so similar? Above all, it is the Dharma lineage of Zhigpo Lingpa,422

So the government told the Kagyü they should exert authority;

Official documents clearly state they should not assimilate their schools. The son of the Minling tertön, Rinchen Namgyal423 [129] Is the root lama of Tsewang Norbu.424

Beyond these there are many other reasons.

A tertön should benefit the teaching and beings.

If he establishes temples—the basis for the teaching— and sanghas—the root of the teachings— And so forth, he is established as glorious among beings:

420 Dam gtsang byams gsum: according to the rGyal sras zhi ba lha dang ka:thog pa dam gtsang byams gsum gyi gsol ’debs, these refer to the Kadampas (ka: dam), brNyes btsang ston pa, and dPal ldan byams pa ’bum. Three Kathog masters. 421 Nyang gur gling gsum.

422 Indeed, according Gentry, Zhikpo Lingpa, his disciple Sokdokpa and the latter’s disciple Gongrawa were in fact among the main figures of the Mindrölling lineage. This was due to the “integral role that Sokdokpa and his milieu played in the transmission of the Old School teachings during their time. The rituals and instructions that passed from Sokdokpa, through Gongrawa, and on to Gongrawa’s closest students were not limited to Zhikpo Lingpa’s Treasure revelations (gter); rather, they included also the entire range of teachings in the ‘long lineage of Word’ (bka’) common to all Old School Traditions, such as the ritual tradition of the Sūtra of the Gathering of Intentions, the Eight Pronouncements (Bka’ brgyad) from the sādhana class of the Māyājāla-tantras, and the Mind Class of the Great Perfection.” Thus, “the vast majority of ritual and teaching cycles that then characterized the identity of the Old School had passed through Sokdokpa, Gongrawa, and in turn, his illustrious students.” Gentry, Power Objects, 409. 423 Rin chen rnam rgyal. 424 Tshe dbang nor bu, Chokgyur Lingpa’s second son. Orgyan Tobgyal, The Life, 26.

Religious service is the best way of practicing bodhicitta. Within the Buddha’s tradition, I follow the old tradition; The mother and child monastic assemblies425 are concordant with it. Therefore, check whether thought and deed are virtuous.

Furthermore, this is the advice I give you based on the above:

Kathog and Dorjéden426 are in the Minling tradition; Palyul427 and Zechen428 also conform to it; And Dzogchen Monastery, half of which follows the teachings and practices of Nyima Drakpa,

And half those of Minling, is particularly remarkable.

This letter, together with unviolated, supreme samaya substances, Completely trustworthy precious accomplished medicine, And a silken white scarf,429 was offered by Chokgyur Lingpa.

425 Possibly a reference to the Old and New Translation Schools. 426 Ka:thog and rDo rje ldan, as well as the following monasteries, are all important Nyingma monasteries in Tibet. 427 Dpal yul (conjectural emendation of Pe’u, based on Khyabje Khenpo’s recommendation). 428 Zhe chen. 429 Lha reg, a katha enclosed with a letter as a present.

Text 10 (T10)


The lake-born Mahāguru Padmasambhava, embodiment of all Victorious Ones of the three times, called out to his regent Chokgyur Dechen Zhigpo Lingpa Trinley Drodül Tsal,430 one of the hundred great and thousand minor tertöns of past and future. Therefore, [Chokgyur Lingpa] addressed himself to all disciples inhabiting this vast kingdom. Wakefulness, which is by nature primordially pure, is the basic space 431 of everything. Therefore, within this, pure and impure phenomena are by nature non-arisen, and yet self-arisen out of the manifesting power of the unceasing display. Out of these [phenomena], all that is good and beneficial for the world—the appearing vessel—and all sentient beings—its living contents—arises from the perfect buddhas’ awakened activity of inseparable wisdom and great compassion [210]. It is the basis and principle of this awakened activity, the very Dharma that is propagated in the teachings. As Śāntideva432 said:

May we meet with and serve the teachings— The only cure for the suffering of beings And the source of all happiness— And may they remain for a long time.433

Thus, the source of benefit and happiness, the precious teachings of the Conqueror, spread and flourished in the world in general, and amid the snowy mountains [of Tibet] in particular, thanks to the kindness of the Dharma kings, translators, and scholars. The great preceptor Śāntarakṣita ordained the ‘seven men of trial,’434 and vastly propagated the teachings of the Vinaya, the root of the doctrine.

430 mChog gyur bde chen zhig po gling pa phrin las ’gro ’dul rtsal, the complete name of Chokgyur Lingpa. 431 Basic space (dbyings) is the ultimate nature and source of all things.

432 Śāntideva (Zhi ba lha) was an eighth-century Buddhist monk and scholar at Nalanda monastery in India. 433 This citation appears in the dedication chapter of Śāntideva’s seminal work the Bodhisattvacāryāvattara. Zhi ba lha, Byang chub sems pa’i spyod pa la ’jug pa, in vol. 61 of bsTan ’gyur dpe bsdur ma (Pe cin: Krung go’i bod rig pa’i dpe skrun khang, 1994-2008), 1037. 434 The seven men of trial (sad mi mi bdun) were the first seven men to take ordination as Buddhist monks in Tibet. They were regarded as test subjects, to establish whether or not the vinaya (the monks’ rules) could be upheld in Tibet.

The Master Padmasambhava subjugated the gods and spirits of Tibet, placing them under a powerful seal,435 and illuminated the essential teachings, the resultant tantras, like the sun. He prescribed various things that should be done in order to establish auspicious connections for the long life of the king and the spread of the teachings of the Victorious One, such as turning a sand valley into a grass meadow. However, the evil ministers who delighted in the dark side came between the master and the king with slanderous rumors, and the king did not request the master to establish these auspicious connections. The master himself prophesied that since the auspicious connections prescribed by the twelve tenma436 goddesses and others to ensure that extremists would not appear in Tibet were not established, in the future, there would be disputes within the Buddhist teachings.

This [prophecy] refers to teachers and students doing practice these days. It is therefore not right for exegesis and practice to be disconnected. However, the lineages of practice and study have now split away from each other. Scholars call practitioners ‘ignorant meditators’437 and say that now is not the time for practice, and so on. Seeing the great meditators who focus on practice like bulls, they criticize them in various ways. Likewise, practitioners scorn [scholars] by saying that the activities of hearing and contemplation, teaching and listening, are meaningless, like a parrot’s recitation of the Dharma. Now, merely having a different master and monastery is considered as being of a different sect or lineage. People are chauvinistic towards their own monasteries’ localities and the masters and preceptors of their local community, [212] and criticize teachings and people for the sake of gain, honor, wealth, and fame. In the end, they take up weapons and kill each other and so forth. Even those who follow the same texts and words by the same masters go their separate ways, blown apart by a breeze.

435 Seal (Phyag rgya) is a common word in tantric texts, which can take on a variety of meanings. It can be understood here as referring to Guru Rinpoché’s dominion, or more widely as the commitments or oaths that were forced upon the spirits of Tibet when Guru Rinpoché made them into Dharma protectors. 436 Tenma goddesses (brTan ma) are twelve guardian sisters connected to twelve different mountains and lakes in Tibet. Thupten K. Rikey, “The Nature-Deities of Tibet: A discussion on the tale “The Subduing and Putting under Oath of Tibet’s Malignant lha ’dre” in Padma bka’ thang,” in Himalayan Nature, Representations and Reality, ed. Erika Sandman and Riika J. Virtanen (Helsinki: Studia Orientalia, 2011), 130. 437 Ignorant meditators here translates blun sgom pa, an expression designating people who meditate without knowing the instructions.

Practitioners too call different masters and monasteries ‘different lineages.’ Disciples who stay in monasteries are jealous of high status and fame and, not remaining in mountain hermitages or isolated places, they run about everywhere. They call those who neither have shame nor decency ‘realized renunciates,’ and say about those who know nothing that ‘knowing one, they are wise in all.’ Thus they act in a dissolute and careless way, and are lazy and indolent. They claim that the throws of their cultivation of attachment and aversion are ‘the nature of meditation,’ call madmen ‘siddhas,’ and so on. Even so, if I investigate closely, I do not find that there is any view or school of thought that is superior, or particularly different from the others. There are but small differences – young monks who debate about red and white colors,438 and māntrikas439 who have slightly different ways of placing their vajra and bell. Though great meditators have slightly different understandings and perceptions of their experiences, their ultimate destination is the same, the sole final intent of the Victorious One, of all the sūtras and tantras, scriptures and commentaries.

This however does not account for the slight differences there are between the minds of various individuals. The so-called “Old School”440 and “New School”441 designate the earlier and later propagation of the teachings; aside from that, they are not different in terms of view or practice, though they have different ways of explaining and identifying things. Similarly, the Kadampas, Sakyapas, the four higher and eight minor Kagyüpas, 442 the Jonang Zhalu, the Bodongpas, Gadenpas443 and so on, apart from using different conventions in their respective lineage traditions, have identical views and practices. Thus, since doctrines are mingled with and no different from each

438 btsun chung bsdus ra ba kha dog dkar dmar. According to Khyabje Khenpo, bsdus ra ba should be understood here in the sense of bsdus grwa, the dialectics studied in the monastic college. One common debate in these classes of logical reasoning concerns the attribution of color to entities with the existential word ‘is’: if a horse is white, and white is a color, then is the horse a color?

439A māntrikas (sngags pa, ngakpa) is a practitioner of mantra, or tantric practitioner. 440 Old School (rNying ma pa, Nyingma School). 441 New School (gSar ma pa).

442 The four great and eight minor Kagyü school subsects are the Barom (Ba rom), Phakdru (Phak gru), Kamtsang (Khams tshang), and Tselpa (Tshal pa) Kagyü; and the Drikung (’bri gung), Taklung (sTag lung), Trophu (Khro phu), Lingré (gLing ras), Martsang (sMar tshang), Yelpa (Yel pa), and Yazang (gYa’ bzang) Kagyü. Nor brang, “bka’ brgyud che bzhi,” in Chos rnam, Vol. 1, 485; Nor brang, “bka’ brgyud chung brgyad,” in Chos rnam, Vol. 2, 1748. 443 bKa’ gdams pa/ sa skya pa/ bka’ brgyud ya bzhi zung brgyad/ jo nang zhwa lu/ bo dong pa/ dga’ ldan sogs. These are all names of various sects of Tibetan Buddhism.

other, though people claim 444 certain lines of transmission and monasteries, ultimately, that is complete delusion. Nevertheless, the teachings these days are troubled by malignant forces, and with jealousy, competitiveness, attachment, and aversion [between all sects], they are completely torn apart, just like worldly religions. In the prophetic guide to one of my Treasures, The Spontaneous Fulfillment of Wishes,445

[214] it is said:

If I followed my own likes and dislikes,༔446

I would be a mountain of concepts posing as ‘the one from Uḍḍiyāna.’༔ Based on predictions made by fake prophecies ༔ That are self-praising and disparaging to others, ༔

The single Dharma community is divided into factions ༔

In these conditions, exegesis and practice are split apart. ༔

Thus, through the power of this inexpiable karma of forsaking the Dharma, ༔

Great harm comes to oneself, others, the teaching, and beings. ༔

Therefore, do not to follow charlatans: this is my heart-advice. ༔” Thus one must practice in accordance with that. Also, in the All-Weaving Sūtra,447 it is said:

Manjushri, regarding the karmic obscurations of forsaking the sublime Dharma:448 Manjushri, those who consider some of the Tathāgatas’ teachings to be good, and some

444 mi zer. This is a strange phrase, however the general meaning seems to be as above. 445 The Spontaneous Fulfillment of Wishes (bSam pa lhun ’grub, Sampa Lhündrub). 446 This prophecy is attributed to Guru Rinpoché, who must be understood by the first person here. 447 All-Weaving Sūtra (Tib. ’Phags pa rnam par ’thag pa thams cad bsdus pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo, Skt. Ārya-sarvavaidalya-saṃgraha-nāma-mahāyāna-sūtra). The citation appears in this sūtra in very similar, though not identical form. “rNam par ’thag pa thams cad bsdus pa’i mdo,” in vol.63 of bKa’’gyur dPe bsdur ma (Pe cin: Krung go’i bod rig pa’i dpe skrun khang, 2006-2009), 506. 448 I am leaving out a cryptic interlinear note here, which reads: ’di chen po gcig tu ma nges pas ’og nas ’byung ltar rnam zhes pa shin tu brtag dka ba/ mchan.

bad, are forsaking the Dharma. When they say “This is right. This is not right,” they are forsaking the sublime Dharma. I myself have never taught the Dharma differently, as belonging to the listeners’ vehicle,449 the solitary realizers’450 vehicle, or the Great vehicle. Yet those fools differentiate my teachings, saying “this was taught to the listeners; this was taught to the solitary realizers.” Through this perception of difference, they are forsaking all sublime Dharma. Saying “This is something bodhisattvas must train in; this is not something bodhisattvas must train in,” they forsake the sublime Dharma. Talking about whether or not a certain Dharma teacher is eloquent is forsaking the Dharma. Saying he has taught the Dharma incorrectly is forsaking the Dharma.

Thus, those who wish themselves well should regret and confess any karma of forsaking the Dharma that they have already accrued, and should vow that from now on, they will guard against it and refrain from it, even at the cost of their own lives. Though provisionally, the view and practice of the different vehicles might appear to be different in accordance with the mental level of disciples, ultimately they are one. Regarding us tertöns, aside from being impartial and unbiased towards localities, communities, disciples, teachings, and sects, there is no ‘tertön religion.’ [216] The union of Sūtra and Tantra taught by the buddhas is the teaching of the tertöns. Hence, those who have entered the teachings of the Conqueror must enter the gateway of Dharma with a mind that wishes to be free from samsara. Furthermore, they should not only think of their own peace and happiness, but should be overtaken by the resolve to awaken for the benefit of others. Then, it is of foremost importance for them to strictly keep the rules of the three types of vows. The supreme scholar Venerable Vasubandhu451 said: With disciplined study and contemplation,

449 Nyan thos pa, Śrāvaka. 450 Rang sangs rgyas pa, Pratyekabuddha. 451 dByig gnyen, a fifth century Indian Buddhist scholar.

One aptly prepares for meditation.452

This should be understood. As the world-famous Lord Gampopa453 said: Beginners strive in listening, contemplation, and meditation, And having become stable, they practice persistently.454 Thus my student, a vinaya-holder of these degenerate times, Karma Sangyé Chöpel, or Péma Drime Lodrö Zhenpen Chökyi Nangwa,455 has travelled to all of my Dharma centers and remote mountain hermitages—the abodes of sublime scholars and practitioners—in order to enhance his training of study and contemplation in the monks’ colleges456 and his practice of the essential points of Sūtra and Tantra in retreat centers. [217] Therefore, since by serving the Dharma with virtuous altruism, one gathers part of the seven accumulations of merit from material causes,457 all decent

452 This is a citation from Vasubandhu’s seminal work, the Abhidharmakośa. dByig gnyen, Chos mngon pa’i mdzod kyi tshig le’ur byas pa, in vol. 69 of bsTan ’gyur dpe bsdur ma (Pe cin: Krung go’i bod rig pa’i dpe skrun khang, 1994- 2008), 43. 453 rJe dwags po, an 11th-12th century famous disciple of Milarepa.

454 I have not been able to find this exact citation, but it seems to be closely related to, if not a paraphrased version of, the ten activities to exert oneself in expounded by Gampopa in the Precious Garland of the Supreme Path: “The ten activities to exert oneself in are the following: beginners should exert themselves in study and contemlation; having gained experience, one should exert oneself in meditation; as long as one hasn’t gained stability, one should exert oneself in remaining in solitude; if one’s awareness is too scattered and excited, one should exert oneself in subduing it; if one’s awareness is prone to torpor, one should exert oneself in expanding it; as long as the mind is not stable, one should exert oneself in remaining in equipoise; once one’s equipoise is stable, one should exert oneself in the post- meditation; if unconducive factors are too numerous, one shoul exert oneself in the three types of forbearance; if one’s desires, interests, and attachments are too strong, one should exert oneself in forcefully neutralizing them; if one’s loving kindness and compassion are too weak,one should exert oneself in training in bodhicitta. These are the ten activities to exert oneself in.” nan tan du bya ba’i chos bcu ni/ las dang po pas thos bsam la nan tan bya/ nyams myong skyes nas sgom sgrub la nan tan bya/ brtan pa ma thob bar du dben pa la nan tan bya/ ’phro rgod shas che na rig pa bcun pa la nan tan bya/ bying rmugs shas che na rig pa g.yer ba la nan tan bya/ blo ma brtan bar du mnyam bzhag la nan tan bya/ mnyam bzhag la brten nas rjes thob la nan tan bya/ mi mthun pa’i ’gal rkyen mang na bzod pa gsum la nan tan bya/ ’dod ’dun chags zhen che na zhen pa btsan thabs su log pa la nan tan bya/ byams dan snying rje shas chung na byang chub kyi sems sbyong ba la nan tan bya/ de ni nan tan bya ba’i chos bcu’o/ sGam po pa, Lam mchog rin chen phreng ba, in gSung ’bum (sDe dge: sde dge par khang chen mo, 1998), vol.1, 36.

