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The only reliable source of Mahayana Buddhist literature is the Tibetan Canon of which we have two editions: the Narthang edition and the Derge edition. The Tibetan Canon consists of two parts, the Kanjur (Tib. bKoli -hgvur) meaning ‘Translation of the word’ and the Tenjur2 (Tib. bsTan-hgyur) meaning ‘Translation of the Treatises’ Twenty-two volumes of the Kanjur arc tantras and eighty-six volumes of Tenjur are commentaries on tantras. Among the vast volume of tantric literature, the Hevajra Tantra stands out as a specimen of Vajrayanic theory and praxis. It is probably the most prominent yoginl-

1 The Kanjur consists of a total of hundred volumes: Thirteen volumes of monastic rules (Vinaya) and associated material; twenty-one volumes concerning the doctrine of the ‘perfection of wisdom’ (Prajn6pQramit6)\ forty-four volumes of MahdyOna sutras extolling the merits of the Buddhas and the bodhisattvas, and lastly twenty-two volumes of Tantras. HT(S), Pan I.

2 The Tenjur comprises of works by individual Indian masters. Hence they are not treated as buddhavacana. They arc classified into two large sections. The first section consists of 137 volumes of commentaries on the sutras (mDo-bgrel). The second section consists of eighty-six volumes of commentaries on the tantras (rCyud-Jigrel). The bulk of the works of the mDo-Itgiel was produced between the second and the eighth centuries A.D., while the works belonging to the rGyud-frgrel were composed between the seventh and the twelfth centuries. This shows that the latter period of Buddhist literary production focused its attention exclusively on the tantras. Ibid.,

tantra belonging to the Anuttarayoga class of Buddhist tantras. It was one of the principal tantric cycles introduced into Tibet during the post-persecution era, i.e., the later part of the tenth century A.D. In this chapter, we shall take a closer look at this unique tantric treatise.

1. The Title

The title ‘Hevajra' (Tib. dGyes-Pa-rDor-rJe) is composed of two syllables 'he' signifying karitnd (i/?ava/compassion) and vajra’ signifying prajift f/wwj/wisdom). In answer to Vajragarbha’s query, “what is intended by the composite name Hevajra? What is proclaimed by the sound he, and what by vajra?"1 Bhagavan answered that 2he’ symbolised great compassion2 (mahakaruna), and 'vajra symbolised

Wisdom (prajna). The term ‘Hevajra’ indicates the ultimate reality, which is the fusion of .unyata and karn/ta. Muktdvalt states that mahakaruna, with sarvadhannafunyata as its content, is Hevajra/’ The title also indicates the method that this tantra employs to attain its goal, which is one of Wisdom and Means (praj nopayatmakam).

The method consists in uniting prajna and karnna. and this union of voidness and compassion results in bodhicitta.6 Prajna (voidness) is of the nature of the female deity and karnna (compassion) is of the nature of the male deity. The goal of tantric realisation (bodhicitta) is iconographically depicted in the sexual union of the two deities. In the actual tantric praxis the yogi becomes the male deity (Hevajra) and the vogini is the female deity (Nairatmya) and the realisation is attained through their physical union. Thus the title itself indicates the basic view of the praxis found in the Hevajra Tantra and all other principal root tantras.

The term 1 Hevajra' taken as a whole, is the name of the principal deity of the Hevajra sadhana. The principal deity in the Hevajra mantjala is Heruka. There is no real distinction between Heruka and Hevajra. Heruka is worshipped singly or in union (Tib. yabyunr, Chi. yinyung) with his prajna. When he is in yabyum (union) he is generally known as Hevajra.7 By being in union with his prajrta (Vajravarahi/blairdtmyd) he embodies in himself the method of this non-dual tantra.

As regards the term ‘tantra’ the Yogaratnamala says, that it is a treatise consisting of three facets, namely the Source Facet (hetu-tantra), the Fruit Facet {phala-tantra) and the Means Facet (updya-tantra).8 The Source (beta) consists of the beings who belong to the Vajra family. In the [[Hevajra

Tantra]], the members of the Vajra are the characters in the drama of the Buddha (buddhanataka). Their dialogue is the vehicle through which the nature of and the means to the enlightened state of the Buddhas are revealed. The Fruit (phala) is the perfected Hevajra, that is, Vajradhara in the form of Hevajra.

The Means (updya) are the methods of practice which are described in the Hevajra Tantra}1 Thus the title of the text indicates the theory and praxis of Vajrayana. The theory consists of the notions of sunyatd and karund and the production of bodhicitta (bodhicittapada). The praxis comprises of the visualisation of the deities of the Hevajra mandala and the sadhana prescribed in the text for the generation of bodhicitta (enlightened consciousness). The principal deity, the method, as well as the treatise itself are known by the same name, Hevajra.

2. Date and Authorship

Assigning precise dates to the tantras is a near impossible task, because tantras were in circulation through oral tradition long before they began to appear in writing. Snellgrove states:

It is never possible to date these works with any precision just because they usually have no date, but have developed gradually through several generations of followers within one particular group, for whom they first become authoritative, authoritative in the sense that the pupil lcams them from the mouth of his master, and in this way they become the buddha-word...

However, on the basis of historical evidences supplied by Taranatha and Bu-sTon, traditions surrounding the Eighty-four Mahasiddhas. as well as the textual evidences from commentaries written on the Hevajra Tantra. Snellgrove comes to the conclusion that the Hevajra Tantra in its present form was available towards the end of the eighth century. Fanow and Menon too share almost the same opinion that it was composed between the eighth and the ninth century A.D., somewhere in the region of modem day Bengal, Orissa, or Bihar.

As regards authorship, it is believed that Buddha in the form of Vajradhara is the real author of the tantra and the human authors only gave circulation to it. This is indicated by the phrase in the first verse of the tantra itself, “evarii maya srutam" (“thus have I heard").10 There is general consensus among scholars as to who brought this tantra to light. Snellgrove states that Saroruha and Kampala (also called Lva-va-pa brought this tantra to light. His assertion is based on what Taranatha himself has stated in his History of Buddhism in India, “After this, the two acaryas Lva-va-pa and Saroruha brought the Hevajra-tantra.

Authorship in this context should not be taken literally, as it is possible for a tantra to have existed through oral tradition prior to the author himself, to whom it is attributed in later years. It is probable therefore, states Snellgrove, that Saroruha only gave circulation to an already existing text, which was probably in dialect and this accounts for the defects in scansion and rough Sanskritization.18 The profound esteem that

Saroruha had for this tantra is seen from the fact that he wrote a commentary on it as well as several short works on the Hevajra cycle (sadhana. vidhi, and stotra) which arc found in the Narthang edition of the Tenjur.2' Snellgrove believes that Kampala also wrote a commentary on the Hevajra Tantra entitled Hevajra Panjika, though it does not figure in the Tenjur

3. Text and Context

The Hevajra Tantra has Sanskrit, Tibetan, Chinese, Japanese and English versions, all of which have been published.19 20 21 The Sanskrit original of this tantra consists of 750 slokas in two parts. However, Vajragarbha, probably the first commentator on the text, states in his introduction that it is but a shorter version of the original work, which had thirty-two parts and 500,000 slokas. The Chinese translation

repeats a similar tradition, explaining that the work has two sections from an original of thirty-one. Bu-ston in his list of the lost parts of the Canon refers to a version of this tantra in 100,000 Slokas. In addition to these, Vajragarbha constantly, and Naropa occasionally, quote from yet another version. In his introduction Vajragarbha refers to a Mula-tantra of 6,000 slokas. In explaining the figurative meaning of a passage he refers to this work. In introducing his discussion of chapter seven Vajra

Garbha says, “From this short version just as it is taught one leams the obvious meaning (neyartha); the real meaning (nitartha) is to be learned from the Mula-tantra." However. Snellgrove is of the opinion that this ‘Mula-tantra' is later than the tantra itself and the early commentators, Saroruha, Kanha, Bhadrapada and Dharmakirti, as they make no mention of it. It must have been unknown to Tankadasa and Ratnakarasanti as well. Apart from Vajragarbha, Naropa is the only other commentator to quote from it. Hence Snellgrove concludes that this ‘Mula-tantra ’ must have been authored by Vajra Garbha himself

The Tibetan version of the text must have appeared in the late tenth century A.D. It was translated into Chinese in 1004 A.D. This again was translated into

Japanese by R. Kanbayashi. A critical study on this text along with its English translation was published, for the first time, by D.L. Snellgrove in two volumes in 1959.* Snellgrove has edited the text of this tantra on the basis of three extant manuscripts comparing it with the Tibetan version

of the whole text. In the second volume of the book the Tibetan version has been given side by side with the Sanskrit version to suit scholars well versed in both Sanskrit and Tibetan. He has included the text of the Yogaratnamala the principal commentary on the text, in its original Sanskrit version, to facilitate better understanding of the obscure doctrines and practices of this tantra.

