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Drakngak Lingpa’s Pilgrimage Guides and the Progressive Opening of the Hidden Land of Pemakö

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Drakngak Lingpa

by Elizabeth McDougal

(University of Sydney)


The 'hidden valleys' or 'hidden lands' (beyulz Wylie sbas yul) whose locations have been revealed and 'opened7 throughout the centuries by successive Tibetan terton

('treasure finders' or visionary lamas; gter ston) have been a topic of growing interest within Tibetan studies in recent years (Reinhard 1978; Diemberger 1990; Childs 1999). Like the terma ('concealed treasure7; gter ma) of teachings and sacred objects that were intended for future revelation, hidden lands

were said to be concealed by Guru Padmasambhava in the eighth century as sanctuaries of peace and spiritual potency to be revealed in future times of political strife. Pemako (Padma bkod; 'Array of the Lotus') is perhaps the most famous of such hidden lands, and has received particular attention from Western scholars for its alluring religious and geographical features (Sardar-Afkhami 1996z 2001; Baker 2004; Kingdon Ward 1926). Pemako spans from Kongpo

and Powo in the TARZ China, to Arunachal Pradesh, India, following the southward course of the Yarlung Tsangpo River as it leaves the Tibetan Plateau and flows through one of the planets deepest gorges.2 * * * * Tibetan

1 This paper presents an English translation of three pilgrimage guides, or neyig (gnas yig; gnas bshad; lam yzg): 1) gNas mchog pre ta pur ri'i gnas yig shel dkar me long bzhugs so// The Crystal Mirror Chronicle of the Supreme Sacred Realm of PretapurT 2) dGongs gsang zad med ye shes klong mdzod las;

Dai wa ko ta'i gnas yig ma rig mun sei bzhugs// The Chronicle of Devakota That Clears Away the Darkness of Ignorance (from The Treasure of the Inexhaustible Wisdom Expanse of Secret Enlightened Intention) 3) rTsa gsum dgongs pa kun 'dus las: Yang gsang pad shel gnas yig ma rig mun sei sgron me

bzhugs// The Chronicle of the Most Secret Pema Shelri Mountain: The Lamp Which Dispels the Darkness of Ignorance (from The Unity of All Sublime Thought of the Three Roots'). I would like to acknowledge Lopon P. Ogyan Tanzin Rinpoche's help and encouragement in relation to the initial translation, and Geoffrey SamueFs assistance in revising it for publication.

2 Pemako is located at an altitude range of 2,000-3,500m (6,600-11,500ft) and

spans 30/000 square miles. Pemako is surrounded by high mountains (the tallest is Namcha Barwa in the north at 7,782m, or 25,531ft) and filled with some Elizabeth McDougal, "Drakngak Lingpa's Pilgrimage Guides and the Progressive Opening of the Hidden Land of Pemakd/// Revue d'Etudes Tibetaines, no. 35, April 2016z pp. 5-52.

Buddhists see the geographical layout of Pemako as the body of the semi-wrathful wisdom Goddess Vajravarahiz with her five chakras (energy centres in the subtle body; rtsa 'khor; Skt. cakrd) marked by geoman tic centres in the mountainous landscape.

The present paper presents a translation of a short collection of neyig ('pilgrimage guidebooks'; gnas yig) to Pemako revealed by the terton Dudjom Drakngak Lingpa (bDud zjoms drag sngags gling paz ca. 1871-1929; hereafter Drakngak Lingpa)z also known as Dudjom Namkhai Dorje (bDud zjoms nam mkhazi rdo

rje)z* 3 likely during a period of political conflict in Eastern Tibet at the start of the twentieth century. The text is of special interest because it appears to illustrate a recent stage in the progressive opening of the hidden land of Pemako along the lower Tsangpo River and up one of its tributaries,

now known as the Yang Sang Chu ('Most Secret River7; yang gsang chu). This further opening effectively extended Pemako beyond its limits as they seem to have been previously understood, and placed her most sacred sites 一 the Goddess' womb and secret chakras (yang gsang gnas) 一 on the Indian side of the

Sino-Indian border where they have become accessible as pilgrimage sites to diasporic Tibetans. I have looked to a number of accounts by recent Western visitors for help in correlating the visionary landscape portrayed in the neyig and its geographical counterpart (Esler 2007; Levine 2011; Sanders 2014).

The first neyig of Pemako were revealed in the mid-seventeenth century by the terton Rigzin Jatson Nyingpo (Rig Zdzin zjaz tshon snying poz 1585-1656) at the time of Gushri Khan's Mongol invasion of Tibet (Sardar-Afkhami 2001; Baker 2004). Jatson Nyingpo sent his disciple Rigzin Dildul Dorje (Rig Zdzin bdud zdul rdo rje) to open Pemako for Tibetan pilgrims and to convert the local abo

of the planet's most diverse forms of terrain, vegetation and wild animals. The Yarlung Tsangpo River, whose headwaters originate near Mount Kailashz flows into Pemako through the Tsangpo Gorge after leaving the Tibetan pla-teauz and then becomes the Siang and Brahmaputra rivers as it runs through Arunachal Pradesh to the plains of Assam (Grothmann 2012: 22-23).