455 Karma sangs rgyas chos ’phel; Padma dri med blo gros gzhan phan chos kyi snang ba. These appear to be different epithets of the same person, one of Chokgyur Lingpa’s close students also known as Karmé Khenpo Rinchen Dargyé (Karma’i mkhen po rin chen dar rgyas). 456 bshad grwa. 457 Jamgön Kongtrül cites the seven merits derived from material things as the following, according to the Transmissions on Monastic Discipline: “The [construction of] monastic campuses (arama), The [building of] great temples (vihara), The [making of] mattresses, The prolonging of life, The nursing of those who suddenly fall ill, Acts of charity [undertaken] in places and times of destitution: These are the so-called “seven merits derived from material things.”

people—high, low, and middling—should know of him! Not only that, but in this time of holding onto mere appearances, the master from Ewam Chogar, 458 is attached to whatever part of the beneficial qualities of steadfast scholars he has. Therefore, wherever you are from, if you have interest in the Vinaya of the sublime Dharma, whether you are established as a fully-ordained monk, lay person, or merely a pre-novice459 or novice, know that he undeniably has the status of a khenpo! Indeed, as it is said in the four sections of Vinaya scriptures: “How much must monks do in order for the Sublime Dharma to be said to endure? As long as monks exert themselves and fulfill their duties, it is said to endure.”460 In the fire rabbit year of the fifteenth year-cycle (1867-68), may this spread from Orgyen Samtem Chöling, in the main sacred site of awakened qualities, Rudam Snowy Ridge, and bring goodness!

Kong-sprul Blo-gros-mthaʼ-yas, and Gyurme Dorjé. The Treasury of Knowledge. Book six, parts one and two (Boston, MA: Snow Lion Publications, 2012), 181. 458 Chokgyur Lingpa seems to still be addressing Karmey Khenpo Rinche Dargye. 459 bar ma rab byung, the pre-novice vows of a monk.

460 This rather obscure citation appears in the Vinaya in this expanded context: sangs rgyas bcom ldan ’das la tshe dang ldan pa u pA lis zhus pa/ btsun pa rung ba’i sa zhes kyang bgyi mi rung ba’i sa zhes kyang bgyi na/ btsun pa ji tsam gyis na rung ba’i sar rig par bgyi/ u pA li dam pa’i chos yos pa’i tshe rung ba dang mi rung bar ’gyur/ dam pa’i chos zhig par gyur na thams bcad kyang rung ba’o/ /btsun pa ji tsam gyis na dam pa’i chos mchis pa zhes bgyi/ ji tsam gyis na zhig pa zhes bgyi/ u pA li ji srid du las byed cing nan tan byed pa yang yod pa’i bar du ste/ las byed la nan tan byed pa yang yod na dam pa’i chos yod pa zhes bya’o/ /las kyang mi byed la nan tan byed pa dag kyang med na de ni dam pa’i chos zhig pa zhes byao/ ’Dul ba in vol.13 of bKa’ ’gyur dPe bsdur ma (Pe cin: Krung go'i bod rig pa'i dpe skrun khang, 2006-2009), 176.


This edition presents a positive apparatus recording each variation in the texts. Within it, ‘A’ refers to the woodblock version of the mChog gling gter gsar, and ‘B’ refers to the typeset version which is based on the former and was published by Ka-Nying Shedrub Ling. The folio numbers correspond to B’s numbering.



༅༅། ། ལ་པའི་གཏེར་ ོན་ཆེན་མོའི་ མ་ཐར་ ི་ས་བོན་ཞལ་ག ང་མ་དང་། གཏེར་འ ང་འགའ་ཞིག་འབེལ་གཏམ་ ་ཚ གས་བཅས་ ོགས་བ ོམས་ ལ་བ ན་ཉིན་ ེད་འོད་ ང་ ཞེས་ ་བ་བ གས་སོ།། [192]

༅༅། །བདག་ཉིད་ཐར་བའི་ལམ་ལ་འ ེན་མཛད་པའི། ། ་མ་དམ་པ་ མས་ལ་ ག་འཚལ་ལོ། ། ེ་དང་ཚ ་རབས་ ེས་ ་བ ང་བ་ཡི། །པ ྨ་ཐོད་ ེང་ ལ་ ི་ གས་ ེ་

461 ཡིས། །དལ་འ ོར་མཆོག་ཐོབ་སངས་ ས་བ ན་ལ་ གས། །ལས་འ ོའི་དབང་གིས་གཏེར་ ི་ཆོས་ལ་ ོད། ། ིབ་པའི་དབང་གིས་ མ་ ་སོ་ འི་བར། ། ིས་པའི་ སེམས་དབང་ ་


ོད་ཆལ་མ་ཆོལ།	།ད་ནི་སེམས་ཉིད་ ང་ཟད་གོམས་པར་ ར།	། ་ ོད་ཆོས་མ ན་ ེད་ མས་ཡིད་ལ་བ ག	།ད་ འི་ ལ་ལ་ མ་ཐར་ཅི་ཞིག་ ི།	།འོན་[193] ང་དད་


ན་ ན་ནི་མི་ད ང་ ིར།  །ནམ་མཁའ་མཛ ད་མ ན་མི་ཡི་ ིད་པར་ གས།།གསང་ ལ་ཞོལ་ ་མ་ཡི་མངལ་ནས་བཙས།  །ཡེ་ ལ་ཞོལ་ ་རིམ་པར་བ ེད་བ ིངས་  ནས།  །ཡར་

464 འ ིལ་གནས་ ་ཆོས་ ི་བསམ་པ་ ེས། །འ ེན་པའི་ ་མ་ ན་བཟང་མཆོག་ ལ་ ིས། ། བས་ ོམ་གནང་བས་སངས་ ས་བ ན་ ོར་ གས། ། ོལ་དཀར་ ་ ་ཞི་བའི་ ེས་གནང་ ཐོབ། །བཤད་ བ་ ིང་ ་ཚ ་དབང་ ིན་ལས་མཇལ། །ཤིན་ ་དད་ནས་ ་ འི་དབང་ བ་ལ། །དག་ ང་ཐོབ་ཅིང་བཀའ་ ིན་དབང་[194]བཞི་བ ལ། །རང་གི་གནས་

་དཀོན་མཆོག་དོན་ བ་སོགས། ། ོབ་དཔོན་བ ིས་ནས་ཡི་གེ་བ བ་པ་དང་། །བ ན་ ས་ ོབ་དཔོན་བ ིས་ནས་མཚམས་ བ་ ི། །ཐོག་མ་ ོལ་དཀར་ ་ ་ཞི་བ་བ ེན། ། གས་ འཆང་རིག་འཛ ན་དཔལ་ལས་ གས་ཆོག་གི  ། ག་བཞེས་ ས་ཤིང་ད ས་ ི་ ོགས་ ་ ིན།  ། ་བ་ག མ་ ིས་ ེས་ ་བ ང་བ་མཐོང་། ། ་ ་ གས་པས་གཟའ་གདོན་ཞི་བར་ མཛད། །དཔལ་མེ་དགོན་ ་ ་ ན་ ལ་ ་བ ད། ། ེ་བ ན་ཆོས་ཉིད་ནོར་ འི་ ེས་བ ང་བ། །བདེ་གཤེགས་ བ་པ་བཀའ་བ ད་ ིན་ ོལ་ཐོབ།  །གར་ཐིག་ད ངས་ ི་ ག་ལེན་ལེགས་

461 ིས་པའི་] B, ི་ འི་] A (probably spelling mistake). 462 བ ག] A, བ ག།] B (unnecessary punctuation). 463 བ ིངས་] B, བ ིང་] A (incorrect future tense). 464 བ ལ་] B, ལ་] A (incorrect spelling).

465 པར་བ བ། །ཚ ས་བ ་ཁང་ ་ཚ གས་བ ིགས་ལོ་བ ་འ ིམ། ། ་མ་དམ་པས་ ིན་ ོལ་དཔག་མེད་བ ལ། ཡ་ཀིའི་ ོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་མན་ཆད་དང་། །མ་ཀིའི་ ོས་གར་ཡན་

ཆད་བ བ་པར་མཛད། །མཁན་ ོབ་བཀའ་ ིན་ཤིན་ ་ཆེ་བར་འ མ། །བ ན་འཛ ན་ཆོས་ ི་དབང་པོའི་ ག་ ོགས་ནི། ། ོང་ ིད་བ ལ་ཅིང་ ་མ་དམ་པ་ཡི། ། ོགས་ཆེན་ ིང་ ཐིག་མན་ངག་ ིང་ལ་ ན། ། ན་ཚ གས་ ིང་ནས་ ིང་མའི་གར་ད ངས་[195]བ བ། །འ ལ་འཛ ན་ཆེན་པོ་ ག་ ང་རིན་པོ་ཆེར། །རབ་ ་ ང་ནས་དགེ་ ོང་ངང་ ལ་ 466 བ ན། །མ ངས་མེད་མགོན་པོ་ ལ་པའི་ ་མཆོག་གིས། །ར ྣ་ ིང་པའི་ གས་ བ་ ིན་དབང་བ ལ། །ན་ ན་ ོང་ ་ཆོས་ ལ་ ོ་ ེ་མཇལ། །གསང་བའི་མན་ངག་བ ལ་

ཅིང་ ོགས་ཆེན་བ ན། །འ ོ་མགོན་པ ྨ་ཉིན་ ེད་བཀའ་བཞིན་ ། །བ ན་འཛ ན་ མ་ ལ་ཞབས་ ིས་ གས་ བ་བ ལ། །དཔལ་ ངས་དགོན་ ་ ་མའི་བཀའ་བཞིན་ ིན། །མི་ ཕམ་མགོན་པོ་གཉིས་པའི་ཞལ་མཇལ་ནས། ། ིན་ཅན་ངེས་དོན་བ ན་འཛ ན་རབ་ ས་ལ། །མི་ ེད་དད་པ་ ལ་ནས་སེམས་བ ེད་ཐོབ། །དེ་ནས་བ ང་ ེ་ ིན་ ོལ་ ་མ་ དང་། ། ད་པར་ ་བའི་ ོ་འདོགས་ལེགས་པར་ཆོད། །འཇམ་མགོན་ ་མ་ཀོང་ ལ་རིན་པོ་ཆེའི། །དབང་བ ར་ ད་བཤད་མན་ངག་མཐར་ ག་བ ལ། ། ན་གཟིགས་ ་མ་ འཇམ་ད ངས་མ ེན་བ ེ་ཡིས། ། ིན་ ོལ་མཐའ་ཡས་ཟབ་དོན་ ིང་ ་གནང་། །འདི་ག མ་བཀའ་ ིན་ མ་ ན་ ་མར་ ར། ། ར་མང་བ ན་འཛ ན་ ལ་པའི་ ་མཆོག་ལས། [196] །བཀའ་བ ད་བདེ་གཤེགས་འ ས་པའི་ ིན་དབང་ ས། །གཞན་ཡང་ ་ ེ་གསང་ གས་བ ན་འཛ ན་དང་། །བ ན་འཛ ན་ ང་ བ་ཉི་མ་ལ་སོགས་པའི། ། ིན་ཐོབ་

་མ་ ་མ་བདག་གིས་བ ེན།  །དམ་པའི་ཆོས་ ང་བདག་གིས་མང་ ་ཐོས།  །འཇམ་ད ངས་ངེས་དོན་མཁས་དབང་གཞན་དོན་ལས།  །མདོ་ གས་ག ང་བཤད་ ས་པས་ཤེས་ ད་
ོལ༑  །ཟབ་མོའི་གཏེར་ མས་ ན་ ིས་མཐོང་བར་བཏོན།  །དག་ ང་དབང་ཐོབ་རང་གི་ཉམས་ ་ ངས།  ། ལ་དབང་ཐམས་ཅད་མ ེན་པ་ཀ ་པ།  །འ ོ་མགོན་ས་ ་གོང་མ་

467 འ ག་ཆེན་ ེ། །འ ི་ ག་འཕགས་པའི་ ེས་ ་ ་མ་ཡི། །དམ་ཆོས་ཉམས་བཞེས་ཟབ་གཏེར་བ ན་པ་ ས། །མཁས་ཤིང་ བ་པའི་ ོབ་མ་མང་ ་ ང་། །བཤད་ བ་གཉིས་


ི་སངས་ ས་བ ན་པ་བ ངས།	།རི་བོ་ཆེ་ཡི་ ེ་འཕགས་མཁན་ ོབ་དང་།   །ཞབས་ ང་ག མ་ ིས་གནས་མལ་གནང་བར་བ ེན།   །འོག་མིན་ཀ འི་གསང་ གས་ཕོ་ ང་

དང་། །ནམ་མཁའ་མཛ ད་དང་ ེན་མཆོག་འ ར་མེད་ ིང་། །གནས་མཆོག་འཛ མ་ནང་པ ྨ་ཤེལ་ ག་དང་། མ་ ལ་གངས་མ ལ་ག ་མཚ ་རི་[197] ོད་སོགས། །བཞེངས་ནས་ བཤད་ བ་བ ན་པའི་མགོ་བ མས་ནས། ། ན་གཟིགས་ ་མའི་བཀའ་ ིན་ལ་བ ེན་ནས། །བ ན་པའི་གཞི་བ གས་ བ་ཆེན་མང་ ་བ ིས། །དེ་དག་ལེགས་ཆ་ ོགས་གཅིག་ བ ིགས་པ་ཡིན། །དེ་ལས་ ག་པའི་ཡོན་ཏན་བདག་ལ་མེད། །ལོ་ག མ་བ བ་པ་ ས་པ་དགེ་བའི་རབ༑ །ད་ཡང་ ག་བསམ་ མ་དཀར་ ེ་གཅིག་བ ི། །དེ་ ད་ གས་ འཆང་པ ྨ་བ ད་འ ལ་ ིས། ། མ་ ི་མ ལ་ནས་བ ལ་ནས་ལོ་མང་སོང་། །འདི་ལོ་ ལ་ལམ་རིང་པོའི་དཀའ་བ་བཅད། །འདི་དོན་གཉེར་བས་ངོ་མ་བཅག་ཙམ་འདི། ། ང་ ལོ་ ་ ོད་ ེལ་ འི་ཚ ས་བ ་ལ། །ཡང་ ོང་ ིང་དང་ནམ་མཁའ་མཛ ད་ ོར་ ིས། །དགེ་བས་འ ོ་ ན་ ང་ བ་ཐོབ་ ིར་བ ོ། །བ ་ཤིས་དཔལ་འབར་འཛམ་ ིང་ ན་ ་ ཤོག། །།

465 བ ལ་] B, ལ་] A (incorrect spelling). 466 བ ལ་] B, ལ་] A repeated in most instances. 467 ང་] B, ར་] A. 468 བ ངས། B, བ ང་།] A.