There has been yet another English edition, and translation of the Hevajra Tantra by G.W, Farrow and I. Menon entitled, The Concealed Essence of the Hevajra Tantra with the Commentary Yoga Ratnamala. and published in 1992. With these two publications we now have a reliable edition of the Hevajra Tantra and its

principal commentary Yogaratnamala in Sanskrit as well as their English translations. Bhagehandra Jain ‘Bhaskar’ has brought out another edition of the text entitled Hevajra Tantra-Yoga Ratnamala along with a detailed introduction in Hindi.'1 Ram Shankar Tripathi and Thakur Sain Negi have edited Hevajra Tantra along with the Ratnakar Santi’s Commentary called Muktdvall .30 31 There are about fifty different Sanskrit manuscripts of Hevajra Tantra in various manuscript libraries of the world.

The text of the Hevajra Tantra that is available now consists of twenty-three chapters divided into two parts; part one consists of eleven and part two of twelve chapters.33 The treatise is composed of discourses that ensue between Bhagavan (Buddha as Vajradhara) and his disciple Vajragarbha. In the second part we have discourses between Bhagavan and his consort as well. These discourses convey the theory, practice, and experience of the krama, the processes of the Buddhist tantric method.

The commentaries, Yogaratnamala and Muktavali which accompany the text, explain the relevant terms and phrases of the text. An obvious problem that confronts the scholar, as S.B. Dasgupta points out, is to determine how much of the text is to be understood in its literal sense and how much in a figurative or metaphorical sense.

Having introduced the text of the Hevajra Tantra and its commentaries, a word on the context of the root treatise is in order. Unlike the sutras, the treatise does not mention the location where the Buddha is addressing Vajra garbha and the other yoginis. He enters immediately into a dialogue with a bodhisattva, Vajragarbha, and later the Yoginis too are found to join the discourse. They raise queries and the Buddha’s answers often astound them. It is stated at the beginning that the Buddha is in a state of sexual union with his ‘diamond women’. It is in this state that he explains the various processes of the tantra and the nature of Enlightened Consciousness.

The Hevajra Tantra must be viewed in the larger context of the concepts and practices from various religions and social contexts that are found in Vajrayana. Ascetic yoga tradition, rituals of tribal shamans, the fertility and passage rites, the rites of initiation into manhood, the rites of coronation of tribal chieftains, ancestor worship, the worship of temple deities and those of the family and the circuits of pilgrimage, set the stage for the practice of this sadhana.

Monastic ideals of Hinayana and Mahayana also find their way into this tantra. Views and methods found in the Guhyasamaja Tantra and the San’at Tathagata-tattvasamgraha have deeply influenced the formation of this treatise. Hevajra, the principal deity is similar to the Krodharaja of the Manjufrimulakalpa and other fierce divinities like Rudra, Bhairava and £iva. Heruka is often used as a

synonym for Siva. The Yogaratnamala and Muktavail reveal the influence of the traditions of Abhidharma as well as those of Mahayana schools, particularly Madhyamika and Yogacara-vijnanavada. The text and its commentaries should be viewed in the literary context of Chandrakirti’s Madhyamavathi, and the works of Nagarjuna and Vasubandhu.

4. Language and Literary Style

The Hevajra Tantra is a fine example of tantric language and compositional style. The language is inferior Sanskrit with tinges of the vernacular as well. There is a couplet in the Apabliramia dialect describing the characteristic of the Innate.37 38 Other passage in

the vernacular can be found elsewhere in the text. The use of the vernacular as against the Sanskrit literary tradition of orthodox brahmins is in tune with the spirit of rebellion championed by the medieval poets of Northern India. Defects of language that plague all tantras are found in this tantra as well. Grammatical errors are numerous and the text shows utter disregard for scansion.

Snellgrove found more than hundred lines of the text irregular from the point of view of scansion. With regard to grammar and syntax, especially in the case of endings, there seems to be great carelessness. In his effort to get as close to the original as possible he has overlooked many of these irregularities. He writes: “We may then accept the irregularities of scansion, when it seems that they could not be otherwise, and the irregularities of

grammar, in so far as they do not render impossible the required sense." These literary defects give credence to Snellgroves view that the (antra must have existed for long in the vernacular and the authors only committed to writing what was already a well-established oral tradition. Menon is also of the same opinion that, “the tantric yoga techniques described in the Hevajra Tantra have their origins in an orally transmitted tradition, which antedates the written tradition by at least a few centuries.”

The Hevajra Tantra opens like a sutra. The literary style of both the sutras and the tantras arc similar. They exist in the form of dialogues delivered by the Buddha to congregations of disciples, bodhisattvas, or divinities in various heavens. The Buddha’s answers to the questions raised by the congregation often astound his hearers and they drop down senseless. These pronouncements arc often

disorderly, stated authoritatively without any attempt to demonstrate their veracity. There are sudden interruptions and long digressions. The text exhibits a crude and disjointed st^le, and logical construction is conspicuous by its absence. An analysis of the text reveals a structure similar to the structure of the method of discourse employed by the Buddha as discussed earlier. The Yogaratnamala is written in the parijika style. This is a type of commentarial style where words or phrases from successive units of the root treatise are taken and commented on.

Like other Buddhist tantras the Hevajra Tantra begins with the nidana vakyam, the fundamental statement - 'evarii maya srutam ’ This fundamental statement embodies within itself, in a cryptic manner, the upaya (the mode of practice), and the ultimate experience, which are elaborated in the successive chapters.45 46 There is frequent employment of sandhydb/idsa. which shields the

true meaning of the text from the uninitiated and renders it an esoteric aura. From a practical point of view, it enables the writer to economise on the repetition of details regarding concepts and practices found within the treatise. Complex notions have been compressed into certain key names, words, or phrases." The text employs a picturesque language, rich in symbolism and graphic in details. An understanding of the tantric symbols and their nuances is a must if one wants to understand the tantric vision behind the tantric ‘visibles’.

5. Thematic Analysis of the Text

Snellgrove has appended a resume of contents to Part 1 of The Hevajra Tantra: A critical study; but it does not suffice to give us a clear and logical exposition of the theory and praxis associated with the Hevajra sadhana. Theoretical notions and practical guidelines lie scattered throughout the text. Hence we need to cull out and systematise them into the theory and praxis of the tantra. Here we have made an

attempt to read into the text and establish a possible framework of theory and praxis. There is no attempt to accommodate every single line of the text into this framework, but only an attempt to show that there is a clear network of ideas, of a theoretical and practical nature, informing this tantra. The thematic analysis of the text has been brought under four principal headings: the Mahayana Foundations, the Theoretical Assumptions of Tantrism, the Tantric Means, and the Processes towards Buddhahood. These themes will have only a brief mention here, since they will be taken up in greater detail in the subsequent chapters.

5.1 The Mahayana Foundations

An analysis of the text reveals that the theoretical foundations of the text are Mahayanic. As we shall presently discover, the core concepts of Madhyamika and Yogacara lie scattered throughout the text. These have been collectively referred to as the 1 Mahayana Foundations’

5.1.1 The Absolute as Tathata

The Madhyamika intuition of tathata is at the core of the philosophical foundations of this tantra. Snellgrove writes: Now the basic philosophical position of the tantras is Madhyamika. It asserts the fundamental unity of nirvana and sansara, of mystical and sensual experiences, and it regards all means as relative to the needs of the practiser...the process is checked by the conservative tendencies represented by the Yogdcaras, and the whole movement remains essentially Buddhist after all, as subsequent developments show.

The Real (tattva) according to Madhyamika is one, uniform, undifferentiated nature. It is transcendent to thought as non-relative, non-determinate, quiescent, non-discursive, non-dual. The Real is called variously as tathata. bhtitakofi. dharmald, dharmadhatu and sunyata.48 49

Tathata is the ultimate unutterable experience in which the real and the intuition of it are no different (advaya).. It does not admit of differentiation and degrees. Tathata is not the result of accumulation of knowledge but the result of purification of the intellect, which arouses intuition {prajna).

The Vajrayana equivalent of tathata is vajra. The Yoga Ratnamala quotes Vajrasekhara. in which Bhagavan equates sunyata with vajra when he says that, the void (Sunyata). which is the firm essence, indestructible, undepletable, indivisible, and which could not be consumed is called vajra.