3 bDud joms drag sngags gling pa is also commonly known by his ordination name Ngag dbang dge legs. Like most Tibetan tertons he had many Dharma names; in his short biography he is given more than six (sPrul sku padma rig Zdzinz 2013: 7, 8). There is some uncertainty about Drag sngags gling pa's dates, based on possible printing errors of his birth year in the biographies by sPrul sku padma rig Zdzin and the dates of the fourteenth Karmapaz whom

the terton is recorded in the biographies to have met. The year of his passing has also not been specified. A discussion between Lopon P. Ogyan Tanzin and sPrul sku padma rig Zdzin (who is the reincarnation of Drag sngags gling pa) resolved that the terton7s birth took place in a sheep year and his death at the age of fifty-eight. The dates given here are inferred on the basis of this information (see Cantwell 2015: 1, n. 1).

original population to Buddhism (Sardar-Afkhami 1999: 1-2). Following neyig descriptions and meditative visions, a series of later terton were involved in the progressive conversion of the Pemako region and the 'opening7 of pilgrimage routes to successive chakras surrounding the course of the Tsangpo River.

Thus Garwang Chime Dorje (Gar dbang zchi med rdo rjez b.1763) is said to have reopened the head and throat chakras, and the Fifth Gampopa (sGam po paz O rgyan zgro zdul gling paz b.1757) is said to have opened the Goddess' heart chakra (Sardar-Afkhami 1996: 6Z 8). As visions and accounts of the five chakras increased, however, inconsistencies between their various locations became common. As Sardar-Afkhami mentions, it seems that different lamas identified the

chakras in reference to their immediate environment depending on where they had settled in Pemakoz and efforts were not always made to conform to past visions of the chakras' locations (Sardar-Afkhami 1996: 8Z n. 7).

The first decade of the twentieth century was a period of major political disturbance in Tibet, with the violence instigated by the Qing dynasty official Zhao Erfeng against Tibetan monasteries in 1905 and his subsequent invasion of Eastern and Central Tibet. Nearly two thousand Eastern Tibetans (Khampas)

migrated to Pe-mako around this timez many following terton and their neyig prophecies to further open the hidden land (Grothmann 2012; Sardar-Afkhami 2001). These Khampas are now one of the main groups of inhabitants of Pemakoz along with people of the Adiz Mishmi and Memba tribes who are native inhabitants of the region (Grothmann 2012). It was likely under these circumstances, sometime in the early twentieth century, that the terton of our

present guidebooks migrated to Pemako in search of the innermost womb and secret chakras of the Goddess VajravarahL The following translation comprises three different neyig describing salient portions of the Yang Sang (yang gsang) or 'Most Secret7 region of Pemako. These neyig were recorded by the treasure revealer Drakngak Lingpa through a process of rendering five cryptic syllables from his revealed terma. Drakngak

Lingpa was born in Lhatsedrakz a sacred place of the Five ManjusrT Families in the Nangchen region of northern Kham. His principal guru was the first Drubwang Tsoknyi Rinpoche (Grub dbang tshogs gnyis rin po chez b.1828) whose pith instructions guided him to tantric realization. He also received teachings from Jamgon Kongtrul CJam mgon kong sprulz 1813-1899) who authenticated his realization and status as a treasure revealer (Cantwell 2015; sPrul sku padma rig Zdzin 2012).

In the neyig Drakngak Lingpa is prophesied by Guru Pad-masambhava as an emanation of the renowned consort and discipie of Yeshe Tsogyalz Atsarsale (A tsar sa le).4 5 He is also celebrated in his hagiographies as the rebirth of Mahasiddha Saraha as well as of Taksham Nuden Dorje (sTag sham nus ldan rdo rjez 1655-1708)/ an earlier teilbn who also revealed texts on Pemako's innermost realms (sPrul sku padma rig Zdzin 2012; Baker 2004). By the power of Drakngak Lingpa's past prayers and connection with Guru Padmasambhavaz he would be impelled to wander through Himalayan hidden lands, opening their mandalas and receiving revelations, sometimes publicly (Cantwell 2015).

Two maps showing an overview of the whole Pemako region (above), and the valley of the Yang Sang Chu river (the area covered in the neyig), a tributary off of the Upper Siang Valley in Arunachal Pradesh, India (below).

4 Az tsar sa le, also A rya sa le: the Nepali consort and disciple of Yeshe Tsogyal

5 A.k.a. sTag sham bsam gtan gling paz an important seventeenth century terton. Among sTag sham's revealed treasures were descriptive texts about Pemako as well as the life story of Yeshe Tsogyal. He is also said to have revealed the rTsa gsum yi dam dgongs 'dus terma cycle that is connected with the third Chronicle in the following translation.