༄། ལ་པའི་གཏེར་ཆེན་མཆོག་ ར་ ིང་པའི་གཏེར་འ ང་མདོར་བ ས་ ལ་ ན་དགའ་བ་བ ེད་པའི་ད ངས་ ན་ཞེས་ ་བ་བ གས་སོ།། ༑

ོས་ ལ་བདེ་ཆེན་གཉིས་མེད་མཁའ་ ོང་ནས།	།ཁ་ ོར་བ ན་ ན་ ང་འ ག་དང་[198]པོའི་མགོན།	། ་འ ལ་  ་བའི་གར་བ ར་ ོ་ ེ་འཛ ན།	།ད ིལ་འཁོར་ ་མཚ འི་

469 མངའ་བདག་ ་མར་འ ད། །ཅེས་མཆོད་པར་བ ོད་ནས། དེ་ལ་འདིར་ ལ་བ་དང་ ན་པའི་ག ལ་ ་ མས་ ི་ ང་ ོགས་ ི་ཡོན་ཏན་ཐམས་ཅད་འ ང་བའི་གཞི་ནི། རང་གི་ ་

མ་ལ་དད་ ས་བ ེད་པ་ལ་རག་ལས་པའི་ ལ་མཁས་ བ་ཐམས་ཅད་ཞལ་མ ན་པར་ག ངས་མད། དེ་ ར་ཐོག་མར་ཡིད་ཆེས་པའི་ ིར་ལོ་ ས་སམ་ མ་ཐར་ངེས་དགོས་པའི་ ་མཚན་

ིས་འདིར་ ང་ཟད་བཤད་ན།  ལ་པའི་གཏེར་ཆེན་མཆོག་ ར་ ིང་པ་བདག་ ང་ འི་ ས་ནས་མ་ཎི་ཁ་ས་པར།  ཨོ་ ན་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་དང་དངོས་ ་མཇལ། དེར་ཨོ་ ན་ ི་ བ་ ག་ ཡོད་པའི་ ང་བ ན་ཐོབ།  བ ་ག མ་ལོ་ལ་ཡར་ ང་ཤེལ་ ག་ནས་ཁ་ ང་ ེད། བཅོ་ འི་ལོ་ལ་ ་འ ེ་གང་ཡིན་ངོ་མ་འཚལ་བའི་ཞལ་གཟིགས་འ ལ་ ང་མང་པོ་ ང་བ་ མས་ཕལ་ ཆེར་བར་ཆད་ ི་ མ་པར་མངོན། འགའ་ཞིག་ཟབ་མོའི་གཏེར་ཐོན་པའི་ ་ ས་ཡིན་འ ག་པ་མ་གཏོགས་ཁོ་བོས་ཡི་གེར་བཀོད་པ་དེ་ མས་ལ་ ིང་པོ་མེད་པར་མངོན། དེ་ནས་ བས་ཤིག་ ངེད་ལ་གནམ་ ་ནས་ མ་ ོད་མང་པོ་[199]ཞིག་འ ག་པའི་གསེབ་ནས་ཤོག་ ིལ་ཞིག་ ེད་འ ག་པ་མདོ་ ང་ཡིན།   རང་ལོ་ཉི་ ་པ་ས་ ེལ་ ་བ་བ ད་པའི་ཚ ས་བ ར་ ་ཉིན་ཁ་ལ་

རོང་ ོའི་ ག་ནས་ གས་ བ་བར་ཆད་ ན་སེལ་ ི་ཆོས་ ོར་ མས་ ན་ ངས། ལོ་བ ད་བར་ ་གསང་ ས་བཏབ་ཉེར་གཉིས་ ་ལོར་ན་ ན་ ོང་ནས་ གས་ ེ་ཆེན་པོ་པ ྨ་ག ག་ཏོར་

470 471

ན་ ངས་ ང་ ེན་འ ེལ་འགའ་ཞིག་འ གས་	པའི་དབང་གིས་འ བ་ ོང་	ཡང་ ང་།	ཉེར་ འི་ ས་ བས་མགོན་སི་ ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་དང་མཇལ།	གཏེར་ཆོས་དང་དམ་ ས་

སོགས་ ལ། ཉེར་ ག་ ག་ལོར་དཀར་མོ་ ག་ནས་ གས་ བ་ཆ་ལག་ མས་ཐོན། ཉེར་བ ད་མེ་འ ག་ལོ་ས་ག་ ་བའི་ཚ ས་བཅོ་ ར་འོག་མིན་ཀ འི་དམ་ཅན་ ག་ནས་ཟབ་བ ན་

472 473 ཆོས་ ོར་གསང་གཏེར་ ་ཐོན། ལོ་དེའི་ ེལ་ འི་ཚ ས་ བ ་ལ་ཡལ་ ག་གནམ་ ་ནམ་མཁའ་མཛ ད་ནས་ ་ཚབ་ མ་གཉིས། མགོན་ ་སོགས་ ་ ེན་ མས་དང་། དམ་ ས་རོལ་པ་

[200] 474 475 ཆེན་པོ་སོགས་དམ་ ས་རིགས། ག ་ ང་སོགས་ ང་ ་ ོར་བ ན། བ ད་ ི་ ་ཤོག་སོགས་ཤོག་ ་རིགས་ ཟབ་བ ན་ཆོས་ ོར་ཆ་ལགས་ ཡིན་མཆན། ི་ ཆོས་ཚན་

མས་ ན་ ངས།   ་ཁ་ལའི་ ག་ནས་ ར་ཡང་ གས་ བ་ ི་ཆོས་ཚན་འགའ་རེ་དང་།  དམ་ ས་བཀའ་ ་ཅན་ཐོན། དེའི་ ་བ་ད ་པར་ཁམས་མིག་ཡེ་ ག་ནས་ མ་ཟེ་ ག་འ ང་ ནག་པོའི་ད ་ཐོད་ ེད་ཅིང་། ཆོས་གཏེར་ཞིག་ཡོད་པ་མ་ཐོན།   ་བ་བ ་གཅིག་པའི་ཚ ས་བཅོ་ ་ལ་ གས་ བ་བར་ཆད་ ན་སེལ་ ི་བཀའ་ ་བ ོལ་ཏེ་ད ིལ་འཁོར་ཞལ་ ེས། ་ ིན་ དམ་བ གས་མཛད་པར།  དེ་ བ་ཆོས་བདག་ཞབས་ ང་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ཉིད་ལ་ ད་པར་འཕགས་པའི་རིག་འཛ ན་ནམ་མཁའ་གང་བ་ཞིག་ཞལ་གཟིགས་པ་དང་། གཞན་ མས་ལ་ཨོ་ ན་རིན་པོ་

469 ོགས་] B, ོག་] A . 470 འ གས་] B, འ ག་] A (erroneous tense). 471 འ བ་ ོང་] conject. emend., འ བ་ ོང་] A B. 472 ཚ ས་] emend., ཆེས་] B, ཆོས་] A. 473 གནམ་] emend., ནམ་] A B. 474 ཡིན་མཆན།] A, ཡིན༑ མཆན།] B. 475 ི་] B, ི་] A.

ཆེའི་ ིན་ བས་ གས་པའི་ གས་འགའ་རེ་ ང་འ ག་པ་དང་། ན་ ིས་མཐོང་ ང་མ ན་པར་བསང་ ད་འཇའ་འོད་ ་ ར་འ ིལ་བ་དང་། བར་ ང་ ་འོད་ འི་འཇའ་འོད་ ི་ཐིག་ ལེ་ཐིག་ ན་ ིས་གང་བ་སོགས་མཐོང་ངོ་། །དེ་ བས་གནས་དེར་ ན་ བ་བ ིས་པ་ ན་ བ་ ི་ཐོག་མ་ཡིན། དེའི་ཚ ས་བ ་ལ་གནས་དེའི་ད ་ ེ་ནས་དགའ་རབ་ ོ་ ེའི་ག ང་ ེན་ ན་

ངས། དེའི་ཉེ་ ོར་ནས་གཏེར་ ན་ཞིག་ ང་ ན་ ངས།	 ་བ་བ ་གཉིས་པའི་ ལ་བ་དང་པོ་ལ་ ད་[201]ཤོད་ ི་འཛ མ་ནང་ ་པ ྨ་ཤེལ་ ག་ནས་དམ་ཆོས་ ག

�ས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ ེ་

ག མ་ ན་ ིས་མཐོང་བར་ ན་ ངས་པ་འདི་ ོམ་གཏེར་ ི་ཐོག་མ་ཡིན། མེ་ ལ་ལོ་གསར་པའི་ཚ ས་གཅིག་དཔའ་བོ་ ག་གི་དབང་ཆེན་ ག་ནས་གནས་ཆེན་ཉེར་ འི་མདོ་ ང་ ན་ ངས།

476 477 དཔལ་ ངས་ ་ ང་ ་གཏེར་ཞལ་ ེས། ཱ་འ ་རིན་ཆེན་ ག་གི་གནས་ངོས་ ད། གནས་དེ་ནས་ ང་ཁ་ ང་འགའ་ཐོན་ཅིང་། ཚ ས་བ ད་ལ་ཀོང་ ལ། དབོན་ ལ་ ཞབས་ ང་

རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ མས་ ན་གཅིག་པས་ ལ་ཁབ་ ་ ན་ བ་མཛད་པའི་མཐར། སེང་གནམ་ ག་ ་ ོན་པས་བཅོ་ འི་ཉིན་ ན་ ིས་མཐོང་བར་ ག་གི་ནང་ནས་ཚ ་ ་དང་ས་ཡི་ནང་ན་ ན་ ་

མས་ད་ ་ཡང་འབབ་ ་ཡོད་པར་ ན་ ངས་ཡོད།	གཞན་ཨོ་ ན་ ི་ ་ཆས་གསང་གོས། བེར་ མ། ད ་ །  ོ་ ེ་ཆོས་ ི་མཐོང་ ོལ་འཁོར་ལོ།  ོན་པའི་ ་ཆོས་ མ་ཚལ། མཚ ་
ལ་ ི་ ན་ཆ། ཨི ་ ི་ལ། པ ྨ་ ཱ་ག	མ ད་སོགས་ལས་ བ་པ།	ས་ལེ་ མ་དང་།	འཛམ་ ་ ་གསེར་ ི་ ་གར་ཅན།	 ི་ ོང་ ེ ་བཙན།	མཚ ་ ལ་མ ་ར་བ་སོགས་


ི་ན་[202]གཟའ།	བཻ་རོའི་ ་ཆོས།	 ོ་ ེ་སེམས་	དཔའི་ ་ ་གང་ལས་ བ་པ་ཆ་མ་འཚལ།	ཨོ་ ན་ཤངས་མཚལ་ལས་ བ་པའི་ ་ འི་ ་ཚབ།	དམ་ ས་རིགས་མང་པོ།


ན་ བ་ག ་  གང་། ཨོ་ ན་ ག་ཐམ།  ཆོས་གཏེར་ནི་གསང་བའི་ ེགས་བམ་བཀའ་ ་ཅན་དམ་ཆོས་ ེ་ ག་ ང་ཆེན་ ེ་ ག་བ གས་པ་ཨ་ ་ཡོ་གའི་ཆོས་ ོར་ཡིན་པར་མངོན། གཏེར་
ོན་ག་ ར་ཞོ་གཅིག་ཙམ་ཡོད་ ང་། དེར་ཡོད་ ོམ་ ིས་ཧབ་ཐོབ་ ས་སོང་།   ག་རི་རིན་ཆེན་བ ེགས་པའི་ཐོ་ ང་ཡང་འཁོད་འ ་མཆན།  ཡང་འཛ ་པ ྨ་ཤེལ་ ག་ནས་མཁན་པོའི་
་ཆོས་ ོར་དང་། ཀེ་རོང་ནས་ཚ ་ ས་ ན་ ངས། དེའི་ ོར་ནས་ནོར་གཏེར་འགའ་ ེད།  ལོ་དེའི་ ་བ་བཞི་པར་ ན་ བ་ད ་པར་ ར་ བ་ མས་ལའང་འ བ་པའི་མཚན་མ་ ན་ ིས་ མཐོང་ ང་ ་ཡང་གཏོར་མ་ལ་བ ད་ ི་འབབ་པ་དང་།  མ་པའི་བ ད་ ི་ ད་པ་དང་།   ེས་ ་དམ་པ་ མས་ལ་ཡི་དམ་ ་ཡི་ཞལ་གཟིགས་པ་དང་།   ན་མོང་མ་ཡིན་པར་ ོན་པ་ སངས་ ས་ ིས་ ང་བ ན་ད གས་ད ང་མཛད་པ་སོགས་ ི་ནང་གི་ བ་པའི་ གས་མཚན་ ད་ ་ ང་། དེ་ ེས་གར་ ར་ཆོས་ ེ་རིན་པོ་[203]ཆེ་ མ་གཉིས་ ིས་ད ར་མཛད་པའི་ ལ་


ན་འ ས་པ་ ོང་བ ལ་བའི་ ན་ལམ་ ་གནས་མཆོག་འ མ་ ོང་གི་པ ྨ་དབང་ ག་ནས་དམ་ ས་དང་།  ཆོས་གཏེར་ཐོན་པ་མཁའ་འ ོ་ ེ་ ས་གནས་ངོས་   ད་པ་བཞིན།  གཞན་
མས་ ིས་ ་ ོད་ལས་མ་མཐོང་།  མཚ ་ནང་ནས་ ོ་ ོམ་ ་བ ད་ཁ་ལ་ར ྴས་དངོས་ ་གཏད་པ་ ང་། གནས་ ིང་ ག་གི་ ག་གི་གདེང་ཁང་ ་ ོན་པས།  དེར་ཨོ་ ན་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ འཁོར་མཁའ་འ ོ་ ་མཚ ་དང་བཅས་པ་ ོན་འ ག་པས་ཡབ་ མ་གཉིས་ ིས་ གས་བ ེ་བས་ཞལ་གདམས་གནང་ཞིང་།  འི་བཀོད་པ་ངོ་མཚར་བ་ ་མ་དང་།  ེད་མོའི་ ལ་ཡང་མང་པོ་ མཛད། ཨོ་ ན་ ི་བ གས་ ི་ནས་རང་ ང་ གས་ ེའི་ ོལ་ །  ་ཆེན་ཧ ིའི་རིལ་ །  ར་བཟའ་མེ་ཏོག་ ོན་ ི་ གས་དམ་ ོར་ ག   གས་ ེ་ཆེན་པོ་པ ྨ་ ་འ ལ་ ི་ཆོས་ ོར་ མས་

476 ད།] B, ོད།] A (wrong tense). 477 ཀོང་ ལ། དབོན་ ལ་] B, ཀོང་ ལ་དབོན་ ལ།] A. 478 སེམས་] B, སེམ་] A. 479 ག ་] emend. ་] AB. 480 ངོས་] A, ངོ་] B.


ན་ ངས་སོ།	 ར་ཡང་མཆོང་	 ང་ ག་པོར་བདེ་གཤེགས་ ན་འ ས་ ི་ཆོས་ ོར་ མས་ཀ འི་ ོགས་ ི་ཉེ་ ོར་ ་ཡོད་པར་བདག་གིས་ཤེས་སོ།	དེ་ཡང་འདོན་པའི་ ས་ གས་

ཕོ་ ེལ་ ི་ལོར་ཡིན་པར་[204] ན་ ིས་གོ་བར་ ིས། ༄།

481 མཆོང་] B (attested in rin chen gter mdzod), མཆོད་] A.