The first verse in chapter five of the Hevajra Tantra reverberates the same Madhyamika insight that the Real is devoid of constructive imagination (sarvakalpanak-sayarOpam) and it is non-dual {advaya). Hevajra Tantra is in perfect agreement with the Yogacara view as well, that the absolute is a non-dual consciousness and that the subject-object duality does not pertain to it. Hevajra Tantra states that

there is no duality in the Real (grahya-grdhakabhava). “By their very nature, there is neither form nor the one who sees, neither sound nor listener, neither smell nor the one who smells, neither taste nor the one who tastes, neither touch nor the one who touches and there is neither mind nor thought.”

In terms of the Real or the True Principle (tattva), smell, sound, form, mind etc. do not exist.54 55 56 57 Everything such as, the six senses, the Aggregate of the Five Components of Phenomenal Awareness, mantra, deity, is an aspect of the undifferentiated nature, or ‘thusness’ (tathata).*' It is due to ignorance that things, which are essentially non-existent, appear as though they

actually exist outside one’s consciousness. Due to ignorance again, all things appear to be in bondage, but in truth all things are ‘released’. These passages of the text echo the ultimate identity of nirvana and sansara as taught by the Madhyamika. The text upholds the unique Vajrayana insight that the Real is Innate (sahaja) and is of the nature of Great Bliss (mahasukha).

5.1.2 The Absolute as Tathagata

Tathata and Tathagata are not two separate entities. If the former is considered as prajna or sunyata, the latter may be considered as characterised by the principles of both stinyatd and karund (compassion). Tathata is the impersonal Absolute, while Tathagata is the principle of mediation between the absolute and the phenomenal. All absolute systems require a mediator, and that need is fulfilled by Isvaru in Vedanta and the Tathagata in Madhyamika and Yogacara-vijnanavada. Only a being which enjoys a sort of dual

status, having one foot in phenomena and the other in the Absolute, can possibly know the Truth and reveal it to others. This serves as the raison d'etre for the concept of Tathagata, which is a metaphysical puzzle, but a theological necessity. The dual nature of the Tathagata, as one with the Absolute yet actively pursuing the welfare of all beings, supplies the philosophical basis for the theological concept of the trikaya of the Buddha.01 namely the dhannakdya, the sambhogakaya and the nirmanakaya.

The Hevajra Tantra reiterates the Madhyamika intuition of the amphibious nature of the Tathagata. It states, “The Auspicious One enters into the Thusness (tathata) and similarly returns (agata). By this kind of wise reasoning he is known as Tathagata ” In the text, Tathagata is called Bhagavan, Vajradhara, or the Auspicious One. Bhagavan refers to Vajradhara in the form of Hevajra. He is endowed with hhaga. that is, the six qualities of lordliness, abundance, grace, excellence, splendour and meaningful application of knowledge. The

text adopts the three kayas as expounded by the Mahayana tradition and associates them with the various chakras of the tantric subtle body. In addition to the three kayas envisaged by Mahayana, Vajrayana has incorporated a fourth kayo called the mahdsukhakaya (the body of Bliss). The fourth kayo is the fusion of the above three kayas, which is the state of the Tathagata (Hevajra) and it is realised through the complex Hevajra sadhana.

5.1.3 The Concept of Tathagatagarbha

The Mahayanic concept of tathagatagarbha lies at the foundation of all tantric sadhana. All beings contain within themselves the seed of enlightenment and are potential Tathagatas (tathagatagarbha). The Uttaratantra quoting the Tathagatagarbha Sutra says, “All living beings are endowed with the Essence of the Buddha."60 Madhyamika Karika states that ninana is not something gained through abandonment or achievement but is the eternal status of all sentient beings. The Mahayanic conviction is that all beings are already Buddhas. The

Hevajra Tantra reaffirms this conviction when it states, “There exists no one being who is unenlightened from the awakening to his own nature. By their very intrinsic nature, the beings in hell, ghosts, animals, gods, titans, men and even worms and so on in the dung, are eternally blissful, for they do not merely experience the pleasure of the gods and the titans." But sentient beings do not experience the enlightened state due to the jneyavaranas and kleshavaranas.

The goal of Hevajra Tantra, therefore, is not to ‘produce' Enlightenment (bodhi) but to enable the sadhaka to realise that he is already enlightened and that he is essentially of the nature of bliss.

5.1.4 The Concept of Avidya

According to Mahayana tradition, avidya prevents man from realising his enlightened nature. For the Madhyamika, avidya consists in constructive imagination (kalpana or vikalpa). The root cause of samsara is indulging in views (drsfi), and the holding of these views begets attachment and aversion leading to suffering. For the Yogacarin avidya is the objectification of consciousness

(visaya drsti), the creation of subject-object duality (grahya-grdhaka dvaya). “The Absolute consciousness is non-dual, but when infected by the illusory idea of the ‘other’, it is diversified into the subject and object. The function of avidya is the creation of this fundamental duality.

Hevajra Tantra uses terms like ajndnarii,1] and dguntakaniala to refer to the obscurations that hide the enlightened nature of beings. It states: “Truly all beings are enlightened beings but they are veiled by the accumulation of defilements. By removing this veil of defilements, all beings are enlightened beings without doubt.” These defilements (avidya) consist of two avaranas, namely

jneyavarana and klesavarana. Jneydvarana includes such drstis or vikalpas as thoughts of worthiness and unworthiness (bhagabhagavicara), likes and dislikes (i§ianist\ ikcilpa) etc.'3 The text states that men are deluded by not knowing the Real (loko muhyati vetti na tattvarii)?* In the text Bhagavan seems to adopt the Yogacara view that the defilements are due to the existence of subject object duality (grahyagrahakabhavat). Wrong views generate afflictions (klesavarana). Hence it is by the purification of these defilements that ‘thusness’ is realised.

5.1.5 The Concept of Bodhicitta

The discipline that is undertaken to attain bodhi (Enlightenment) is called bodhicitta (generation of bodhicitta). Sunyata and karuna are the principal features of bodhicitta.76 77 Sunyata is prajna., intellectual intuition, and is identical with the Absolute. Karuna is the active principle of compassion that gives concrete expression to sunyata in phenomena. Thus bodhicitta is a unique blend of intellect and will; it becomes the foundation of all altruism. In the Mahayana tradition bodhi is realised through the practice of the Six Paramitas and the Ten Bhumis.

In Vajrayana, bodhicitta is understood to have two aspects, viz., the absolute and the relative. In its absolute aspect, bodhicitta is the supreme mystical experience and as such may be called mahasukha, which is svasa/iivedya (self-experienced) and sahaja (innate). As relative it has an erotic connotation and is equated with the life-force (semen), the essence of sariisara. This again has two forms, namely the female coefficient (rakta) and the male coefficient (siikra).

In the tantric conception of the subtle body, there are three important nadls, namely lalana, rasand and on avadhuti.' At the base of the generative organ where lalana and rasand unite and avadhuti ascends, bodhicitta exists in its relative form (sukra). At the crown of the head bodhicitta exists in its absolute condition as mahasukha, known also as the Moon.78 79 80 81 From the relative point of view, the generation of bodhicitta means the union of the sexual on

fluids of the male and the female . The female is the prajna or sunyata and the male is the upaya or karund. Thus it is through the sexual act of the yogi with the yogini that bodhicitta in its relative aspect is generated. This limited

experience strengthens the resolve of the practitioner and gives him a foretaste of the ultimate enlightened consciousness. Yogic practices enable the sadhaka to retain the relative bodhicitta at the nirmdna cakra and force it upward through the avadh utl to unite with the bodhicitta residing at the usnlsakamala or mahasukha cakra, the highest cakra. This union is again spoken of as the union of the lady with the lord, and is of the nature of Great Bliss.82 This union may be achieved also through a process of inner union of the two nadis in meditation according to the Guru’s instructions.

5.1.6 The Nature of Nirvana

All schools of Buddhism consider nin’dna to be inexpressible. As pointed out earlier it is not something to be attained. The transformation is epistemic (subjective) and not ontological (objective). What actually undergoes transformation is the attitude of the seeker. Nirvana is not a separate reality or a different state from that of sarsara. The Absolute is the only Real.83 The Absolute

is nothing but phenomena (sariisara) viewed without the distorting media of constructive imagination. According to Madhyamika the nature of nirvana is indeterminate (asariiskna). The Yogdcarin considers the state of nirvana to be the state of consciousness which is rid of subject-object duality and rests in itself.86 This ninana is of the nature of supreme bliss (mahasukha).

Hevajra Tantra employs a number of terms to signify nirvana, such as siddhi. sahaja, mahasnklia. mahamudra etc. For the Vajrayanist, the mahamudra accomplishment is zdbhedyalaksana (without distinction) and asiddha (unachieved).87 It is. as the Yogdcarin views, a state where consciousness rests in itself and does not create, and it is the state of supreme delight.88 Hevajra Tantra highlights the bliss aspect of nirvana throughout.89 Yogaratnamala states that the absolute (vivrtiti) is of the nature of bliss (mahasukharuparii).

5.2 Theoretical Assumptions of Tantrism

A thematic analysis of the Hevajra Tantra reveals the presence of certain specifically tantric insights as well, which gives credence to the view that the tantric theory is a fusion of Mahayanic philosophical tradition and tantric assumptions.

5.2.1 The Bi-polar Nature of the Non-dual Reality

The tantric vision of the Absolute is that it is a conjunctio oppositorum. There is an in-built and inseparable bipolarity within the non-dual Absolute, which is expressed as positive-negative, active-passive, male-female etc. To signify this polarity the Hevajra Tantra employs such compound nouns as sunyata-kamna, prajna-upaya, yogi-vogini. laluna-rasana, ali-kali etc.

The inner polarity of the non-dual Absolute is implied by the very name Hevajra who is Vajradhara. Yogurainamcila. asserts that Vajradhara is the Supreme Non-duality (vajradharahhattdrakarii parainadaivatain)91. The text explains that the name Hevajra is composed of two syllables 'he' signifying mahakaruna. and ‘vajra’ meaning prajna,92 Kanina is also called updya (krpopaya) and the polarity is also

expressed as prajnopdya (wisdom and means). Prajrid and upava arc associated with the two nadis Inland and rasanaAgain, prajna and upava are related to the vowel (ali) and consonant (kali).* The text also employs other names like Canddli and Vajrasattva, which imply the bi-polar nature of the Absolute.

5.2.2 The Absolute as Union of Polarities

Vajrayana presents the Absolute as the unity (yuganaddha) of polarities. This is portrayed iconographically in the union of Hevajra and Nairatmya. Nairatmya represents sunyata and Hevajra embodies karund. The text declares that bodhicitta is the mingling of sunyata and karund. However there is no distinction in the Absolute. It is non-dual (advaya); It is devoid of all constructive

imagination (sanasanikalpavarjita); It is devoid of subject-object duality (grdliya-grdhaka varjita). The text clearly indicates that in the Absolute there is no distinction such as prajna-upaya or sunyatd-karund. “By the complete awakening of the True Principle there is neither Wisdom nor Means. It is characterised as Innate Joy (sahujanandam) or Great Bliss (nuihdsukha). It is inexpressible but directly experienced (svasaiiwedyarii muhat sukham) within one’s own body.

5.2.3 The Body as the Sphere of Realisation

While the Mahayana tradition gives importance to the intellect and finally to Intuition in the realisation of the Absolute. Vajrayana highlights the role of the body within which alone the Absolute is experienced as bliss (dehabhave kutah saukhyarii). The text states that truth resides within the body (deltas(ham ca ntahajnanarii).[W) The process toward the realisation of the absolute as bliss involves several bodily practices (kava sadhana). Vajrayana praxis involves both the gross body, and the subtle body constituted of chakras and nadis.

5.2.4 Body as the Microcosm

In Vajrayana the human body is considered as the microcosm. Every aspect of the universe is identified with the various parts of the gross or the subtle body. The elements that constitute the world are related to the four chakras. The five skandhas which form the universe, arc reduced to three, namely the Body, Speech and Mind and these are related to the three nadis Inland, rasand and avadhutl The plthas arc located within the body. The body is the nikaya (the assembly of the bhikkhus), and the womb is the viltdra (monastery). The three kayas of the Tathagata arc located in the chakras of the subtle body.101 Thus, the body is conceived as a microcosm, which houses every aspect of the cosmos, the macrocosm.

5.2.5 Homologous Vision of Existence

The term ‘homologous’ means ‘having a pattern or correspondence’ Vajrayana views all aspects of existence as ‘corresponding’ with everything else. The text betrays a preoccupation with finding a series of such ‘correspondences' We have three-fold, four-fold, five-fold and sometimes six-fold ‘co-rcspondcnccs’ For example, we have a three-fold ‘co-rcspondencc’ between various aspects as shown in the table below.102 Distinctions and divisions found in sarin pi can be overcome by viewing everything as ‘corresponding’. The yogi is trained to sec all things as related and finally to realise that all distinctions as well as relations are false.

5.3 The Tantric Means

Though tantra is built on the theoretical framework of Mahayana, and of certain tantric assumptions, in its praxis it differs from the Way of the Paramitas (Paramitayana) advocated by the Mahayanists. The term ‘Means’ here signifies the instructions upon the methods of practice which lead the sadhaka to realisation.103 The Means prescribed by the Mahayanists comprise of the practice of the Six Paramitas and the Ten Bhumis. The Vajrayanists proposed a different set of Means for the generation of bodhicitta. The Means suggested by the

Hevajra Tantra are, Sarinara (the Concealed Essence), Abhiseka (the Consecration), Sandhyabhdsa (Tantric Code Language), dnanda (Joys), Ksana (Moments). Carya (Applications of the Vow) and Bhojanu (Feast).104 The Means revealed in the Hevajra Tantra are collectively called the ‘Fundamentals of All Tantras’. We shall now briefly comment on each of these Means.

5.3.1 Samvara

Sarimtra is called the ‘Concealed Essence’ as it is concealed in the body and because it is the choicest of essences. Sarinara may be understood in its absolute and relative aspects. In its absolute sense, it is the Innate Enlightened Consciousness. In the relative sense, it is the various concealed essences (male and female sexual fluids) used in the tantric yoga method. The male and the female procreative essence of our progenitors responsible for our psycho-physical existence is at the basis of the concept of

concealed essences. The Innate, as we have seen above, is the fusion of sunyata and koruna. The limited aspect of this Innate is represented by the procreative essence of the male and the female, the semen and the ovum. It is a firm Vajrayana belief that the union of the procreative essences permits the co-mingling of the sacred (the absolute unlimited enlightened consciousness) and the profane (the

procreative essences) and enables it to co-exist until the dissolution of the body.'06 The procreative essences are responsible for the body and the mind, which continually obscures and conceals the Enlightened Consciousness, the divine Innate. “The task of the,yog/ is to become aware of, and directly experience the Enlightened Consciousness. This task is achieved by utilising the breath, the energy of the limited Enlightened Consciousness, the libido and the reflections of our progenitors’ procreative essences, the causal concealed essences, hidden in the body.”

Sarinara has the meaning of bond or union. It indicates a mystic union of all forms, of elements, and of the two (male and female) procreative coefficients. In other words, it is the union of the microcosm and the i us macrocosm.

5.3.2 Abhiseka

Abhis eka literally means ‘purification’ by sprinkling.10’ In the earlier tantric period, the time of Manjusrlmfilakalpa and the Saruiiaihagalatattvasariigraha. it meant a rite of initiation by which the sadhuka was introduced into the mystic significance of the mundeda. The term may more accurately be translated as ‘consecration’ Consecrations arc four-fold: the Master (iacary'a), the Secret (guhya) the Wisdom (prajna) and the Fourth (aiturdiam). The type of consecration administered to a disciple depends on his worthiness or disposition

(sensibility). Yoga Ratnamala speaks of four types of practitioners who are of mild, medium, strong and the strongest sensibilities. These will be explained in detail in the subsequent chapters. The Master Consecration is conferred on disciples of weak sensibility.'

It is conferred in order to make the candidate worthy to listen, reflect, and meditate upon the Hevajra and other Yogini tantras. The Master administers this Consecration by entering into sexual union with the Wisdom consort presented to him by the disciple.

The Secret Consecration is conferred on disciples of medium sensibility. It is administered by dropping the resultant sexual fluid, of the union of the Master and the Wisdom consort, into the mouth of the disciple. It is called secret because it cannot be explained to the yogi in terms of phenomenal concepts.

The Wisdom Consecration is conferred on candidates of strong sensibility. At this consecration, the Guru, having worshipped the Wisdom consort, offers her to the disciple saying, great being, take this consort who will give you bliss.”"

The Fourth Consecration is experienced with an external consort, in accordance with the Guru’s instructions. This consecration is given only to candidates of extremely strong sensibility. The Guru instructs the disciple saying, bearer of the Vajra, perform the Union’."' The yogi then performs the Union with his yogini. By this consecration the candidate attains the realisation of the True Principle.