ཨོ་ ན་ ་ ་པ ྨ་འ ང་གནས་ ིས། ལ་པའི་གཏེར་ ོན་ཆེན་མོར་བ ལ་པའི་ ང་བ ན་བ བ་ ་དང་། དག་ ང་ ིས་ལན་དོགས་གཅོད་ ི་ ོར་འགའ་ཞིག་ ོགས་བ ས་རབ་

ངས་ནོར་ འི་མེ་ལོང་ཞེས་ ་བ་བ གས་སོ།།


༄༄། །ལོ་ག མ་མཚམས་ ི་དམ་བཅའ་དེ། ། ོགས་ལ་ཉེ་བའི་ ོ་ ན་ འི། །ཡར་ཚ ས་ནམ་ ི་ཐོ་རངས་ལ༑ ། ་ ་པ ྨའི་ཞལ་བ ན་ནས། ། ེ་ཧོ་གསོན་དང་ལས་ཅན་ ། །མ་ ཉལ་ད་ནི་ཡར་ལ་ལོངས། །ལོ་ག མ་རི་ ལ་གབ་པ་ ོགས༑ །བོད་ཁམས་བདེ་བའི་ ་ར་རན། ། ིགས་མའི་རང་ གས་ངོམ་ ས་འདིར། །ར་མདའ་ ོད་ལས་གཞན་མེད་ པས། །ཆོས་མཛད་ མས་ ི་ བ་བ ེན་རན། །ད་ནི་ ར་ཐག་ ིལ་ ིས་ ིལ། ། ོང་ཉིད་ ོགས་པའི་ ལ་འ ོར་ ོད། །སེམས་བ ེད་དཔའ་ ལ་[135] ས་ལ་ ོགས། ། ོན་

ི་ གས་བ ེད་ ན་པར་ ིས།	།དཀོན་མཆོག་ག མ་ ི་ ོག་མགོ་ལ།	།མཐར་ ག་ བས་ ི་དར་འ ་ གས།	།བཟོད་པའི་གོ་ བ་ ས་ལ་ ོན།	། ་ཡི་བ ེད་རིམ་ ་དར་
ོར།	། ་མའི་ བ་བ ེན་ བ་ཆེན་ ར༑	ཐབས་ཤེས་མདའ་ག ་ ེད་ལ་ ོར།	།མཁའ་འ ོ་ཆོས་ ོང་དམག་ཚ གས་ ིད།	།ཤེས་རབ་རལ་ ི་ལག་ ་ཐོགས༑	།བ ོན་འ ས་ ་

ཕོ་འོག་ ་ཞོན། །བསམ་པ་བ ན་པོའི་ ག་གིས་ ོབས། ། ལ་ ིམས་གཙང་མའི་ཐང་ལ་ གས། ། ིན་[136]པའི་ལོངས་ ོད་ཟད་མེད་བཅས། །རང་གཞན་ཉོན་མོངས་དམག་ ཚ གས་གཞོམ། ། ོང་ཉིད་ ོགས་པའི་ ་ ལ་ ང་། ། ང་ བ་སེམས་ ི་གཤོག་ ོ་ ས། །ཐབས་ཤེས་ ལ་ ི་ བས་བ ོད་ཅིང་། ། ང་ཟིན་ ་ ོབ་ ང་ ག་བཅས། །མ་ ད་

ལ་ཁམས་ཡོངས་ལ་འ ར།  །བདེན་གཉིས་ ེན་འ ེལ་གཤོག་ ལ་ངོམ།  ། ོན་ལམ་ལས་འ ོའི་ཡིད་བཞིན་ནོར། །ཟབ་ ས་ ིབས་ ོང་བ ་བའི་ཆོས།  ། ོང་ཉིད་ ིང་ ེའི་བ ན་ མོར་རོལ།  །ཤེས་རབ་ག མ་ ི་ ོན་པོ་ ན།  །འ ོ་དོན་བ ོན་འ ས་ཅང་ཤེས་ ༑  ། མ་མེད་བཟོདཔའི་ ོབས་ ི་ ང་།  །བ ་བ་བཞི་ཡི་དམག་དཔོན་ ིས།  །གཞན་ ི་ལོག་
ོག་འཇོམས་པར་ ིས།	།དེ་ ིར་ཆོས་ ི་ ལ་པོ་ཡིས།	།ག ལ་ འི་ཁ་ལོ་དགེ་ལ་བ ར།	།མཐའ་ ལ་ ་བའི་ ི་ལ་འཛ གས།	།བ ེད་ ོགས་ ང་འ ག་ག གས་ཆེན་ བ།	།མདོ་
གས་བ ན་པའི་ ལ་མཚན་བ ེངས།། ོད་དང་འཚམས་པའི་ཆོས་ ང་ ས།  །ཡིད་ ེད་ ལ་བའི་ ག་ ་ཆེ།  ། ་ ོལ་ ལ་བའི་ ོགས་པ་ཆེ།  །མཐའ་དང་ ལ་བའི་ད ་མ་ཆེ།  ། ་ བའི་ ལ་པོ་དེ་ལ་[137] ིས།   །འཚ གས་པར་འ ལ་བ་ ང་ བ་སེམས།   །ཤིན་ ་དབེན་ལ་གསང་བ་ གས།   ། ན་ལ་ཉོན་མོངས་འཆིང་བ་ ོལ།  ། ོད་པའི་ ལ་པོ་འདི་ལ་
ོད།  །འ ལ་བས་ གས་ཉིད་མ་བ ལ་ཞིང་།  ། གས་ ིས་འ ལ་བ་མ་བཅོམ་པར།  །མདོ་ གས་ ང་ ་འ ེལ་བ་ཡིས།  །ཡངས་པའི་ ལ་ཁམས་ ོལ་བར་ ིས༑   །ཞེས་ ག ངས་དེ་ལ་ལན་གསོལ་བ།  །གསོན་ཅིག་དགོངས་ཤིག་ ་ ་ ེ།  །ད་ནི་བོད་འབངས་ ཿཁས་མནར། །འདི་ལས་ ོབ་པའི་ཐབས་དགོས་ན།  །དེ་ ོན་རི་ ལ་གབ་པའི་ཚ །  །ལེགས་

482 ཉེས་ ང་བ ན་ཅི་མ་ག ང་། །ཕན་ཐབས་གང་དང་གང་འ ་དགོས། །ལེགས་ཉེས་ ད་མོ་ ཅི་འ ་མཐོང་། ། ་ ་ ེ་ཡིས་ག ང་ ་གསོལ། །ཞེས་ ས་ ར་ཡང་བཀའ་བ ལ་

པ། །གསོན་དང་ལེགས་པར་བ ངས་པའི་ ། །བོད་ ི་ ོད་པ་ངན་པ་དང་། །སེམས་ཅན་བསོན་ནམས་མར་འ ིབ་ བས། །ཕན་པའི་ ་བ་འདི་འ ་དགོས། །ལ་ ར་ར་བའི་ཚ ས་

482 ད་མོ་] conj. emend., ས་མོ་] A B.

483 བ ་ལ། །ཟབ་མོ་ གས་ ི་གཏེར་གནས་གཙ འི། ། ན་ལ་གནས་ཆེན་ ིན་འབེབས་ ིས། །ས་གནད་[138] མས་ ་ བ་པ་ ིས། ། ་ལམ་ མས་ ་བ ོག་པ་མཛ ད། །ནད་

ི་བ ལ་པ་ཞི་བའི་ ིར། །བ ད་ ི་ ན་ བ་ ན་ལ་འ ེད། ། ་གེའི་བ ལ་པ་ཞི་བའི་ ིར། །ཚ གས་འཁོར་ ིན་ ེག་འ མ་ ག་འ ལ། །མཚ ན་ ི་བ ལ་པ་ཞི་བའི་ ིར། །མདོས་ དང་གཏོར་མའི་བ ོག་པ་ ིས།  ། ས་ ི་གཡོ་འ ག་ཞི་བའི་ ིར།  །གཏེར་ཆེན་ ས་དང་མཆོད་ ེན་བཞེངས།  །ས་གནད་ཐམས་ཅད་ལེགས་པར་བ ོམ།  །ཡར་མར་ཚ ས་པ་བ ་
མས་ལ།  །ཚ གས་ ི་འཁོར་ལོ་ ས་པར་བཤམས།  །ཚ ས་བ ད་ ོལ་མ་དཀོན་མཆོག་མཆོད། །ཉེར་ད ར་ཆོས་ ོང་གཏོར་མས་བ ན།  ། ས་བཞིར་དགེ་འ ན་ཚ གས་སོགས་ མཛ ད།  །ད ་ག མ་ ར་པའི་གཏོར་ ོག་ ིས།  །ཀ འི་གནས་ ི་བ ོར་བ་ལ།  །ལེགས་ཉེས་ ེན་འ ེལ་ ད་མོ་ཡོད།  །ཁ་ལ་རོང་ ོའི་ལ་ཁ་ལ།  །དཔའ་བོ་མཁའ་འ ོ་ལེགས་ གཏམ་ཡོད།  །ན་ ན་ ོང་གི་གནས་མཆོག་ ། །མཁའ་འ ོ་ མས་ ི་ཚ གས་འཁོར་ཡོད།  །ནམ་མཁའ་མཛ ད་ ི་ ོ་ངོས་ན།  ། ག་ གས་མ ་ཡི་བཀའ་བབ་དང་།  །བཤད་ བ་ བ ན་[139]པའི་ ེལ་ གས་ཡོད།  ། ི་འ མས་སེང་གེའི་ ོང་ ོགས་ནས།  ། ལ་འ ོར་གསང་བའི་ཚ གས་འཁོར་མཐོང་།  མདོ་ ད་ བ་ ང་ ་དར་དེ།  །བོད་ཁམས་ཡོངས་

ལ་བ ེང་བ་མཐོང་། །གཟེ་ཡི་མ་ཡོ་ག་པ་ལ། །ཡང་དག་དོན་ ི་ངེས་ཚ ག་མཐོང་། །དཔལ་ ི་ཆོས་འཁོར་ མ་ག མ་ནས། །གསང་བ་མཁའ་འ ོས་མཆོད་འ ལ་དང་། །བོད་ ཁམས་བདེ་བའི་ ས་འགའ་མཐོང་། ། མ་ ི་གངས་མ ལ་ག ་མཚ ་ནས། །རིག་འཛ ན་ ་མའི་ ིན་ བས་མཐོང་། ། ་ ལ་གོ་བོའི་ ག་དག་ནས། །བོད་ཁམས་ལེགས་ཉེས་ གསལ་པོ་མཐོང་། །ཀོ་རི་ ག་གི་གཡས་ ར་ནས། ། ད་པར་ཅན་ ི་ ེན་མཆོག་མཐོང་། ། ་ ལ་ཁམས་ཡོངས་ལ་ ད་མོ་ ོས༑ །ཞེས་ག ངས་དམ་བཅའ་འདི་འ ་ ལ། ། ེ་ ཧོ་དགོངས་ཤིག་ ་ ་ ེ། ། ལ་བ་ ི་དང་ ེ་ཉིད་ ི། ། ས་ནས་འ ོ་དོན་ ེས་ ་ང་། །སེམས་བ ེད་གོ་ཆ་འདི་ ོན་ནས། །བཀའ་ གས་ ག་ ་འདི་ ེར་ལ། ། ོན་ ི་ ོན་

ལམ་ ོབས་དག་གིས། །འ ོ་དོན་མ་ ས་ ེད་པར་ཤོག ། བས་གནས་དཀོན་མཆག �་ མ་ག མ་[140]དང་། ། ་ ་ ེ་དང་མི་འ ལ་བ། །མོས་ ས་ ལ་མའི་ལམ་ ་

འ ག །ཐོས་བསམ་བ ོམ་པའི་ཤེས་རབ་ ལ། །ལང་ཚ ་ཉིན་རེ་བཞིན་ ་ ེལ། ། ་ ོལ་ ལ་དང་ཡིད་ ེད་ ལ། །མཐའ་ ལ་ ་བའི་ངང་ལ་འཇོག །བདག་གིས་འ ལ་ འི་ མཁའ་ བ་འ ོ། །ཉེ་རིང་མེད་པར་བདག་གི་མ། ། མས་པས་བ ང་ལ་ ིང་ ེ་བས། །དེ་དོན་ ེད་ ིར་ ོགས་སངས་ བ། །ཆོས་བ ད་ ག་དང་མ་འ ེས་པའི། །ག ལ་ ་

ང་བ་འ ེན་ལ་བ ོན།   །མཐོང་ཐོས་ ན་རེག་ཐམས་ཅད་ ན།   ། ང་ བ་ལམ་ཉིད་ ོན་ལམ་འདེབས།   །མདོ་ གས་རིས་ ་མ་ཆད་པའི།   །བ ན་པ་ ང་འ ེལ་ ག་ ་
ོངས།  །ཐེག་པ་ཆེ་ལ་གསང་བ་ གས།  ། ང་ཟད་དམན་ལ་སོ་སོར་ཐར། ། ན་ལ་ ་འ ས་བ ་མེད་དང་།  ། ང་ བ་སེམས་ནི་ཡོངས་ ་ ོན།  ། ས་ཚ ད་དག་དང་འ ེལ་བ་ དང་།  ། ོ་དང་འཚམས་པའི་ ོད་པ་ ེད།  །ཆེ་ ང་ཉེ་རིང་གང་འ ེལ་ཡང་། །རེ་བའི་འ ས་ ་མཆིས་པ་དང་། །གནས་ བས་མཐར་ ག་ཕན་བདེ་ལ།  ད ི་བའི་ཐབས་ ལ་ཅི་ ས་ འབད།   །བདག་དང་བཟང་ངན་གང་འ ེལ་བ།   །མཐར་[141] ག་སངས་ ས་འ བ་པར་ཤོག   །ཅེས་པ་མཆོག་ ར་ ིང་པ་ཞེས།   ། ན་ ིས་བ ོད་ལ་འགའ་ཞིག་
ད།  །བཏང་ ོམས་མི་བཞག་ ེང་བའི་ །  །འདི་འ འི་བ བ་ ་མི་འོས་ ང་།  །རང་ཆེ་ང་ ལ་དག་ ང་ ང་།  འོན་ ང་དམ་བཅའ་ངེས་པར་ །།

483 ་ལམ་] conject. emend. ་ལམ་] AB.



ན་མོ་ ་ ། ཤིང་ཡོས་ ེལ་ ་ར་བའི་ཡར་ངོའི་ཚ ས་བཞི། མཉམ་མེད་བདག་ཅག་གི་ ོན་པ་ཆེན་པོས་ཆོས་འཁོར་བ ོར་བའི་ ས་ཆེན་ལ། ེ་ ལ་བའི་ ་ཐར་ ེ་ཞབས་ ང་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་འཇམ་ ད ངས་མ ེན་བ ེའི་དབང་པོ་མཆོག་གི་གཏེར་གསར་ གས་ ེ་ཆེན་པོའི་ཆོས་ ོ་ ེ་བའི་ ས་ལ་བབ་མ་བབ་484བ ག་པ་ཞིབ་ཆ་དགོས་ཞེས་ཕེབས་པས། གདན་ས་ཆེན་པོ་དཔལ་ ངས་དགོན་

་ ་ཆར་ ེབས་པར་ ས་ནས།  ཚ གས་འཁོར་དང་བཅས་ཏེ་གསོལ་བ་བཏབ་པས།  ཚ ས་ འི་ཐོ་རངས་485ཁར་ ི་ལམ་ ་ གས་ ེ་ཆེན་པོ་གསང་བ་འ ས་པ་ཚ ན་གང་བ་ཞིག་མཇལ།  དེ་
ེས་མཁའ་འ ོ་མ་གསང་བ་ཡེ་ཤེས་དམར་མོ་ ག་བཞི་ཅན་ ི་ཐོད་འཛ ན་པ་མ ན་ ི་ནམ་མཁར་ཡེ་རེ་ ང་།	ད་ ་མཁའ་ ོད་ ་འ ོ་ག ངས།486 དེ་ཡི་ ་ ེས་[142] ་ ིན་པས་རང་
ང་ལས་ བ་པའི་ཡེ་ཤེས་ ི་གཞལ་ཡས་ཁང་ ་ཨོ་ ན་ཆེན་པོ་གཙ ་འཁོར་ མས་བ ་ལམ་མེ་ ིན་ཐིབས་སེ་བ གས་པ་དང་མཇལ།  ཨོ་ ན་ཆེན་པོ་ལ་ ག་ ེན་གསང་གོས་ ོ་ ་ཞིག་དང་ གསེར་ ི་འཁོར་ལོ་ ལ་ ག་འཚལ་ཏེ།  ཨོ་ ན་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། བདག་བོད་འབངས་ཆོས་ ེད་ མས་ལ་ གས་ ེས་ ངས།   ད་པར་ གས་ ེ་ཆེན་པོའི་487ཆོས་ ོ་ ེ་རན་488ཡོད་མེད།   ེ་
ལ་དང་ ེ་བའི་དགོས་ཆེད་བཅས་བཀའ་བ ལ་ ་གསོལ་ ས་པས། ཨོ་ ན་ ི་ཞལ་འ མ་དང་བཅས་པས་ ག་ ེན་ ག་གིས་བཞེས་ཏེ།	 ར་ ོད་ལ་བ འི་ ང་བ ན་ ང་མ་གོ	།འོན་
ང་ཆོས་བདག་ ེས་ཆེན་དམ་པའི་ གས་བ ེད་ མ་པར་དག་པ་དང་། གསོལ་བ་ནན་ཆེར་བཏབ་པ་ཤིན་ ་ལེགས།  ད་དབང་བ ར་བ་ཡིན་ཞེས་ག ངས་ཏེ་ཐེག་པ་འོག་མ་ག མ་ ི་ ོམ་ པ་དང་། ཚ གས་བསགས་མདོ་ ོག་489མཛད།   ་གོན་དང་།  གསང་ གས་ ི་པའི་ད ིལ་འཁོར་ ་དབང་བ ར་ ིན་ ེག་མཛད།  ར་ཡང་གསང་འ ས་བ བས་490ཏེ་ བ་དབང་ གིས་ ིན་པར་མཛད། དེ་ཡང་ཆོ་གའི་མ ག་ཆོག་ར ྣའི་ གས་ ེ་ཆེན་པོས་མཛད་པར་[143]འ ག  དེ་ནས་ ་ ་རིན་པོ་ཆེའི་ཞལ་ནས།   ་ ོད་ ོན་ ི་ ོན་ལམ་ ི་མ ་བཙན་པས་ད་
་ ལ་བ་མཆོག་ད ངས་ ིས་ ིན་ ིས་བ བས་པ་ཞིག་ ེ།  ལ་ ན་མཆོག་ ར་ ིང་པ།  ར ྣ་ ིང་པའི་ཆོས་ ི་བདག་པོ་ཁམས་ ི་ ོགས་ནས་དཀོན་མཆོག་མིང་ཅན་ཞེས་ར ྣ་ ིང་པའི་ མཚན་ ི་ མ་ ངས་འ ོ་འ ལ་ ིང་པ་ཡང་ གས་པས།  ོད་ ི་གསང་ ོད་ཧེ་ ་ཀའི་ཆས་ ་ གས་ན།  ེན་འ ེལ་ལེགས་པར་འ ིགས་ན་རབ་ ་འ ར་ཞིང་།   འ ིང་མཁའ་འ ོ་བ ་