5.3.3 Sandhyabbasa

In the composite word sandhyabbasa the term ‘sandhi' means ‘the meaning agreed upon’ Hence the term refers to that mode of communication which has an agreed prime intent. Words belonging to this class are to be treated as code language and should not be understood in their literal sense. 115 Sandhyabbasa as Means is employed to communicate various elements of tantric praxis. It is considered the great [[Wikipedia:Convention

(norm)|conventional]] mode of communication among the yoginis. which arc not known to sravakas and others, and arc not revealed in the other tantras of Kriya. Cana. Yoga and Anuttarayoga Bhagavan enumerates and explains the tantric code language that is commonly used.lls The vogf is enjoined to use this wonderful language (sandhyahhasarii mahadhhutam) in communicating with the followers of the Hevajra sadhana, lest severe afflictions befall him.110

5.3.4 Ananda

The Hevajra Tantra teaches that the four stages of consecration give knowledge of the four joys (ananda). This knowledge of the four joys is known in the four consecrations by marking the four ksanas, the four Moments. The four Joys are, the Ordinary joy (ananda), the Refined joy (paramananda) the joy of Cessation (viramananda) and the Innate joy (sahajananda). From the Ordinary joy there is some bliss; from the Refined joy there is even more; from the joy of Cessation there is the passionless joy; the joy of the Innate is considered the culmination of all joys. Yogarainamald explains that the first three joys are of the phenomenal realm,121'- and they do not bring about release.122 As regards the relation between the first three joys and the Innate joy the Yogoralnanidla states.

The absolute Innate Bliss is the cause of the relative bliss, the relative Bliss being a limited aspect of the absolute Innate Bliss. Therefore confidence is attained by means of the relative bliss which is limited aspect, similar in nature to the primary cause, the absolute innate Bliss.

The Yoga Ratnamala teaches that the worldly joys are not to be spumed because they are the means, which enable the achievement of the goal, the Great Bliss.

5.3.5 Ksana

The Ksanas are the various moments or stages in the process of realisation. The four Moments are: the Diverse (vicitru), the Ripening (vipaka) the Dissolving (vimarda) and the Signless (vilaksum). The Diverse moment is so called because it consists of a variety, embracing, kissing and so on. The Ripening moment is the reverse of the Diverse moment. It is the enjoyment of the blissful knowledge. The Dissolving moment is said to be the reflective thought, T have experienced bliss’. The Signless is other than these three and is free from passion and the absence of passion; that is, it is devoid of the phenomenal existence and the Release.

5.3.6 Caiya

The Curya is the Application of the Vow according to the instructions of the Guru and the Buddhas. This is given so that the stages of the consecration can be realised and stabilised. Enlightenment is said to be quickly obtained by the Application of the Vow. For the disciple of mild sensibility the Differentiated Vow is prescribed. The candidate of medium sensibility is given the Undifferentiated Vow and to those of strong sensibility, the Extremely Undifferentiated Vow. The text does not mention any vow for those of the strongest sensibility. At their Fourth Consecration the application of the vow is realised through the Mahamudra.

5.3.7 Bhojana

The feast (bhojana) associated with the gathering of the Circle of Initiates is described in chapter seven of the second part of the Hevajra Tantra. The feast is to be offered in a crematory or a mountain cave or deserted town or a lonely place. The scats arc made of corpses or rags from the crematory or tiger-skins. The participants partake of the sacraments consisting of meat of cows, dogs, elephants, horses, and men. The disciple should give the Gum a skull-cup filled with liquor. It should be given with the left hand and received also with the left hand. * This feast is considered the Differentiated Application of the Vow, which is aimed at making the sailhaka shed his conventional mind-set such as, worthy-unworthy, edible-inedible. etc.

5.4 The Process Towards Buddhahood

It has been pointed out earlier that all beings are intrinsically enlightened but on account of defilements they appear to be in bondage. The tantric praxis is aimed at removing the apparent defilements, which arise from nothing other than a false view of existence.128 Hence the training consists in learning to conceive of existence in the light of its non-existence. In this way the sadhaka realises automatically the true Innate nature (scihcija). In order to attain this goal, tantra employs existence itself as the means (iipaya).

The first step is to create mentally an idealised representation of existence (utpatti krama); the second, is to realise the dream-like nature of its apparent diversity and perceive its underlying unity (sanipannakraina).131 The doctrinal instructions of the Adamantine One (Vajradhara) are based on these two kramas (processes), namely, the process of Generation (utpattikrama), and the process of Completion (utpannukraina/sathpannakrama). These processes will be elucidated in greater detail in the sixth chapter.

5.4.1 The Process of Generation

In the Hevajra Tantra the process of Generation consists in the manifestation of the form of the deities by the transformation of the Moon, the Symbol and the Seed-syllable, and so on, in a stabilised meditative state. During the meditative process the numerous deities of the ma tidal a arc visualised. The divinities of the mandala are nothing but idealisation of existence produced by thought-creation (blidvana).'3A It is called Generation because this process involves the generation of “figments by ideation or constructs by the cognition (buddhi)”.

5.4.2 The Process of Completion

In the process of Completion, the yogin considers himself as the centre of the process, and drawing the forms he has visualised into his own heart, realises the essential identity with the central, all-comprehending, divinity. This involves the purification of all phenomenal things and the realisation of the voidness of all natures. The process of Completion is the attainment of the intrinsic nature itself by the application of the True Principle.137 The essential aspect of the process of Completion is the attainment of the state of unity through the unification of Wisdom and Means.

6. Commentarial Literature

The Hevajra Tantra has several commentaries. Ram Shankar Tripathi in his edition of the Hevajra Tantra with Muktavall of Mahapanditacarya Ratnakarasanti,

enumerates fourteen commentaries in all. Nakamura claims that the earliest commentary on the Hevajra is the $atsahasrika Hevajratantratika by Dasabhumlsvara Vajragarbha. Bu-ston speaks of a commentary on Hevajra Tantra by Vajragarbha entitled Hevajra-pinddrtha-tikd.u It is not clear whether both the titles refer to the same commentary.

The most important commentary on the Hevajra Tantra is Yogaratnamald, the commentary by Krsna or Kanha. It is also known as Hevajra Panjika on account of its compositional style called panjika. Krsnacarya’s commentary reveals the influence of Abhidharma and the Mahayana traditions, as well as tantric precepts that are found in the Guhyasamaja Tantra. especially the direct experience of the Innate and the Great Bliss, which is attained in the Mahamudra Accomplishment. The Yoga Ratnamala offers an authentic insight into the radical bio-

genetic and psychological views of the Yogi tradition of Vajrayana. It makes constant effort to relate the tantric theory and praxis with Mahayanic speculation, and sheds light on the sophisticated and controversial tantric methods practised and perfected over the centuries. The commentary can be better understood in the light of Chandrakirti’s Madhyamakavatara and the treatises of Nagarjuna and Vasubandhu.

Bhadrapada is believed to have written another commentary on the Hevajra Tantra entitled, Srihcvajravyakhyavivarana, which is found in the Nartliang edition. Naropa, the disciple of Tilopa, wrote Vajrapddasdrasanigrahapanjikd and attempted to associate Hevajra Tantra with the Tibetan line of the Ku-gyu-pas. Tankadasa, a monk of Nalanda, too is believed to have written a commentary on this tantra entitled Hevajra tantra rdjatika-suvifttddha-sariipufanama. Two other commentators of importance, who arc not part of the list of Mahasiddhas, are Dharmakirti and Vajragarbha. Saroruha is believed to have written a commentary entitled Hevajra tantra panjikd Padmin mama. Ratnakar Santi’s

Muktavali is another commentary on the Hevajra Tantra.The Hevajra pinddrthaprakdsa by Santigupta (twelfth century) is actually a work of Sahajayana. but in the first half of the work he explains verses of the Hevajra Tantra.

There are over fifty associated and supplementary texts belonging to the Hevajra Tantra class, which explain the mandala, sadhana, vidhi, homa, puja and abhiseka of the Hevajra Tantra. The existence of these texts is known from references to them in Tibetan works on Vajrayana. The Union Tantra and the Vajrapanjara Tantra are two important associated works on the Hevajra Tantra. The Union Tantra is

considered an explanatory tantra of Hevajra Tantra. It explains the processes of Generation and Completion. The Vajrapanjara Tantra is an exegetical work on the Hevajra Tantra.148 The large number of commentaries and associated works demonstrates the high esteem, which the Hevajra Tantra enjoyed among the Vajrayanists.