ཐབས་ ི་ ེན་འ ེལ་རབ་ ི་དངོས་དང་བ ད་པའི་ ོ་ནས་ ེན་འ ེལ་ ིས་བ ན་འ ོར་ཕན་པ་ ་ཆེན་པོ་ཐོགས་པར་ཡོད་ད། །ཆོས་བདག་ ་བ་ཉི་ ་ ོ་ ེ་ག མ་ནི། ོང་པོ་ཞི་ ས་དབང་

ག །དེ་ལས་ཚན་གཉིས་ ེས་པའི་ཡལ་ག་བ ད། དེ་ལས་ ང་བ ་ ག་སོགས་ ེས་པར་ ར་ལ། དེ་ཡི་ ་བ་དང་པོ་ཉི་ཞེས་པ ྨ་ཉིན་ ེད་ ིས་མངའ་གསོལ་མཛད།  ོང་པོ་ལས་བཞིའི་ ནང་ཚན་དབང་ཞེས་པ། ༈ འཇམ་ད ངས་མ ེན་བ ེའི་དབང་པོས་ཆོས་ ོ་ ེ་བར་མཛད་པས་ཆོས་འདིའི་འ ོ་དོན་བ ལ་པའི་མཐའ་བར་ཉི་འོག་ ན་ལ་ བ་པར་འ ོ་[144]དོན་ ེད་པའི་
ེན་འ ེལ་ཟབ་མོའི་གནད་མ་འ ལ་བར་བ ་ཐིམ།	ཆོས་ ོ་ད ེ་བའི་ ལ་ཡང་།	ལམ་མ་ ང་བར་ ིན་དབང་ ་ ེ།	 ོམ་པ་ག མ་ ན་ ིས་ ོབ་དཔོན་ཚད་དང་ ན་པས།	 ོབ་ མར་ཐེག་པ་རིམ་འ ག་གིས་མ་ ིན་ ི་བར་ ་ ིན་བཞིན་ ོམ་པ་དང་།	དབང་ ོལ་བཞིན་ ིད་ལོ་ ངས་ ི་ཚད་ ་ལོན་དང་།  ཐོབ་ཆོག་མི་ ེད་པར་ ོབ་མ་ཡང་དག་པའི་ལམ་ལ་མཐའ་

484 བབ་མ་བབ་] B, བབས་མ་བབས་] A. 485 ཐོ་རངས་] B, ཐོ་རེངས་] A. 486 ག ངས།] B, ག ང་།] A. 487 པོའི་] A, པོ་] B. 488 ེ་རན་] B, ེད་ན་] A. 489 ོག་] B, ོགས་] A. 490 བ བས་] B, བ བ་] A.


ིན་པར་ ེད་པ་ཡིན།   ོབ་མ་ ར་ ིན་ཅིང་ ོ་ ེ་འཛ ན་པའི་ས་ལ་ ིན་པ་ མས་ལ་བ ད་པའི་ ིན་ བས་ ི་ ་བོ་བ ེས་  ཤིང་།  ཉེ་བ ད་དང་ ེན་འ ེལ་ ི་དགོས་ཆེད་ བ་ཐག་

ཉེ་ ིར་བ ེས་ན། དེ་ཡང་ བ་དབང་དང་གདེབ་གཤར་གཉིས་ལས། བ་དབང་ བས། ་གོན་ ི་ ོན་ ་ཐེག་པ་492འོག་མ་ག མ། ་གོན་ ི་ ེས་ ་ ི་ཡ་སོགས་གསང་ གས་ ི་པ། དེ་ནས་ བ་ཞག་ཇི་ཙམ་ ང་བའི་མཐར། མ་ ་སོགས་ཡོ་ག་ག མ་ མས་བ ར། དབང་ ས་ ་ གས་ ན་མེད་ ང་ ང་ལ། དཔའ་བོ་གཅིག་པས་ ང་ བ་ཆེན་ ང་ཞིང་ ང་པོ་གདན་ ག མ་ཚང་བས་སོ། དགོས་ཆེད་ནི་ ་ བ་ཐག་ཉེ་ལ། ིན་ བས་ ི་ཚན་ཆེ། ཆོས་[145]བདག་རང་གི་ བ་མཐའ་ལ་མཐའ་དམག་གི་འཇིགས་པ་མི་འ ང་། ད་པར་དབང་གི་ མཚན་འཛ ན་ལ་ལོ་འདིར་བར་ཆད་ཆེ་ཞིང་། ་ཚ འི་འ ང་དམ་པས་དེ་ལ་ཕན་ཞིང་། དེ་ཡང་ཉམས་ ་ལེན་ཞིང་ འི་རིམ་ ོ་དང་ ོང་དག་ ས་ན། ག་ ་རེ་གཅིག་བར་ ་བ ིང་། དེ་ནས་ཚ ་ བ་ཟབ་མོས་ ིང་བར་ ེད་དོ། །བ ན་འ ོ་སེམས་ཅན་ལ་ཕན་པ་ ་ཆེན་པོ་འ ང་བར་ངེས། གཞན་ཡང་བ བ་དོན་གདམས་པ་ཆོས་བདག་འདི་ཡིན་ ི་ ང་བ ན་པ་སོགས་ མཐའ་ཡས་པ་ཡོད་ ང་རེ་ཞིག་དེ་ཙམ་མོ། །མཐར་འོད་ ི་གོང་ ར་ ར་ནས་བདག་ལ་ཐིམ་པར་ ར་ཏོ། ་ ་ ༔ ཞེས་པའི་ཉམས་ ང་ ང་བ ན་འདི་ཉིད་ ལ་པའི་གཏེར་ཆེན་མཆོག་གི་

ག་ ིས་དངོས་ལས་འ ར་མེད་ཚ ་དབང་ གས་པས་ས་ ག་ཆོ་འ ལ་ ་བའི་དཀར་ ོགས་ ི་དགའ་བ་གཉིས་པར་ཞལ་བ ས་པ་ས ་ ་མ ྒ་ལཾ།

491 བ ེས་] B, བ ེ་] A. 492 ཐེག་པ་] A, ཐེག་པའི་] B.


༈ །ལགས། ཱ་འ ་རིན་ཆེན་ ག་དཔལ་ ངས་ ི་གནས་ ོ་འ ེད་པར་དགོས་ཞེས་བཀའ་བ ལ་ ང་དོན་བཞིན་ ་ག མ་མཁའ་འ ོའི་ ང་བ ན་འདི་ ར་[146]མཆིས། གས་

ི་གནས་མཆོག་ ཱ་འ ་འདི༔   ིང་ ་འདབ་བ ད་ ལ་ ་ཡོད༔  ཤར་ ོ་དཔལ་ཆེན་ཧེ་ ་ཀའི༔   ་ཁང་བཞེངས་ཤིང་གནས་ ང་ལ༔   ེན་བཅའ་བ ེན་ག གས་493 ས་ནས་ ༔ གནས་ ོ་འ ེད་པར་ཤིན་ ་གཅེས༔ ཞེས་དང་།  ང་བ ན་མདོ་ ང་ལས།  ག་པ་ ང་ ་ ལ་པའི་ ་ཁང་འ ང་༔  དེ་ཉིད་འཕོས་ནས་ཤར་ ོགས་མི་མགོ་བ ེགས༔   ཱ་འ ་རིན་ ཆེན་ ངས་ ་ ་ཁང་འ ང་༔  བཻ་རོའི་ མ་འ ལ་  ་ ོ་ ོས་གཉིས༔  ཧེ་ ་ཀ་དཔལ་ས་ལ་འཕོས་པ་ཡི༔ མཐོང་ཐོས་ ན་རེག་ ོལ་བའི་ ་ཡང་བཞེངས༔ ནང་ ད་ ེ་ག མ་ བ་པའི་
ེ་བ གས་494ནས༔  བ ོན་འ ས་ཅན་དག་མཁའ་ ོད་ངེས་པར་འ བ༔  ཅེས་སོགས་པའི་ ང་བ ན་སོགས་དང་།  མཁའ་འ ོའི་གསང་ ང་ལས།  ངེས་པར་དགོན་གནས་མི་ཡིས་

འཇིག༔ ང་ ོགས་དཔལ་ཆེན་ ་ཁང་བཞེངས༔ ཞེས་པས་གནས་ ི་གཙ ་བོ་གནས་ཆེན་ཉེར་ འི་ ེར་འཕགས་པའི་ ེས་ ་རེ་འ ང་། དེ་ མས་ ིས་ ་ཁང་རེ་བཞེངས་ན་བོད་ཁམས་ བདེ་ཐབས་དེ་བས་ ག་པ་མི་དགོས་པར་ག ངས་པས། འདིར་[147]ཡང་། གནས་ ི་ཤར་ ོགས་ཡེ་ཤེས་ ་ཡི་མཚ ན་པ་ཤར་ ོ་འདིར་ཧེ་ ་ཀ་ཡི་ ་ཁང་བཞེངས། ཡོངས་འ ས་ཤིང་

ར་ གས་ ང་མའི་ ེན་ཡིན་པས་དེ་འ ེལ་ཤར་ ོ་འདིར་ ང་མའི་ ེན་བཅའ་ཞིང་གནས་ ོ་འ ེད་པར་གལ་ཆེ་བས་དེ་ ར་འ ང་ བ་མིན་ ་མཆེད་གཉེར་ ག་ ན་ གས་ ོས་མཛད་ ནས་ག ང་གསལ་ །	ཞེས་ ག་ ིས་ ག་ཐམ་ཅན་བ ལ་ཏོ།།	༈



ལ་ ན་འ ས་ག གས་པ ྨ་ ་ར་ཡི།	།གསང་བ་ག མ་ ི་ ་འ ལ་རོལ་པའི་ཚ གས།	།གཅིག་ལས་ ་མ་ མས་ ང་495གཅིག་འ ས་པའི།	། ལ་ ས་ ་ག མ་ ང་མར་བཅས་ལ་

འ ད། །ཆོས་ད ིངས་ མ་པར་དག་པའི་ ་ལམ་ནས། །རང་ ལ་ཡེ་ཤེས་ཤིང་ ་ལ་ ངས་པའི། ། མ་ ན་ཕན་བདེ་ ེལ་བའི་འོད་འ མ་ཅན། །ད ིལ་འཁོར་རབ་འ མས་ ང་བས་ ཤིས་ ར་ཅིག །འདིར་ ་འ ར་བཀའ་གཏེར་དག་ ང་བབ་496སོ་ག མ་ ི་ནང་ནས་བ ད་པ་ ག་ ན་ ིས་འཕགས་པ་གཏེར་མའི་ ོགས་ ངས་བ ན་ཞིང་། གནད་ཟབ་མེད་ ་མི་

ང་བའི་གདམས་ ོར་ བ་པར་ཕོངས་པའི་རིགས་ མས་ ོགས་གཅིག་ ་བ ིགས་པར་མཛད་[148]པའི་ གས་བ ེད་ ་ཆེན་པོ་ལོ་ཆེན་བཻ་རོའི་དངོས་ ལ་འ ེན་མཆོག་ ོ་ ེ་སེམས་དཔའ་ ཀོང་ ལ་རིན་པོ་ཆེས་མཛད་པའི་ཚ །	ཁོ་བོ་ལ་ ང་མིན་བ ག་497པ་དགོས་ཞེས་ག ངས་པ་ནན་ཆེར་ ་ག མ་ ་ལ་གསོལ་བ་བཏབ་པས་གནང་བ་ ལ་པའི་ ང་བ་ ་མ་ཤར་ཞིང་།  ག་

པར་ ་ ་རིན་པོ་ཆེས་གཏེར་མའི་ ོར་ ི་ ་ ི་མང་པོ་ཞིག་ ོགས་གཅིག་ ་བ ོམས་ནས་རང་ལ་གནང་ནས་གཞན་ཞིག་ལ་བཀའ་གཏད་དགོས་པའི་བ བ་ ན་བ ལ་པའི་ ང་བ་གསལ་པོ་

ང་བས།	ཀོང་ ལ་འཇམ་པའི་ ོ་ ེ་ཉིད་ལ་ཡང་བཀའ་གཏད་ ལ་ཞིང་།	གདམས་པ་ ན་ཚ གས་ ང་ ན་མེད་པ་འགའ་རེ་ཐབས་ ོལ་བ ག་གཞིག་ ་མའི་ ོ་ནས་ ང་ ན་ཐོབ་པ་
ང་བ་ ིས་འདི་འཆད་ཉན་དོན་མེད་ ་མི་འ ོ་བར་བ ད་པ་འཛ ན་ངེས་ ེགས་བམ་བཞེངས་ཤིང་འཆད་ཉན་མཛད་པ་དང་མཐའ་ན་ཆོས་ཚན་རེ་རེ་མཐར་ ིན་བ ེན་ བ་མཛད་མཁན་མ་

གཏོགས་རང་བཞིན་ཐོབ་ཆག �498 ་ ་ཆོས་བབ་ཆོལ་རིགས་མི་མཛད་པར་གལ་ཆེ། ེགས་བམ་འདི་རིགས་ལ་བ ེ་བ ད་བཅོས་བ ར་འ ི་བ ན་སོགས་ ལ་མིན་ ོད་མཁན་ མས་ལ་བཀའ་

ང་ མས་ ིས་བཀའ་ཡི་ཆད་པ་ཆོད།	 ལ་[149]བཞིན་འ ི་ ོག་ ན་ བ་འཆད་ཉན་ ོམ་ བ་ ེད་མཁན་ མས་ལ།	དཔལ་མ་ ་ཀ་ལ་ མ་ ལ་ཆོས་ ོང་བའི་ ལ་པོ་ མ་

499 མང་ཐོས་ ི་ ས་ཞིང་ ོང་ ར་ ོད་ ་མོ་ ་ཆེན་དབང་ ག་མགོན་དཀར་ཡབ་ མ་བ ་ཤིས་ཚ ་རིང་མ་ མས་ ིས་ ང་ཞིང་ ོང་བ་ དང་གང་འདོད་པའི་ ིན་ལས་ བས་ཤིག ། ེགས་

500 བམ་འདི་ མས་ ི་གཉེར་ཁ་ ིས་ལ་ ངས་ཤིག་ཅེས་ པ་མཆོག་ ར་ ིང་པས་ ིས་པ་དགེ།

495 མས་ ང་] B, མ་ཡང་] A. 496 བབ་] B, བབས་] A. 497 བ ག་] B, བ གས་] A. 498 མིན་] B, མེད་] A. 499 ོང་བ་] B, ོངས་] A. 500 ཅེས་] B, ཞེས་] A.