7. The Hevajra Tantra and other Major Tantras

The Hevajra Tantra does not exist in isolation in the gamut of Buddhist tantric literature. We can have a deeper understanding and appreciation of the text when it is viewed in the context of other major tantric texts. The Hevajra Tantra seems to be a point of arrival and departure in the development of tantric theory and praxis.

The two important tantric sutras, Mahavairocana sutra, and Vajrasekhara sutra or Surwilathaga-tatattvasamgraha emphasised consecration and postures for meditation. The Hevajra Tantra must have been influenced by the sophisticated praxis developed by these sutras to wean the sadhaka away from external forms of ritual to inner realisation.

The Guhyasamaja Tantra marks a step ahead in the development of tantric theory and praxis. It is in this tantra that wc have for the first time, the conception of the five Dhyani Buddhas and the five female deities.150 It defines bodhicitta as the unity of voidness and compassion, as beginningless and endless, as quiescent and bereft of the notion of being and non-being. The tenn ‘diamond’ (vajra) is used to refer to the ultimate non-dual reality. This non-dual reality is devoid of

every kind of duality, of male and female, of wife and mother, of passion and detachment, of proper and improper food etc.155 In the field of sadhana, Guhyasamaja introduced the specialised meditation technique of visualisation. The Hevajra Tantra probably owes to Guhyasamaja its conception of vajra, its understanding of the Dhyani Buddhas and their Wisdom Consorts, its theory of bodhicitta and its praxis of visualisation. The Blue Annuls opines that, “the Hevajra Tantra must have been expounded as an introduction to the Guhyasamaja." "

The Hevajra Tantra has inherited from Manjushri Mula Kalpa a great deal of information on magic rites and rituals, mantras, mudras. mandalas. symbols, and instructions on painting. The emphasis given in Manjushri Mula Kalpa on ritual over meditation has found an echo in the pages of the Hevajra Tantra.

The Cakrasamvara and the other texts of the sannara group of Buddhist tantric literature introduced the symbol of sexual union to represent Bliss, the Ultimate Reality. The central deity is Vajrasattva. also called Heruka or Sarhvara. In this sadhana, meditation involves imagining oneself to be Heruka in union with his consort Vajravarahi. The Sa/inarodaya Tantra is

noted for its elaborate treatment of chakras and nadis in its thirty-first chapter. The Samputodhbhava Tantra sanctions scxo-yogic practices, and even incest as part of its sadhana. The erotic symbolism and the sexo-yogic praxis introduced in these tantras are fully developed in the Hevajra Tantra.

In the Hevajra Tantra we have a compendium of the development of tantric theory and praxis that has gone before, and in this sense it is a point of arrival. The tantric intuition of the Ultimate Reality as non-dual, as tathata, as the Tathagata. and every sentient being as tathagatagarbha. find a place in the Hevajra Tantra. Furthermore, the unique tantric insight of the Supreme Reality as Bliss is highlighted by the text. In the area of sadhana it employs mystic syllables, mystic circles, divine forms as aid to

concentration. Yogic practices involving breath control and control of seminal fluids arc brought into vogue to secure stabilised meditative states. Eating and drinking of things abhorrent arc used as means to overcome attraction and aversion, and to instil the virtue of indifference (upeksa). Sexo-yogic practices are recommended for the select candidates so that they gain confidence in the pursuit of Ultimate Reality as non-dual Bliss. Thus the Hevajra Tantra emerges as a treatise of tantric theory and praxis.

The Hevajra Tantra is also a point of departure in the sense that it sets the standard for later tantric speculation and praxis. The Kalachakra Tantra, probably one of the last additions to the Buddhist tantras, seems to build on the foundations laid by the Hevajra Tantra. The sadhaka is taught to visualise the whole universe in his own body. In addition, Kalacakra holds that time (kala) is equally contained in the

body in the form of the process of the breath (prana). There is greater stress on the nervous system as basis for yoga. which was briefly outlined in the' Hevajra. Sampufika and other tantras. The Hevajra Tantra’s emphasis on the body as the means for experiencing bliss is further highlighted in the Kalachakra Tantra.

One may not find a particular aspect of tantric theory or praxis, as an exclusive property of any particular tantra. However, a careful study of the various texts shows certain progression in its development as well as the varying emphases laid by different tantras. There is a definite movement from the largely external and gross practices of the earlier tantras, to internal and subtler sadhana of the later tantras. While

earlier tantras gave greater levy to magical rites and to the acquisition of mundane benefits, later tantras stressed the supra-mundan. In the field of tantric speculation too there is greater sophistication and subtlety. The commentators of later tantras painstakingly incorporated and elaborated on tantric theory and praxis in the light of the wider Mahayana tradition. Compared to the earlier tantras, Hevajra Tantra appears to be the product of maturer years of tantric Buddhism.

8. Significance of the Hevajra Tantra

The significance of the Hevajra Tantra lies in the fact that it has synthesised the essence of Buddhist speculation with tantric theory and praxis. In fact, it recommends a progressive assimilation of Buddhist teachings culminating in Hevajra sadhana. The text states,

First give them (the disciples) the injunctions for conduct and then instruct upon the fundamental moral precepts. Then instruct upon the Vaibhasya doctrine and after that the Sutranta doctrine. Then instruct upon the Yogacara doctrine followed by the Madhyamika doctrine. After teaching all the practices of mantra, then commence with the instruction on the Hevajra practice.

In this way it has synthesised the i/fa, sarnadhi and prajna of early Buddhism, and the essence of Mahayana speculation with Vajrayana insights and praxis. Hence, the text occupies a significant place in Buddhist literature in general. As a specimen of Vajrayana literature it is a unique testament to the theory and praxis of tantric Buddhism, and sheds much light on the tantric period of Indian

religious history. The tantric insights found in its predecessors like the Guhyasamaja, Mahjusrimulaklapa and Sawa Tathagata Tattva Samgraha have been systematised and elaborated on in this text. Again, it has exercised great influence on succeeding Buddhist tantras and tantric

literature in general. The Hevajra Tantra is the most quoted text in the Sanskrit commentaries on Vajrayana texts. The Advayavajra Samgraha, Sekoddesatikd and others borrow liberally from this text. Verses from the text are found also in the Tantric Buddhist songs in old Bengali as well as in Dohas written in Apabhramsa.

The text claims technical proficiency in the matter of magical rites, in the science and technique of generation of yogis and manifestation of deities.162 The greatness of the Hevajra sadhana is borne by the text itself. The text states, There is no accomplishment attained by following all the Vedas, Siddhantas and traditions of ritual. By following their purifications, there is rebirth in another

cycle of existence. Without this knowledge (of Hevajra Tantra) there is no accomplishment possible in this or any other world. The effort of the one who does not know Hevajra is all in vain. The Hevajra Tantra is one of the most renowned of Buddhist tantras held in high esteem in Tibet by the Ka-gyu-pas and the Sa-kya-pas. For them it is a fundamental treatise, and the subject of much exegetical enterprise.

Maitripa (also known as Advayavajra) is known to have had a special predilection for this tantra. It was this rite into which the great Kublai Khan of the Mongols was initiated. The yearning of Milarepa to join the congregation to which his Guru Marpa, the

Translator, is supposed to be preaching the Hevajra Tantra, shows the great esteem it enjoyed among acaryas and their disciples. In his song entitled, ‘Thoughts of my Guru’, he writes, How happy I would be could I join the gathering,

At which you may be preaching the Hevajra Tantra Though of simple mind, I wish to leam. Though ignorant, I long to recite.

   Mukidvoli states, "paramaraudrakdyavtikkarma-uindar&ini hi mahdkoruiki. ” HT(T), Muktavali. p.9. See Ram Shankar Tripathi and Thakur Sain Ncgi, eds. Hevajratanlram with Mukidvoli Panjika of Mahdpanthtdcdrya Rotnakarafdnti (Saranath: Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, 2001). From now on referred to as HT(T).