༈ཨེ་མ་ཧོ༔ །ཤར་ ོགས་དཔལ་ ངས་རི་ ོད་ཡང་དབེན་ནས། ། ེ་བ ན་ ་མ་ཀོང་ ལ་རིན་པོ་ཆེས། །ཁོང་ལ་ ལ་བའི་མགོན་ ་གཏེར་ ོན་དེ། །ཧེ་ ་ཀ་ཡི་ ་ཁང་ནང་


་ནི།	།མགོན་ཁང་ ེན་གཙ ་མཛད་པའི་ ་འ ་དེའི།	།ལོ་ ས་གཏེར་འ ང་ ོན་ ་ ལ་ན་ཡང་།	།ད་ ང་དགོས་ཆེད་གང་ཡོད་བཀའ་བ ལ་ ང་།	། ་	 ་པ ྨའི་གསང་
ང་ ི་ ང་སོགས།	། ན་ ི་དགོངས་པར་ ག་འ ང་ ་ཁང་འདི།	།བཞེངས་ན་བོད་ ལ་ས་གནད་ཆེ་བ་དང་།	། ད་པར་ ིང་པོའི་བ ན་པའི་ ོག་ ་འ ར།	། ན་གཟིགས་

ཀོང་ ལ་གར་ ི་དབང་པོ་ཉིད། །ལོ་ཆེན་བཻ་རོའི་དངོས་ ལ་ཡིན་པའི་ ིར། །དེ་[150]ལ་དཔལ་ ན་མགོན་པོའི་ཆོས་ ོར་དང་། །མགོན་ ་ ལ་ན་ ིང་པོའི་བ ན་པ་

502 ཡི། ། གས་རི་ཡོང་བ་ ང་བ ན་ཤིན་ ་གསལ། །དེ་ ིར་ ང་ ར་ ་མ་དམ་པར་ ལ། ། ེན་དང་ཆོས་ནི་ ས་འཛ ན་གཅེས་པར་ ངས། །ཡལ་བར་མ་དོར་དགོས་པ་ ཆེ་བར་ཡོད། །གང་ ན་མ་ཡིན་པ ྨའི་ ང་བཞིན་ཡིན། །གལ་ཆེན་ཡིན་ནོ་ ས་ངན་ ིགས་མ་འདིར། །གནས་གཞི་ ེན་དགོན་ ིང་པ་མི་ཟིན་ ས། །གསར་པ་བཟོ་བའི་ངལ་བ་ དོན་མེད་ ང་། ། ེ་བ ན་ ་མ་གར་ ི་དབང་ ག་གིས། །གསར་ ིང་བ ན་པའི་ ིང་ནོར་ཟབ་ཆོས་ མས། །མི་འཐོར་རིན་ཆེན་ ོམ་ནང་གཅིག་བ ས་པའི། །མར་ ོག་ད ིལ་

503 འཁོར་ཟབ་མོའི་གཏེར་ཆོས་ མས། །ཆོག་བ ིག་དབང་ ང་བཤད་ ིད་མཛད་པ་མང་། །ག ག་ལག་བཞེངས་པའི་སོས་དལ་མིན་པ་དང་། ། ོང་བ་རི་ ོད་པ་ ་སོང་གཤིས་

ི།	། ེན་བཞེངས་མཛད་པའི་ཟང་ཟིང་ཆེ་བར་མེད།	།འོན་ ང་ང་ཡི་གཏེར་ ང་ཟོལ་མེད་ ས།	།ཁོང་གིས་དེ་ལ་ཡིད་ཆེས་དང་ལེན་ ིས།	།དཀའ་བ་ ་མས་ ེན་དང་བ ེན་ བཅས་ བ། །བ ན་པའི་ ོག་ཤིང་དབོན་ ལ་རིན་པོ་[151]ཆེས།	།མ ན་ ེན་མཛད་ཅིང་ ི་ནང་ངོ་མཚར་ བ།	། ན་གཟིགས་མ ེན་བ ེའི་དབང་པོ་བདག་ ང་གིས།  །ནང་
ེན་གང་བཟང་ཐམས་ཅད་ཁོང་ལ་ ལ།	།མང་པོ་དགོས་ ང་ ་ཡང་མ་ བ་ཅིང་།	།འཇམ་མགོན་ ན་གཟིགས་མ ེན་བ ེའི་དབང་པོ་ཡིས།	། བ་གནས་ ལ་པོ་པ ྨ་ཤེལ་ ག་

དང་། །པ ྨ་དབང་ ག་ མས་ ་ ད་པར་ཅན། །བཟོ་བར་མཛད་ མས་ཕན་བདེ་འ ང་བའི་གནས། ། ཱ་འ ་རིན་ཆེན་དཔལ་ ངས་རི་ ོད་ ི། །ཧེ་ ་ཀ་ཡི་ ་ཁང་འདི་ དག་ ། ། ེལ་ལོ་དགོངས་འ ས་ ན་ བ་ ང་བ ན་ ར། ། ལ་དབང་ ་ནག་བ ་བཞི་པ་ཆེན་པོ། །མཆོག་གི་ ལ་ ་པ ྨ་ ན་བཟང་སོགས། །འདི་ ་དགོངས་འ ས་ ན་


བ་ཆེན་པོ་མཛད།	།ཡེ་ཤེས་མགོན་པོ་ ོ་ ེ་ ག་ ག་པ།	།བཀའ་ ང་ ་བཙན་འབར་བའི་ ིན་ལས་ ིས།	།མི་ཆེན་ ལ་ ོན་ མས་དང་ཡོན་མཆོད་ ང་།	།དེང་སང་	རོང་

དམག་འདི་ཡིས་ ར་ཟིང་གིས། །ཐམས་ཅད་འ ོས་པའི་ཁོང་མེད་ ག་བ ལ་ཆེ། །ཀར་ ིང་བ ན་འཛ ན་ཐམས་ཅད་ ོད་ཟོལ་བདེ། །འདི་ཡང་ག ང་ལག་ཁང་འདིའི་བཀའ་ ིན་

[152]ཡིན། །ད་ ང་ བས་ཉེས་མཐའ་ད ས་ཐམས་ཅད་འ གས། །བོད་ཁམས་ ་ཡང་མི་བདེ་ ་ཚ གས་འ ང་། །དེ་དག་བ ོག་རིམ་ག ག་ལག་ཁང་འདི་ ། །བོད་ ཁམས་བདེ་བའི་རིམ་ ོ་ ང་བཞིན་ བ། །མ་འོངས་ ས་ ་ག ག་ལག་ཁང་འདི་དང་། ། བ་ ན་མན་ངག་དང་བཅས་ཉམས་མ་འ ག །འདི་ལ་དོན་ཆེན་ཡོད་དོ་ ི་རབས་

མས།  །འདི་ཡང་གཅིག་གི་ ེར་དོན་མ་ཡིན་ ི།	།རིས་མེད་བ ན་པ་ཆོས་མཛད་ཕན་བདེ་ངེས།	།འདི་ ར་ ོ་ ོགས་ཀ འི་རི་ ོད་ །	།མཆོག་ ར་ ིང་པ་ལོ་ག མ་མཚམས་ ི་

501 ང་། ། ་] B, ང་ ་] A. 502 ངས་།] B, ང་། A. 503 མང་།] B, མར།] A. 504 སང་] conj. emendation, སོང་] AB.

བས།	། ་མའི་བཀའ་ལན་དགེ་ ོར་ ན་གསེང་ལ།	། ིས་ནས་ ལ་བ་ད ེས་པའི་རོལ་མོར་ཤོག	།ཅེས་པ་འདི་ལ་དོན་གནད་ཆེན་པོ་ཡོད་པས་ད་ ་བ གས་པ་དང་ ད་ནས་ འ ོན་པར་འ ར་བའི་བ ན་པ་ ི་དང་ ེ་ ག་ལ་ གས་ ལ་ཡོད་པ་ མས་ ིས་དོན་འདི་ཡལ་བར་མི་འདོར་བ་ཅི་ནས་གལ་ཆེ་བ་ཡོད་དོ།།



༅༅། ། ེས་འ ག་ ལ་བཟང་ མས་ལ་བ ལ་པའི་ཞལ་གདམས་བ བ་ ་ཉམས་ལེན་ ི་ ོར་ ང་ ང་མིག་འ ེད་ཟབ་དོན་ ིང་གི་བ ད་ ི་ཞེས་ ་བ་བ གས་སོ།།


505 506 ༈ ་ ་པ ྨ་འ ང་གནས་ལ། ། ག་འཚལ་ ིན་ ིས་བ བ་ ་གསོལ། །བདེན་པའི་ཚ ག་ཅིག་ འདི་ན་བ ོད། །གཏེར་ ོན་མཁའ་ ོད་ ོ་ ེ་ལ། །ཡབ་ ས་ མས་ ི་

507 བཀའ་བ ོན་ཆེ། །དེ་ཡི་ ་མཚན་འདི་ ་ ེ། །ད་ནི་གཏེར་ ོན་འ ང་ ་མེད། །ཟེར་བའི་འབེལ་གཏམ་ཞིག་ལ་བ ེན། ། ར་ ོག་ ེས་ ་ ག་དང་མ ངས། ། ོན་

ས་ཞིག་པོ་ ིང་པ་ལ།	།མཁས་ བ་ ེས་ཆེན་ ་མ་ཡི།	།ཆོས་ལོག་ཡིན་ཞེས་བཀག་པ་ཆེ།	།དེང་སང་གཏེར་ཆེན་བ ་ ་ཡི།	། ིང་པ་བ ་གཉིས་ ལ་ ་བ ང་།	།དགོངས་

[123] 508 509 འ ས་བ ད་པར་ཕན་ཐོགས་ ཆེ། །གཏེར་ཆོས་དབང་ ང་ཆོས་བ ད་ མས། །ད་ ་ ིན་ ོལ་ ིང་ལ་ ག །མཁའ་ ོད་ ོ་ ེའི་གཏེར་ཆོས་ མས། །ད་ ་

ད་ ག་གཙ ་ཆེ་བ།	། ་ཞབས་ཁམས་ ལ་དཔོན་ ོབ་ ི།	།ཉམས་བཞེས་དར་སོ་ཤིན་ ་ཆེ།	། མ་ཐར་གཏེར་ཆོས་ ང་དང་མ ན།	། ང་བ ན་ མས་ ིས་ཤིན་ ་ཐིག	།དེ་
ིར་ཚད་ ན་མ་ཡིན་ནམ།	།གཏེར་ཆོས་རིམ་པར་དར་ངོ་འ ག	།དེ་ཡིས་གནས་ ོ་ ེས་མཛད་པའི།	།གནས་མཆོག་ནོར་ ་འོད་འབར་ལ།	། བ་པ་ ས་ན་ཕན་ཡོན་ཆེ།	། ག་

510 དང་བ ོར་བ་ལེགས་པར་མཛད། །ཉམས་དང་ ི་ལམ་བཟང་བའི་ ིར། །གནས་ནི་ ཚད་ ན་ཡིན་པར་སེམས། །གཏེར་ ོན་དེ་ཡི་མཛད་ཆོས་ལ། །ཉི་མ་ གས་པའི་བ ང་

བ་ཞིག།ཡོད་པར་བ ེན་ནས་བཀག་པ་མཛད། །གཏེར་ ོན་མི་འ ར་ ོ་ ེ་དང་། །གཏེར་ ོན་ཉི་མ་ གས་པ་གཉིས། ། གས་ནང་མ་གཤིན་ ད་རེས་མང། །ཟངས་ ིས་མགོ་

511 512 ཡང་ ་ འི་ ང། །འ ག་གོ་ག ང་ལ་བསམ་ ོ་ཐོངས། ། ག་དང་ ས་ ན་ ེང་ མོའང་ཡོད། །གཏེར་ ོན་ བ་ཐོབ་ ལ་པོ་ལ།།ག ང་ན་ ག་གསང་མི་གདའ་འོ། །དེ་

འ ་ ོན་ ས་ཞིག་ ིང་[124]དང་། །མངའ་རིས་པཎ་ཆེན་པ ྨ་དབང་། །གཏེར་ ན �་ མ་གཉིས་ གས་མ་གཤིན། །ཆོས་བ ད་གཉིས་ཀས་ ད་རེས་མང་། །ད་ ་ ང་ ་འ ག་

པར་མཛད། །ཀར་འ ག་ མ་གཉིས་ ར་ ས་འ གས། །དེང་སང་ ་བོ་གཅིག་ ་འ ེས། །གཞན་ཡང་དེ་འ ་མང་ ་མཆིས། །དམ་སེལ་ཡོད་མེད་ད ེ་གསལ་དཀའ། །དེ་


ིར་ཆོས་དང་གང་ཟག་གི	།ཤན་འ ེད་སངས་ ས་ཁོ་ན་ལས།	།གཞན་ ིས་འ ེད་	པར་ག་ལ་ ས།	།མདོ་ ད་ མས་ལ་མ ན་པ་དང་།	།སེམས་ཅན་ལ་ནི་ཕན་ཐོགས་

514 ན། །དེ་ནི་ ང་ ་ཡིན་པར་ག ངས། །དེ་ ིར་ ན་ལ་དག་ ང་ ིས། །ཆོས་ ངས་ལས་ནི་མ་བསོགས་ཤིག །ཐེ་ཚ མ་འ ང་བཞིན་ཉམས་ ངས་ན། །སངས་ ས་ཆོས་

505 ཅིག་] B, ཞིག་] A. 506 ོད་] B, བ ོད་] A. 507 ོག་] B, ོགས་] A. 508 ཐོགས་] B, ཐོག་] A. Repeats throughout text. 509 ོད་] B, བ ོད་] A. In A, the text here has clearly been emended from spyod to bskyod. 510 ནི་] B, ན་] A. 511 ཐོངས།] B, ཐོང་། A. 512 ེང་] conj. emend. based on Khyabje Khenpo’s reading, ིང་] AB. 513 འ ེད་] B, ེད་] A. 514 བསོགས་ཤིག] B, བསགས་ཅིག] A.

515 ལ་གེགས་ ེད་པས། །བཏང་ ོམས་བཞག་ཅེས་ ལ་བས་ག ངས། །ཉམས་ལེན་ཨི་ ེད་སེམས་ལ་འ ི། །ཐེ་ཚ མ་མེད་ན་ཅི་ཡང་འ བ། ། ན་མོ་ ི་སོའི་རིང་བ ེལ་

བཞིན། ། ་སེར་མཆོག་དམན་ཐམས་ཅད་ ིས། །བཟང་ངན་ཤན་འ ེད་དགོས་ཟེར་བར། །ད ེ་འ ེད་ཆེ་བར་མི་ཤེས་ ང་། །ཅི་ ང་གནས་ ལ་ ང་པོ་ ། །དགེ་ ལ་ ོད་

ི་ས་ཆ་[125]ནས།	།མཆོག་ ར་ ིང་པས་བ ོད་པ་དགེ	༈

515 ཅེས་] B, ཞེས་] A.


༈ ཟབ་པའི་གཏེར་འཛ ན་ ས་པའི་ ལ་འ ོར་པ། །རིག་འཛ ན་ ང་ ོད་ ལ་ ི་ ན་ ་ནས། ། ན་འཚ འི་ ེན་འ ེལ་ཚ ག་དོན་བཟང་བའི་ག ང་། །གནང་ ེས་ ་ནོམ་ལེགས་ འ ོར་བཀའ་ ིན་ཆེ། །བདེན་པའི་ཚ ག་གིས་ ི་བ་མཛད་པ་ལ། ། ན་པར་མི་བ ི་ཤིན་ ་ ོ་བའི་གནས། ། ི་དང་ ེ་ ག་ ད་པར་དོན་ག མ་ལ། །གཡོ་ཟོལ་མེད་པའི་ ་ལེན་འདི་ བཞིན་འ ལ། ། ིར་ནི་རང་ཉིད་ཆོས་དང་མ ན་ ར་ན། ། ོ་ ར་ ས་ ང་ ིབ་པ་དག་ ེད་ཡིན། །མ་ཉེས་ཁ་ཡོག་ཚ ་ཡི་མ ད་མར་ངེས། །དམ་པ་ མས་ ིས་ ོག་ནས་ཡོན་ ཏན་བ ོད། ། ེ་བོ་ ེལ་མེད་ངོས་ནས་བ ོད་པ་ ེད། །དམ་པ་ མས་ ིས་ གས་ མ་དོན་མི་གཉེར། ། ན་པོ་ མས་ ིས་ཟས་ནོར་དོན་ ་གཉེར། ། ང་ བ་སེམས་དཔའ་གཞན་ 516 དོན་ ར་ལེན་ཞིང་། །སོ་ ང་ གས་ ི་ ་ ོད་མཐའ་ཡས་ ང་། །བསམ་པ་བཟང་པོ་ཡོད་ན་གནང་བཀག་ དེ། ། ང་ བ་སེམས་དཔར་ཁས་ལེན་དཀའ་ན་ཡང་། ། ལ་ ས་ ོད་

517 པ་དག་ལ་འ ག་ ར་ ིས། ། ་ལའང་ ད་[126]པར་མི་ ་དམ་བཅའ་ཡོད། ། ེ་ ག་ཉི་མ་ གས་པའི་ཆོས་ ལ་ལ། །དང་ལེན་ དགོན་པ་བ ་ ག་ ག་ཙམ་ཡོད། ། ང་ དང་རིག་པའི་ ོ་ནས་ཅི་བཀག་ ང་། །དེ་ མས་ བ་མཐའ་གཏན་ནས་བ ར་མི་ ས། །མི་འ ར་ ོ་ ེས་དམ་ ིའི་ ལ་ ་བཞག །དེ་ཡི་ཆོས་བདག་གཏེར་ཆོས་ཉམས་ལེན་ཅན། །ཀར་ 518 519 འ ག་གནས་ ར་ཡབ་ ས་ཐམས་ཅད་ ིས། །མ ིན་གཅིག་ད ངས་གཅིག་དེ་ལ་བཀག་པ་མཛད། ། ང་དང་རིག་པ་གང་གིས་བ བས་ ར་ ང་། །བ བ་ པར་མི་ ས་ ན་ ིས་

ཐན་ ་བ ། །དེ་ལ་ང་ཡིས་དགག་ བ་ ེད་དོན་མེད། ། ་ཞབས་སི་ ་520 གས་བ ན་ཐབས་ ལ་ནས། །གཏེར་ ོན་ མ་བ ་ཙམ་བ ིས་ ིས་པའི་ནང་། །ཉི་ གས་ ་ཞིག་ 521

ིས་པས་སེང་ ག་སོང་།	། ད་ཁ་ཞི་ ིར་ ེན་འ ེལ་བཅོས་ཀ་ཡིན།	།ཉམས་ལེན་ ེད་དགོས་ག ང་	མཁན་ ་ཡང་མེད།	།ཐེ་ཚ མ་ ེད་བཞིན་ཉམས་ལེན་ ེད་མཁན་ །	། ར་

ནས་ཡབ་ ས་དམ་པས་ཚར་བཅད་ཟིན། ། ེས་ ་གཏེར་ ོན་དང་པོ་གཏེར་ ོན་ཡིན། །བར་ཆད་ ང་ནས་ ེས་ནས་བཀག་པ་མཛད། །བདག་ནི་ ་འ ར་བཀའ་མ་གཙ ར་

[127]བ ང་ཞིང་། །གཏེར་ ོན་མཆོག་གཉིས་ ིང་པ་བ ་ག མ་དང་། ། ི་མེད་ ེ་ ་ ས་ ན་ཉེར་གཅིག་གི །གཏེར་ཆོས་ མས་ ིས་ ར་ ན་ ེད་པ་དང་། །རང་ཡིད་ ཆེས་ ིར་རང་གཏེར་ཉམས་ ་ ངས། །དེ་ལས་ ་རབས་ ང་དང་ད་ ར་བ གས། ། ད་ནས་འ ོན་འ ར་གཏེར་ ོན་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ། །དགག་ བ་མི་ ་བཏང་ ོམས་བཞག་པ་ ལགས། ། ད་པར་ ེད་ ི་གནས་ ལ་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ། །གཏེར་ཆོས་ཐོག་མར་གནང་བས་ལེགས་ཞེས་བ ོད། །ཀ ་དགོན་ནས་ ་བའི་ ་མ་ ེའི། །དབང་གི་དོན་སོགས་བཀའ་འ ི་ མཛད་པ་ན། ། ིགས་ ས་བཟང་ངན་གཏེར་ ོན་ཤིན་ ་མང་། །ཡང་ན་ལོང་ ག་བཀོལ་བཞིན་ཐམས་ཅད་ ། །ཡང་ན་ཐམས་ཅད་བཏང་ ོམས་བཞག་པ་ལེགས། །དེ་མིན་གཅིག་ 522

་གཅིག་མི་ ་བ་ནི།	།ཆགས་ ང་ ་དང་དམ་སེལ་ ེད་པའི་ ེན།	།བདག་གི་གནས་ ལ་བསམ་པ་དེ་འ ་ཡིན།	། ེ་ཉིད་ཡེ་ཤེས་གཟིགས་པས་ བ་པར་ །	། ེད་ལ་དམིགས་ གསལ་མ་དད་ ད་མ་ ོང་།	།དེ་ ིན་རང་རེ་དཔོན་ ོབ་མཇལ་འ ད་ཆེད།	།གཏེར་ ོན་ མས་ལ་ནང་ཁ་མེད་ཅེས་		[128] ད།	། ོགས་རིས་ཅན་ ིས་བ ོད་ ད་ ོ་ ར་

བཀག་] B, བཀགས་] A. 516 517 518 དང་ལེན་] conj. emend., ངས་ལེན་] AB. 519 བ བས་] B, བ་] A. བ བ་] B, འ བ་] A. 520

521 �སི་ ་] A, མི་ ་] B. ག ང་] A, གསང་] B.

522 ཅེས་] B, ཞེས་] A.

523 འབར། ། ིགས་ ས་མི་ཡི་ ོད་ ལ་ཡ་མ་བ ། ། ག་པར་བ ད་དང་དམ་ ིས་གཡོ་འ ལ་ ིས། །བ ན་པའི་སེལ་དང་ས་ལམ་བར་ཆད་ ེད། །དེ་བས་ཡིད་ག ང་ཤིན་ ་

524 གཟབ་པར་གཅེས། ། ིན་ ོལ་ ིང་པ་ ད་མི་ཡོད་ ད་ཐོས། །འདི་ནི་ ་འ ར་བ ན་པའི་ག ང་ཤིང་ཡིན། ། ངས་ བ ན་ ད་མ ན་ཡིན་པའི་ ང་རིག་ ོས། །སོ་ ར་ག བ་

ག མ་ ད་ ན་ཡིན་ན་ནི། །དེ་ཡི་ ད་འཛ ན་ ིན་ ིང་ ད་དང་མ ན། །དམ་གཙང་ མས་ག མ་ ང་དང་མ ན་ ར་ན། །དེ་འ ེལ་ ིན་ ིང་ ལ་བའི་ ང་དང་མ ན། །ཉང་

ར་ ིང་ག མ་ཚད་ ན་ཡིན་ ར་ན།	།དེ་འཛ ན་ ིན་ ིང་དངོས་ ོབས་རིག་པས་ བ།	། ེད་ ང་དེ་ གས་མཛད་ན་ཤིན་ ་ལེགས།	།ཀར་ ད་པ་ལའང་ ིན་ ིང་ཤིན་ ་འ ེལ། །ཅི་
ིར་ ་བ་ བ་མཐའ་ཤིན་ ་མ ན།	། ག་པར་ཞིག་པོ་ ིང་པའི་ཆོས་ ད་ཡིན།	།ག ང་གིས་བཀའ་བ ད་པ་ལ་མ ་དགོས་ག ངས།	། བ་མཐའ་གཅིག་པས་མ་ ས་ཡིག་ཚང་

གསལ། ། ིན་ ིང་གཏེར་ ས་རིན་ཆེན་ མ་ ལ་[129]དེ། །ཚ ་དབང་ནོར་ འི་ ་བའི་ ་མ་ཡིན། །དེ་སོགས་ད་ ང་ ་མཚན་མང་ ་ཡོད། །གཏེར་ ོན་ཡིན་ན་བ ན་དང་འ ོ་ ཕན་དགོས། བ ན་གཞི་ ་ཁང་བ ན་ ་དགེ་འ ན་སོགས། །བཞེངས་པར་མཛད་ན་འ ོ་བའི་དཔལ་ ་འ བ། །རིམ་ ོ་མཛད་པ་ཤིན་ ་ གས་བ ེད་བཟང་། །ནང་ གས་མཛད་ 525 ན་ངེད་ རང་ ར་བཞིན་ཡིན། ། མ་ ས་ ་འཁོར་དེ་དང་ ེས་ ་མ ན། །དེ་ ིར་དགེ་བའི་དགོངས་ ོད་ཡོད་པར་འཚལ། །གཞན་ཡང་དེ་བས་འ ོས་པའི་གཏམ་ཚ གས་

526 ནི། །ཀཿཐོག་ ོ་ ེ་གདན་ནི་ ིན་ ིང་ གས། །དཔལ་ ལ་ ཟེ་ཆེན་གཉིས་ ང་དེ་དང་མ ན། ། ོགས་ཆེན་དགོན་པ་ ེད་ཀ་ཉི་ གས་དང་། ། ེད་ཀ་ ིན་ ིང་བཤད་ བ་

ད་པར་འཕགས།	།ཞེས་པའི་ ་ཡིག་སེལ་མེད་དམ་ ས་མཆོག	། ོ་གཏད་གཅིག་ཆོག་ ན་ བ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། ། ་རེག་བཅས་པ་མཆོག་ ར་ ིང་པས་ ལ།།

523 ར་] B, བ ར་] A. 524 ངས་] B, ང་] A. 525 ངེད་] B, ངད་] A. 526 དཔལ་ ལ་] emendation based on Khyabje Khenpo’s reading, པེ ་] AB.




ས་ག མ་ ལ་བ་ ན་ ི་ ི་ག གས་མཚ ་ ས་མ་ ་ ་ ་པ ྨ་སམ་བྷ་ཝ་	གང་དེས་ ལ་ཚབ་གཏེར་ཆེན་བ ་ ་གཏེར་ ན་ ོང་ ་ ོན་པ་དང་འ ོན་འ ར་ ི་ནང་ཚན་མཆོག་ ར་བདེ་

ཆེན་ཞིག་པོ་ ིང་པ་ ིན་ལས་འ ོ་འ ལ་ ལ་ཞེས་འབོད་པས་ཡངས་པའི་ ལ་ཁམས་ ་འཁོད་པའི་ག ལ་ ར་ ར་པ་ མས་ལ་བ ོ་བ། གཟོད་ནས་རང་བཞིན་ ིས་ མ་པར་དག་པའི་ཡེ་ཤེས་ ནི་ཐམས་ཅད་ ི་ད ིངས་ཡིན་པས། །དེ་ལ་མ་དག་པ་དང་དག་པའི་ཆོས་རང་བཞིན་ ིས་འ ང་བ་མེད་བཞིན་ ། མ་འགགས་པའི་ མ་རོལ་ ལ་ལས་རང་ ང་ ་འ ང་བ་ལས། ང་བ་

ོད་ ི་འཇིག་ ེན།	 ིད་པ་བ ད་ ི་སེམས་ཅན་ ན་ ི་ ན་ཚ གས་དགེ་མཚན་ཐམས་ཅད།	ཡང་དག་པར་ ོགས་པའི་སངས་ ས་ ི་ཡེ་ཤེས་དང་[210] གས་ ེ་ཆེན་པོ་ད ེར་མེད་

པའི་ ིན་ལས་ལས་འ ང་ཞིང་། ིན་ལས་དེའི་གཞི་དང་གཙ ་བོར་ ར་པ་ནི། བ ན་པ་དར་བའི་ཆོས་འདི་ཉིད་ཡིན་ཏེ། ལ་ ས་ཞི་བ་ ས། འ ོ་བའི་ ག་བ ལ་ ན་གཅིག་

།	།བདེ་བ་ཐམས་ཅད་འ ང་བའི་གནས།	།བ ན་པ་ ེད་དང་བ ར་ ི་དང་། །བཅས་ཏེ་ ན་རིང་གནས་ ར་ཅིག །ཅེས་ག ངས་པ་ ར་ཕན་བདེའི་འ ང་གནས་ ལ་བ ན་རིན་ པོ་ཆེ་ ིར་འཇིག་ ེན་དང་།	 ེ་ ག་གངས་རིའི་ ོད་འདིར་ཆོས་ ལ་ལོ་པཎ་ མས་ ི་བཀའ་ ིན་ལ་བ ེན་ནས་དར་ཞིང་ ས་པ་ནི།	མཁན་ཆེན་ཞི་བ་འཚ ས་སད་མི་མི་བ ན་རབ་ ་

528 529

ང་།	བ ན་ ་འ ལ་བའི་བ ན་པ་ ་ཆེར་ ེལ།	 ོབ་དཔོན་པ ྨ་ས ་ཝས་	བོད་ ལ་ ི་ ་ ིན་ མས་ ག་ ་གཉན་པོའི་	ཟིལ་འོག་ ་བ ག	།འ ས་ ་གསང་ གས་


ིང་པོའི་བ ན་པ་ཉི་མ་ ར་གསལ་བར་མཛད།	 ལ་པོ་ ་ཚ ་རིང་ཞིང་ ལ་བའི་བ ན་པ་འཕེལ་བའི་ ེན་འ ེལ་ ་ངོམ་ཤོད་ ི་ ེ་མ་ནེ ་གསེང་	 ་བ ར་བ་སོགས་ ་དགོས་ཞེས་

531 ག ངས་ པ་ལ། ནག་ ོགས་ལ་དགའ་བའི་ ིག་ ོན་ མས་ ིས། ོབ་དཔོན་དང་ ལ་པོ་གཉིས་ ི་བར་ ་ ན་[211] ་བ ག་ ེ། ལ་པོས་ ོབ་དཔོན་ལ་ ེན་འ ེལ་མཛད་ དགོས་མ་ ས་པ། ོབ་དཔོན་ ི་ཞལ་ནས་བ ན་མ་བ ་གཉིས་སོགས་ལ་བཀའ་བ ོས་ཡོད་པས་བོད་ ་ ་ ེགས་པ་མི་འ ང་གི་ ེན་འ ེལ་ མས་ ེད་པ་མ་ ང་བས། མ་འོངས་པ་ན་ སངས་ ས་ ི་བ ན་པ་ནང་ ་ ོད་པར་འ ར་ཞེས་ ང་བ ན་པ་ཐོག་ ་བབ་ ེ། དེང་སང་བཤད་པ་དང་ཐོས་པ་ མས་ བ་པ་ཉམས་ ་ལེན་པའི་དོན་ཡིན་པས་བཤད་ བ་སོ་སོར་ཡ་

ལ་ ་མི་ ང་བ་ལ། ད་ ་བཤད་ ད་པ་དང་ བ་ ད་པ་ཞེས་ཐ་དད་ ་ ེས། བཤད་པ་ མས་ ིས་ བ་པ་ལ་ ན་ ོམ་པ།  ད་ ་ བ་པ་ ེད་པའི་ ས་མིན། ཞེས་སོགས་དང་།  བ་པ་ ིང་ པོར་ ེད་པའི་བ ོམ་ཆེན་པ་ལ་བ་ ང་ ་ ར་མཐོང་ནས་ མ་ ངས་ ་མས་ ོད།  བ་པ་བ་ མས་ ིས་ ང་ཐོས་བསམ་འཆད་ཉན་ ི་ ་བ་ མས་ནེ་ཙ འི་ཆོས་འདོན་པ་ ་ ་ཞེས་ ིང་པོ་ མེད་ཅེས་འ ་བ་དང་། ད་ ་ ོབ་དཔོན་དང་དགོན་པ་མི་གཅིག་པ་ཙམ་ལ་ཆོས་ གས་དང་བ ད་པ་མི་གཅིག་ཅེས་ཟེར་ནས་དགོན་པ་རང་གི་གནས་གཞི།  ལ་ ེ་རིས་ ི་ ་མ་ ོབ་ དཔོན་སོགས་ལ་ང་ ོད་ ་ ེད་[212]ཅིང་ ེད་བ ར་ལོངས་ ོད་ཁས་ གས་ལ་ ོད་ཅིང་ཆོས་དང་གང་ཟག་ལ་ ོད།   མཐར་གོ་མཚ ན་བ ང་ནས་ཕན་ ན་གསོད་པ་སོགས་ ེད་ཅིང་།
ོབ་དཔོན་གཅིག་གིས་ཡིག་ཆ་ངག་ ོས་གཅིག་པ་ མས་ ང་སོ་སོར་སེར་ ་ ་ ེས་ནས་འ ོ།  བ་པ་ མས་ ང་ ་མ་དང་དགོན་པ་མི་གཅིག་པ་ལ་ཆོས་ ད་མི་གཅིག་ཟེར་ནས་དགོན་གནས་

527 སམ་བྷ་ཝ་] B, ས ་བ་] A. 528 ས ་ཝས་]B, ས ས་] A. 529 གཉན་པོའི་]B, གཉེན་པའི་] A. 530 གསེང་]B, སེང་] A. 531 ག ངས་]B, ག ང་] A.