There is certain anomaly in interpreting 'he' as compassion. In the explanation of the composite name of ‘Sri Heruka', 'he' is interpreted as ’the primordial voidness of causality*


“Sriktiroih oilvoyaifijnCinaih hckOrarii hetvddi&myatd/ nikiirfipagutavyuhaifi kaktirorii no kvacit sthitamll" HT (F) 1:7:27. It should be noted that such contradictory interpretations of the same term nr symbol are rampant in the text.
   The YoforatnomtiUi commentary defines vajra as:
"ilf{llioih s tiro ill asoti'firyyoni occhedytihhcdyolakfoiKiiti oiltiln o\'iiiti.S co .i nyoiti vajrom ucyate "
(The Void which is the firm essence, indestructible, indeplctable, indivisible and not capable of being consumed is called vajra). HT
(S), Part 2, Yogaratnamala pp. 104-105. Sec also, “no kaddeid bhidvata iti abhedyat\-dd vajrah" HT(T). Mnktdvali. p.7.
   *san'adhanna.fOnyttSlamband mahdkarund hevajra ityarthah" HT(T). Mukt&vall, p.9.
   "bhagavdn dha
hekdrena mahdkarupd vajrartiprajnd ca bliaiiyalc/ praj/Kjpdvdtmuka/i) tantrarh tan me nigaditam sptu HT (F)
   "'iinyan’ikanifklbhinnadt bodhicittadt iti sin/lani “ HT (F) 1:10:40.
   There are at least four forms of Hevajra - two-armed, four-armed, six-aimed, and sixteen-armed. For a description of these forms, see Benoyiosh Bhattacharyya, The Indian Buddhist Iconography, 2nd edition. (Calcutta: Firma K..L. Mukhopadhyay, 1958; Reprint 1968) pp. 155, 157-158.
   "tantram iti prabandhah / lac ca tridhd hetu-tantrarii phala-tuntrail), updyatantran ca. "HT (S), Part 2, Yogaratnamala. p.105.
   "parinispannA hevajramurtih phalam.” HT (S), Part 2, Yogaratnamala. p.105.
   HT (F). p.xix.
   HT (S). Part 1., p.5.
   For details see HT (S). Part 1., pp. 12-14.
   HT(F). p.xLiii.
   HT(F) 1:1:1.
   Saroruha is also called Padmavajra or Sakara. Benoytosh Bhattacharyya assigns A.D. 693 as the probable date of this great tantric master who also wrote the Guhya Siddhi. which is revered in Tibet. Taranatha makes him a contemporary of Indrabhuti, Lahtavajra and Kukkuripa. For details see Benoytosh Bhattacharyya. 1BE pp. 69-71. For biographical details of Saroruha see James B. Robinson, trans., Buddha s Lions, pp.227-230.
   Kampala or Kambala-pa (Kambalap2da) is also called Lva-va-pa in Tibet. In Tibetan 'Lva-va' means blanket (kambida). He was thus called because he used to wear only one piece of blanket as his raiment. He is believed to have been from Odivisa. a disciple of Vajra Ganja and the preceptor to the siddha-king Indrabhuti. Dcbipiasad Chattopadhyaya. cd.. Tdrandllia's History of Buddhism in India, sec fn. p. 152; For biographical details of Kampala see James B Robinson, trans.. Buddha's Lions, pp.l 17-120.
   Chattopadhyaya Debiprasad. ed.. Tdrundtha's History of Buddhism in India, p.246.
   HT(S). Part I., p.18.
   HT(S), Part l.,p,12.
   Hevajra Panjika by Sri-Kamalanath, complete in 23 folios, does not seem to have been translated into Tibetan. Snellgrove believes that it is possible to identify Kamala or Kamalan3lh with Kampala who along with Saroruha brought to light the Hevajra Tantra. HT (S), Part 2.. pp.vii-viii.
   Hajime Nakamura. Indian Buddhism, p.334.
   HT(S). Part 1.. pp. 15-16. Buston speaks of it as existing in the region of Cambhala, Uddiy^na, etc. See E. Obcrmillcr. trans., The History of Buddhism in India and Tibet by Buston, (Delhi: Sri Satguni Publications, 1986), pp. 170-171.
   In terms of the form of the text, tantras have been classified into the following:
a) Mtila-tantra : it is the basic text containing the nirdefa (explanation) of the udde&i.
b) Lagliu-tantra or Alpa-tantra: it is the udde&i (enumeration) of the subject matter.
c) dkhyata-tantra: it is the explanatory of another tantra.
d) Uttara-tantra: it is considered to be a commentary.
e) Utfarnttara-tantra: it is placed after uttara-tantra and is commentarial in nature. Sec Hajime Nakamura. Indian Buddhism, p.332.
   As quoted in HT(S). Part 1.. p. 17.
   HT(S). Part l.,p.l8.
   Snelgrove's work is entitled. The Hevajra Tantra: A critical Study. Part 1, Introduction and Translation; Part 2. Sanskrit and Tibetan texts. Part 2 also contains Yogaratnamala, a commentary on the Hevajra tantra by Kanaha. Nakamura Hajime, Indian Buddhism, p.343, sec fn.34.
   Shashi Bhusan Dasgupta, (Book review) "The Hevajra Tantra: A Critical Study by D.L. Snellgrove*'. in JTAS. Vol. I. No.3. 1959., p.251.
   The Farrow and Menon edition is based on Snelgrove’s edition, and on four manuscripts of the Hevajra Tantra found in the National Archives in Kathmandu. Nepal. The text of the Yogaratnamala that they have translated is also based largely on Snelgrove’s edition of the same. However, they had two other manuscripts of the Yogaratnamala, which helped them correct and improve on the edition of Hevajra Tantra and YogaratnainaUi and their translations. The root treatise has been ordered in such a way as to form units of related subject matter. These units have been