ག ལ་ ་ཁེ་ གས་ལ་མཐོ་དོགས་དང་། རི་ ོད་དང་དབེན་གནས་ ་མི་བ ད་ནས་ ོགས་ཐམས་ཅད་ ་ ག་ནས་ངོ་ཚ་དང་མི་ཆོས་མེད་པ་ལ་ ོགས་ ན་ ་ ལ་ ི་མིང་བཏགས་ཅིང་ཅི་

532 ཡང་མི་ཤེས་པ་ལ་གཅིག་ཤེས་ ན་མཁས་ཟེར་ནས་ ོད་པ་གོ་མང་བག་ཡངས་ལེ་ལོ་ ོམས་ལས་ ེད་ནས་ཆགས་ ང་ ོམ་ ི་ཡོ་ལང་ ོམ་ ི་རང་བཞིན་ཡིན་ཟེར་ཞིང་འ ལ་ཞིག་ བ་ཐོབ་

ི་མིང་བཏགས་པ་སོགས་ལའང་ཁོ་བོས་ཞིབ་མོར་བ ག་ད ད་བཏང་བས་ ་བ་དང་ བ་མཐའ་ ད་པར་འཕགས་ཤིང་གཞན་ལས་མི་འ ་བའི་གང་ཆེ་བ་ནི་ཡོད་པ་མ་མཐོང་ངོ། ། ང་ཟད་མི་

533 གཅིག་ཙམ་བ ན་ ང་བ ས་ར་བ་ཁ་དོག་དཀར་དམར་བ་ མས་དང་། གས་པ་ མས་ ིས་ ང་ ོར་ ིལ་འཇོག་ གས་མི་གཅིག་པ་ཙམ་ཡོད། ོམ་ཆེན་ [213] མས་གོ་ གས་ ཉམས་ ི་འཆར་ ོ་ ང་ཟད་མི་འ ་ནའང་། དོན་ ི་བབ་སོ་གཅིག་ཡིན་པ་མདོ་ གས་བཀའ་དང་བ ན་བཅོས་ཐམས་ཅད་ ལ་བའི་དགོངས་པ་མཐར་ ག་གཅིག་ཡིན་ནོ། །གང་ཟག་སོ་ སོའི་ ོ་ཡི་ ེ་ ག་ ང་ཟད་མི་གཅིག་པའི་གོ་ཡང་མི་ཆོད། ིང་མ་པ་དང་། གསར་མ་ཞེས་བ ན་པ་ ་དར་ ི་དར་ ི་ ད་ལས་ ་ བ་མི་འ ་བ་མེད་མོད། འཆད་ ལ་མི་འ ་བ་ ་ཚ གས་

534 ལ་ངོས་འཛ ན་ གས་མི་འ ་ ་ ་ཡོད། གཞན་བཀའ་གདམས་པ་། ས་ ་པ། བཀའ་བ ད་ཡ་བཞི་ ང་ བ ད། ཇོ་ནང་ ་ ། བོ་དོང་པ། དགའ་ ན་སོགས་ལ་བ ད་ ལ་

མི་འ ་བར་ཐ་ ད་འདོགས་ གས་མི་འ ་བ་ཙམ་ལས། མཐར་ ག་གི་ ་ བ་མི་འ ་བ་མེད་ ི། དེས་ན་ཆོས་སོ་སོར་འ ེས་པ་དང་མི་གཅིག་པ་ཡང་མི་འ ག་པས་བ ད་རིམ་དང་དགོན་ པ་མི་ཟེར་ཡང་དོན་ ིས་ད ད་ན་འ ལ་པ་མ་གཏོགས་མེད་ན་ཡང་། དེང་སང་བ ན་པ་བ ད་ ིས་ད གས་ནས་ཕན་ ན་ ག་དོག་འ ན་སེམས་ཆགས་ ང་གིས་འཇིག་ ེན་པའི་ཆོས་ གས་ དང་བ ན་ཏེ་སིལ་ ར་འ ོ་བ་ཤ་ ག་ནི། རང་གཏེར་བསམ་པ་[214] ན་འ བ་ ང་ ང་ལས། རང་ཉིད་དགའ་དང་མི་དགའི་དབང་ ས་ཏེཿ ན་ ོག་རི་བོ་ ་ ན་ག ང་ ་

535 བ ༔ རང་ ོགས་བ ོད་ཅིང་གཞན་ ོགས་ ོད་པ་ཡི༔ ང་བ ན་ ན་ ི་གབ་ ེ་བ ེབ་པ་ལས༔ བ ན་པ་ནང་གཅིག་ ེ་རིས་སོ་སོར་ ེ༔ དེ་ཡི་ ེན་ ིས་བཤད་ བ་རབ་བཅད་

536 པས༔ ཆོས་ ངས་མཚམས་མེད་ལས་ལས་ ་བ་ཡིས༔ རང་གཞན་བ ན་དང་འ ོ་ལ་ཆེས་གནོད་པས༔ ཟོག་པོའི་ ེས་ ་མ་འ ང་ ིང་གཏམ་ཡིན༔ ཞེས་ག ངས་པ་ ར་ཁོ་ བོས་བ བ་དགོས་སོ། འཕགས་པ་ མ་པར་འཐག་པའི་མདོ་ལས་ ང་། འཇམ་དཔལ་དམ་པའི་ཆོས་ ངས་པའི་ལས་ ི་ ིབ་པ་ནི་འདི་ཆེན་པོ་གཅིག་ ་མ་ངེས་པས་འོག་ནས་འ ང་ ར་ མ་ཞེས་པ་ ཤིན་ ་བ ག་དཀའ་བ། མཆན། འཇམ་དཔལ་གང་ལ་ལས་དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པས་ག ངས་པའི་ཆོས་ལ་ལ་ནི་བཟང་བར་འ ་ཤེས། ལ་ལ་ནི་ངན་པར་འ ་ཤེས་ན་ཆོས་ ངས་བ་ཡིན་ ནོ། །འདི་ནི་རིགས་པའོ། །འདི་ནི་མི་རིགས་པའོ། །ཞེས་ཟེར་ན་དམ་པའི་ཆོས་ ང་པའོ། །ངས་ནི་ཉན་ཐོས་ ི་ཐེག་པ་དང་ ན་པའམ། རང་སངས་ ས་ ི་ཐེག་པ་དང་ ན་ པའམ། །ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་དང་[215] ན་པར་ཆོས་ཐ་དད་པར་བ ན་པ་གང་ཡང་མེད་ན་མི་ ན་པོ་དེ་དག་ངའི་ཆོས་ལ་འདི་ཉན་ཐོས་ མས་ལ་བཤད་འདི་རང་སངས་ ས་ མས་

ལ་བཤད་པའོ་ཞེས་ཐ་དད་ ་ ེད། དེ་ཐ་དད་པའི་འ ་ཤེས་ ིས་དམ་ཆོས་ཐམས་ཅད་ ང་བ་ཡིན་ནོ། །འདི་ནི་ ང་ བ་སེམས་དཔའི་བ བ་པར་ ་བའོ། །འདི་ནི་ ང་ བ་སེམས་ དཔའི་བ བ་པར་ ་བ་མ་ཡིན་ནོ། །ཞེས་ཟེར་ན་དམ་པའི་ཆོས་ ང་བ་ཡིན་ནོ། །ཆོས་ ་བ་ལ་ ོབ་པ་ཡོད་དམ་ཞེའམ་མེད་དོ་ཞེས་ཟེར་ན་ཆོས་ ངས་པ་ཡིན་ནོ། །ཆོས་ནི་ཆོས་མ་ཡིན་ པར་ ོན་ནོ་ཞེས་ཟེར་ན་ཆོས་ ང་ངོ་། །ཞེས་ག ངས་པ་ ར་རང་ཉིད་ལེགས་ ་འདོད་པ་ མས་ ིས་ཆོས་ ང་གི་ལས་ ར་ ས་ལ་འ ོད་ཅིང་བཤགས་ཤིང་། ད་ནས་ ོག་དང་བ ོས་ནས་

532 ལང་]B, ལངས་] A. 533 ཆེན་]B, ཆེན་པ་] A. 534 ང་] conj. emend. based on Khyabje Khenpo’s reading, ང་] AB. 535 ོགས་]B, ོག་] A. 536 པའམ།]B, པའོ།] A.

ང་ཞིང་ ོམ་པར་ ིས་ཤིག །ག ལ་ འི་ ོ་ཡི་རིམ་པ་ ར་ཐེག་པའི་ ་ བ་གནས་ བས་མི་གཅིག་པར་ ང་ཡང་མཐར་ ག་མི་གཅིག་པ་མེད་ཅིང་།	རང་རེ་གཏེར་ ོན་པ་ནི་ས་ ོགས་ ེ་

རིས་ག ལ་ ་བ ན་པ་ཆོས་ གས་སོགས་གང་ལ་ཡང་ ོགས་དང་རིས་ ་མ་ཆད་པ་ལས་གཏེར་ ོན་ ི་ཆོས་ གས་ཞེས་ ར་ ་[216]མེད། སངས་ ས་བ ན་པ་མདོ་ གས་ ང་འ ེལ་ གང་ཡིན་པ་དེ་གཏེར་ ོན་པའི་བ ན་པ་ཡིན། དེས་ན་ ལ་བ ན་ལ་ གས་པ་ མས་འཁོར་བ་ལས་ཐར་འདོད་ ི་ ོས་ཆོས་ ོར་ གས། དེ་ཡང་རང་ཉིད་ཞི་བདེའི་བསམ་པ་མ་ཡིན་པར་ གཞན་དོན་ ི་བསམ་པ་སེམས་བ ེད་ ིས་ཟིན་པས། ཐོག་མར་ ོམ་ག མ་ ི་བཅས་མཚམས་ མ་པར་དག་པ་གལ་ཤིན་ ་ཆེ་ ེ། མཁས་མཆོག་ད ིག་གཉེན་ཞབས་ ིས། ལ་གནས་

537 ཐོས་དང་བསམ་ ན་པས། །བ ོམ་པ་ལ་ནི་རབ་ ་ ོར། །ཞེས་ ག ངས་པ་ ར་ཤེས་པར་ ིས་ཤིག ེ་ གས་པོ་ཛམ་ ིང་ གས་པའི་ཞལ་ནས། ལས་དང་པོ་པས་ཐོས་བསམ་བ ོམ་

ལ་འབད། བ ན་པ་ཐོབ་ནས་ བ་པ་ལ་ནན་ཏན་ ིས་ཤིག ཅེས་ག ངས་པ་ ར། རང་ ོབ་ ིགས་ ས་ ི་འ ལ་འཛ ན་ཀ ་སངས་ ས་ཆོས་འཕེལ་ལམ། པ ྨ་ ི་མེད་ ོ་ ོས་གཞན་ ཕན་ཆོས་ ི་ ང་བ་འདི། བཤད་ ་ མས་ ་ཐོས་བསམ་ ི་ ་ ོར་དང་། བ་ ་ མས་ ་མདོ་ གས་གནད་དོན་ཉམས་ལེན་བོགས་འདོན་བ ི་བའི་ ད་ ་མཁས་ བ་དམ་པ་ མས་ ི་ གདན་ས་ཆོས་འཁོར། དབེན་གནས་རི་ ོད་ཡོད་དོ་[217]ཅོག་ མས་ ་བ ོད་པ་ཡིན་པས། ཆོས་མ ན་ ི་ཞབས་ཏོག་ ག་བསམ་རབ་དཀར་བ ིས་ན། ས་ལས་ ང་བའི་བསོན་ ནམས་བསགས་པ་བ ན་ ི་ ལ་ ་འ ོ་བས། མཆོག་དམན་བར་མའི་བསམ་ཤེས་ ན་ ིས་ངེས་འཚལ། དེར་མ་ཟད་ཨེ་ཝཾ་ཆོས་ ར་ ི་མཁན་པོ་འདིའང་ གས་ཙམ་འཛ ན་པའི་ ས་

འདིར་བ ན་མཁས་ཕན་འདོགས་ ི་ཡོན་ཏན་ཆ་ཤས་ཙམ་ཡོད་ཆགས་ཡིན་པས་ ལ་ ་སོ་སོ་ནས་དམ་ཆོས་འ ལ་བ་ལ་མོས་པ་ཡོད་ན། དགེ་ ོང་ངམ། དགེ་བ ེན། བར་མ་རབ་

ང་།	དགེ་ ལ་ཙམ་ བ་ན་མཁན་པོའི་གོ་ས་མི་བ ་ངེས་ཅན་ལགས།	འ ལ་བ་ ང་ ེ་བཞི་ལས།	བ ན་པ་ཇི་ཙམ་ ིས་ན་དམ་པའི་ཆོས་མཆིས་པ་ཞེས་བ ི།	ཇི་ ིད་ལས་
ེད་ཅིང་ནན་ཏན་ ེད་པ་ཡང་ཡོད་པའི་བར་ ་ ེ་ལས་ ེད་ལ་ནན་ཏན་ ེད་པ་ཡང་ཡོད་ན་དམ་པའི་ཆོས་ཡོད་པ་ཞེས་ ། ཞེས་ ་བའི་ ིར་རོ། །རབ་ ང་བཅོ་ ་པ་མེ་ཡོས་ ི་ལོར་ ཡོན་ཏན་གནས་ ི་གཙ ་བོ་ ་དམ་གངས་ ི་ར་བ་ཨོ་ ན་བསམ་གཏན་ཆོས་ ིང་ནས་ ེལ་བ་དགེ།།

537 ཞེས་] B, ཅེས་] A.


Primary sources

mChog gyur gling pa. “O rgyan gu ru padma ’byung gnas kyis sprul pa’i gter chen mor bstsal pa’i lung bstan bslab bya dang dag snang dris lan dogs gcod kyi skor ’ga’ zhig phyogs bsdus rab dwangs nor bu’i me long.” In mChog gling bka’ ’bum skor. Vol. 36 of mChog gling bde chen zhig po gling pa yi zab gter yid bzhin nor bu’i mdzod chen po, 133-189. Kathmandu, Nepal: Ka-nying Shedrub Ling monastery, 2004.

—. “O rgyan gu ru padma ’byung gnas kyis sprul pa’i gter chen mor bstsal pa’i lung bstan bslab bya dang dag snang dris lan dogs gcod kyi skor ’ga’ zhig phyogs bsdus rab dwangs nor bu’i me long.” In mChog gling bka’ ’bum skor. Vol. 36 of mChog gling gter gsar, 121-173. Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986.

—. “rJes ’jug skal bzang rnams la bstal pa’i zhal gdams bslab bya nyams len gyi skor spang blang mig ’byed zab don snying gi bdud rtsi.” In mChog gling bka’ ’bum skor. Vol. 36 of mChog gling bde chen zhig po gling pa yi zab gter yid bzhin nor bu’i mdzod chen po, 75-131. Kathmandu, Nepal: Ka-nying Shedrub Ling monastery, 2004.

—. “rJes ’jug skal bzang rnams la bstal pa’i zhal gdams bslab bya nyams len gyi skor spang blang mig ’byed zab don snying gi bdud rtsi.” In mChog gling bka’ ’bum skor. Vol. 36 of mChog gling gter gsar, 69-119. Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986.

—. “sPrul pa’i gter ston chen mo’i rnam thar gyi sa bon zhal gsung ma dang gter ’byung ’ga’ zhig ’bem gtam sna tshogs bcas phyogs bsdoms rgyal bstan nyin byed ’od snang.” In mChog gling bka’ ’bum skor. Vol. 36 of mChog gling bde chen zhig po gling pa yi zab gter yid bzhin nor bu’i mdzod chen po, 133-189. Kathmandu, Nepal: Ka-nying Shedrub Ling monastery, 2004.

—. “sPrul pa’i gter ston chen mo’i rnam thar gyi sa bon zhal gsung ma dang gter ’byung ’ga’ zhig ’bem gtam sna tshogs bcas phyogs bsdoms rgyal bstan nyin byed ’od snang.” In mChog gling bka’ ’bum skor. Vol. 36 of mChog gling gter gsar, 175-230. Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986.

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dKon mchog gyur med. gTer chen mchog gyur bde chen gling pa’i rnam thar bkra shis dbyangs kyi yan lag gsal byed ldeb. Vol. 37 of mChog gling gter gsar. Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982 - 1986.

’Jam dbyangs mkhyen rtse’i dbang po. “gTer chen rnam thar las ’phros pa’i dris lan bkra shis dbyangs snyan bskul ba’i dri bzhon.” In sPrul pa’i gter chen o rgyan mchog gyur bde chen zhig po gling pa phrin las ’gro ’dul rtsal gyi zab gter chos mdzod chen po. Vol. 39 of mChog gling gter gsar, 15-52. Paro: Lama Pema Tashi, 1982-1986.

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