transliterated in Roman script and are presented together with their English translation to facilitate easy comprehension. The translators have been influenced by the ‘Buddhist Hybrid English* which has found wide acceptance in scholarly circles. Many technical terms found in the Hevajra Tantra can be found in earlier Hmaydna and MalnSydna works as well, but they have been translated, in keeping with the spirit of Y'ajravdna. following Krsnacarya's analysis of these terms. The text of the Yogaratnamala has been improved on the basis of the Sanskrit originals of two passages which arc only available in the Tibetan in the text of the Yogaratnamala published by Snellgrove. Farrow and Menon have incorporated these two missing passages to the text of Yogaratnamald. See HT(F). pp.xLiv-xLv.
   See Bhagehandra Jain ‘Bhaskar’. ed., Hevajra Tantra-Yoga Ratnamala. 2nd edition (Nagpur: Sanmati Research Institute of Indology, 2000).
   See Rain Shankar Tripathi and Thakur Sain Negi, eds. Hevajratantram with Uuktfivalf Panjika of Mahapantfitacarya Ratnakarasanti (Sarnath: Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies. 2001).
   For details see Ibid., pp.66-68.
   Farrow and Menon entitle Part I, ‘The Awakening of the Vajra Garbha’ and Part II, ‘The Illusion’. The numbers assigned to the .^lokas in each chapter do not always tally with Snelgrove's edition. Farrow and Menon give the translation of the Yogaratnamala immediately after the relevant verses. They do not give the Sanskrit text of this commentary; but Snellgrove does (but not English translation) in Part 2 of his work. With the help of these two works of Snellgrove, and Farrow and Menon, a scholar can have a fairly good grasp of the Hevajra Tantra and its commentary, Yogaratnamald.
• —-
   Shashi Bhusan Dasgupta, (Book review) "The Hevajra Tantra: A
Critical Study by D.L. Snellgrove", p.251.
   A.K. Warder, Indian Buddhism, p.498.
   HT(F). pp.xLiii-xLiv.
   Sec HT(F) 11:5:67.
   See HT(F) 11:4:6-10; 11:4:72-72.
   For examples of errors of a literary nature see HT(S), Part 2, pp.x-xi.
   HT(S). Part 2. p. x.
   HT(F). p.xLiii.
   HT(S). Part 1 pp.4-5.
   See pp.69-70 above. See also David J. Kalupahana. A History of Buddhist Philosophy, p.225. For an example of (he four-fold structure, see: i) pointing out (sandasseti) HT(F) 11:4: 52ff. ii) creating an agitation (samuttejeti) HT(F) 11:4:68. iii) appeasing the mind (sampahrtiseti) HT(F) 11:4:69). iv) converting (samAdapeti) HT(F): 11:4:70-71.
   MT(F), p.ix.
   HT(F), p.viii.
   1IT(F), p.xxi.
HT(S). Part 1 p.20.
   "Aparu-pratyayarii sdntarit prapancair aprapancitarit;
Nirxikutpam ondndrtham elat tatrvasya laksnnam" MK. XVI1I.9.
   “Sunyatd. tat hold, bhtitakofi. dharmadliatur iryddi parydvafi “ BCAP p. 171. Sec P.L. Vaidya, ed., Bodhicaryavatara of ^dnlidcw with the Commentary Paitjika of Prajndkaramati (Darbhanga: The Mithila Institute, I960).
   T.R.V. Murti, CPB, pp.245-246.
   Ibid., p.217.
   “ tathd coklarti Bhagavdn vajraiekhare
d/dhoti) xdram asaufhyyum accehdydbhedyalakfapatitt/
uddhi Ovoid'S to S'myotd vajram ucyate " HT(S), Part 2,
Yogaratnamdld. pp. 104-105.
   HT(F) 1:5:1.
   HT(F) 1:9:21:1:5:2-3; 1:10:30.
   HT(F) 1:5:9-14.
   HT(F) (11:4:36-38; 11:4:70-71; 11:4:75-77.
   "ita smiadrasya n inti (kit kirheid cisti viScsnnarii
na tundnasva sarhsdrQt kirheid asti vi&fnixtrii" MK.XXV.19.
   HT(F) 1:10:31-32.
   T.R.V. Mum. CPB, pp.276-277.
   Ibid., p.284.
   “tat hat Ay fun gatah .rhndn Agata. ca tatliaiva cat
anayA prajfkiyAyuktyA tatliAgato'hliiiihfyate" HT (F) 1:5:8.
   HT(I;) p.4.
   See HT(F) 1:1:4; 11:4:56-58; 1:1:5; 1:1:22-24.
   HT(F) 11:4:58.
   As quoted in T.R.V. Murti, CPB, p.257.
   "Aprahimm asamprdptam anucchinnam asdsvaKui). aniriidtllunn anutpamuun elan nirvanam ucyatc." MK..XXV.3,
   HT(F) 11:4:75-76.
   T.R.V. Murti, CPB, pp.270-271.
"kdma jmnfimi tc m ularit sa/ikalpfil kiln jtiyase:
na no til surika Ipayisyfinii into me na blmvisyasi" MKV. p,149:197.
   Asliok Kumar Chatterjec. YI, p.137.
   "ajMiuuti svablifivaparijiidnarii" HT(S), Part 2, YogaratiuiiiiAlfi. p.130.
   HT(F) 11:4:70-71.
   HT(F) 1:6:19-21.
   HT(F) 1:9:20.
   HT(F) 1:9:5.
   “san-esQfi) khalu vastundii) vifuddhis tathold sm/uJ" HT(F) 1:9:1.
   “Sunyaui karupdbhinnam bodhicittarii iti stnpam" HT(F) 1:10:40.
   T.R.V. Murti, CPB. pp.264-265.
   HT(S), Part l pp.25-26.
   HT(F) 1:1:14.
   HT(S). Part 1 p.27.
   HT(F) 11:3:14, p.185
   HT(F) 11:4:38, p.216.
   T.R.V. Muni, CPB, pp.273-274.
   "san'akalpanAksnyarupam eva ninana in" MKV. p.229.
   “cittasya cine sthAnAt" MSA, XVIII, 66.
   Ashok Kumar Chalteijee, YI. p.161.
   HT(F) 1:10:18.
   "paramnratau na ca bhAvo na bhAvakah" etc. Sec HT(F) 1:10:31
   "stiklw m prajnA sukhopAyah sukliarii kundumjarii taltlA/
sukliain hlidvah sukhtihlifivo Vujrasattvah mkhasni/ui/y/" HT (F) 11:2:32.
   "muliauikluirupaiii vivtn/j" HT(S). Part 2.Yog(irtuniiiniUi. p. 125.
   HT(S). Part 2, Yogarainamdld. p.104. See also HT(F), Yogaranmindld. p.6.
   "...Itekdrcixi nuihftkanux) vajra lit prajna ca hliainvie..." HT(F) 1:1:7.
   "Inland prujridsvabhdvena rasanopdvenasaiimliud.. ” HT(F) 1:1:15.
   .prajlYilikdlyupdyeti..HT(F) 1:8:10.
   . "U'nwatdkorundbhinnarit boiHucittam iti sin/tain" HT(F) 1:10:40.
   "...ndira praj rid na copdya/i saniyaktattvdvahodluUuliir HT(F) 1:8:33.
   HT(F) 1:8:44.
   HT(F) 11:2:35.
   HT(F) 1:1:12.
   HT(F) 11:4:64.
   HT(F) 11:4:54.
   Doctrinal Cosmic Sexual Vocal Philosophical Three worlds
Wisdom Moon Padma Ali Imagined KamadliAtu
Means Sun Vajra Kali Contingent Rupadhatu
Union Fire Sukra Aksara Absolute Anipadhatu
   "uptiyaril samyaksariibodhisflillianiiiri' HT(S). Part 2, Yognratiuiintlld. p. 141.
   HT(F) 11:3:1.
   HT(F). pp.xxiv-xxv.
   HT(F). p.xxv.
   HT(F) 1:10:41; 11:10:1. Sec HT(S), Part l.p.138.
   HT(F) 11:3:12.
   HT(S). Part 1, p. 131.
   HT(F) 1:10:1-5; 11:3:13; 11:12:2; 11:5:64.
   HT(F) 11:3:13.
   HT(F) 11:3:14; 11:12:3; 11:5:65; 1:10:6.
   HT(F) 11:3:15.
   HT(F) 11:3:16.
   ‘'sundhir ubhiprAyah. abhiprflyapratlhdna/fi bliflyiiKitii nAksarupradhAunurii ity arthuh" HT(S), Part 2, YogartilnanuSUi.
p.145. See also “sandhind uhlnprayena abliaxiixiih
sawihyfibhfisam" HT(T), Muktdvuli. p. 154.
HT(F) 11:3:53-54.
1 IS See HT(F) 11:3:56-60.
   HT(F) 11:3:65-67.
   HT(F), pp.xxxiv-xxxv.
   HT(F) 1:8:30-32.
   HT(F) 1:10:12-13.
   HT(F) 1:8:30. p.97
   I1T(F) 11:2:40, p. 168.
   HT(F), p.xxxv; 1:1:26.
   HT(F) 11:3:6-8.
   HT(F). p.xxxviii. See also 1:6:24; p.69.
   HT(F) 11:7:7-13.
   "vino kulpunayfistitvain idgadhiam na vidyate; hlinnirtliali kalpana ceti ko graliisyati buddhimtin. " C .VIII,3.
   HT(F) 11:2:46-51.
   HT(F) 11:2:28.
   HT(F) 1:8:23.
   HT(F) 1:8:23, p.92.
   HT(S). Pari 1, p. 139.
   F.D. Lessing & Alex Wayman, Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems, p.333.
   HT(S). Part 1 p.140.
   HT(F) 1:9:20-21.
   HT(F) 1:8:23, p.92.
   HT(F) 1:8:24-25, p.93.
   For details see HT(T). pp.62-63.
   Hajime Nakamura, Indian Buddhism, p.334, fn.34.
   E. Obcrmillcr, trans.. The History of Buddhism in India and Tibet by Btiston, p.220.
   Taranatha states that Kanha. the commentator, is a contemporary of king Devapaia who reigned during the first half of the 9th century.
   HT(F), pp. xLiii-xLiv.
   HT($). Part 1 pp.14-15. Dharmaklrti wrote Hcvajramahdtantrasya pa/ljiktinctra-vibha/igandma and Vajragarbha wrote Hcvajrapinddrtliatikfl.
   See Ram Shankar Tripathi and Thakur Sain Negi, eds. Hevajrataniram with Muktdvalf Patljikd of Mahdpap{titdcdrya Ratndkarasdnti. Sncllgrove refers to Ratn3karasAnti’s Muktdraltas ' Muktikdvati'. See HT(S). Part 1, p.xiii.
   Hajinic Nakamura, Indian Buddhism, p.335.
   See HT(T). pp.63-65.
   Panchen Sonam Dragpa, Owrview of Buddhist Tantra (English Translation by Martin J. Boord & Losang Norbu Tsonawa) (Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, 1996), p.50.
   A. K. Warder. Indian Buddhism, p.495.
   Hajime Nakamura, Indian Buddhism, p.333.
   S. Bagclu. cd.. Guhyasamdja Tantra, XVIII:37.
   A. K. Warder. Indian Buddhism, p.495.
   Ibid., p.495.
   George N'. Roerich. The Blue Annals. p.35S.
   Hajime Nakamura, Indian Buddhism, p.333.
   A. K.. Warder. Indian Buddhism, p.496.
   Hajime Nakamura, Indian Buddhism, p.333.
   HT(S). Pan 1 p.39.
   A.K. Warder. Indian Buddhism, p.504.
HT(F) 11:8:10-11-
   Shashi Bluisan Dasgupta, (Book review) “The Hevajra Tantra: A Critical Study by D.L. Sncllgrove”, p.251.
   HT(F) 1:1:8-9.
   HT(F) 1:8:52-53.
   HT(S), Part 1 p.10.
   Ganma C.C. Chang, trans., The Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa, (New York: University Books, 1962) vol.l., p.2.