As mentioned above, these neyig and visions accompanying them have placed the two lower womb and secret chakras of VajravarahT on the Indian side of Pemakoz in the Yang Sang Chu region of the Upper Siang district in Arunachal Pradesh. The womb chakra is placed at Pema Drepung mountain near Devakota in

the Yang Sang Chu valley, and the secret chakra (Z/Kilaying Dzong/Z) at the confluence of the Yang Sang Chu and Siang rivers just south of Tuting. Devakota has become a focal point for modern pilgrimages to the Yang Sang Chu region. It is "the gathering place of dakinis" surrounded like petals of a lotus by Pretapuri (with its Lake Dhanakosa)z Pema Shelri and Potala mountains (Sanders 2014; Esler 2008). A single circumambulation around Devakota is said to bring ten billion siddhis (Levine 2011).

It is interesting to see the neyig has further imbued the region with sanctity by placing in it several important holy sites that have long been identified at other places. Devakota, Pretapuri, Lampaka and Lake Dhanakosa 一 all pilgrimage sites mentioned in the neyig 一 are among the 24 pitha or 'seats' of

male and female tantric deities mentioned in scriptures of the Samvara and Hevajra tantra cycles (Sugiki 2009: 523-524). These pitha appear to have originally been Sakta sites that were later appropriated by Buddhist tantra; this is apparent in the Cakrasamvaratantra where they are discussed as actual locations that have been taken over by Buddhist deities (Samuel 2008; Davidson 1991). Devakota7s original location is gen

erally identified in the Dakshin Dinajpur district of present-day West Bengal; PretapurTz Lampaka and Lake Dhanakosa (Pad-masambhava's legendary birthplace in Oddiyana) also have longstanding geographical referents at other places in the landscapes of India, the Himalaya and Tibet. The location of these holy

sites seems to have always been flexible (Sugiki 2009). After the demise of Buddhist tantra in India in the thirteenth century, Devakotaz for example, came to be identified at four other locations in Tibet depending on the religious, social and political dynamics of different times and places (Huber 2008: 109).

Potala Mountain and Maratika are yet two other important holy sites that have been relocated in Pemako by the tertonz both on the pilgrimage route around Devakota in the Yang Sang region. Potala Mountain is the legendary dwelling of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvaraz hypothesized by some to be Pothigai mountain

in the Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu, India (Hikosaka 1998). The name Potala was of course also given by Tibetans to the Potala Palace of the Dalai Lamas in Lhasa. The present neyig guides pilgrims to Potala Mountain in the Abroka range southeast of Tuting. Maratika, the holy cave from the life story of Padmasambhava where he and Mandarava attained the siddhi of long lifez is most commonly thought in recent times to be located at the Halase caves of

Eastern Nepal.6 In the neyigz Maratika is one of four caves flanking Devakota hill in the Yang Sang Chu valley. A unique feature of Pemako as a hidden land overall, and of Drakngak Lingpa as a tertonz is the apocalyptic prophecy that assigns Pemako7s womb chakra as

the 'Deathless Extreme Secret Place7 ('Chi med yang gsang gnas) from where the seeds of humanity will regenerate themselves after being extinguished at the end of the Dark Age. These seeds are said to be stored in a treasure chest under Padmasambhava's throne at the top of Devakota hill (Esler 2008; Sanders 2015)/ Along with these neyigz Drakngak Lingpa revealed part of Padmasambhava's throne at the top of Devakota.

6 The identification of Maratika in the neyig as one of the four "caves of transcendental yogic accomplishment on Devakota Mountain appears to be older than today's more popular identification of Maratika with the Halase caves in the Everest region of eastern Nepal. According to Katia Buffetrillez the narrative of Maratika in eastern Nepal only developed in the 1980s (Buffetrille 1994, 2012).

7 From the second Chronicle of Devakota in the neyig: gzhugs khri gter sgrom 'dzam gling snying nor yod / "the throne. . . which safeguards a treasure chest, the heart jewel of this earth". Oral traditions of Pemako prophecies state that from this location all classes of creatures will gather as seeds and regenerate themselves from the womb of the Goddess in a new cycle of time, after having become extinct at the end of a dark age (Sanders 2015:

9). This throne is considered in some oral traditions to be Pemako's most important terma (Levine 2011).

Drakngak Lingpa shared a close collaboration with the late Dudjom Rinpoche, zJigs bral ye shes rdo rje (1904-1987). It was at the invitation of Drakngak Lingpa that Dudjom Rinpoche first visited Pemako in his late teens and bestowed the empowerments of the Rinchen Terdzd8 for his first time in Devakota. Dudjom Rinpoche in turn prophesied the benefit that the treasures of Drakngak Lingpa would have for beings in future times (Esler 2008).

The translation that follows was carried out under the guidance of Lopon P. Ogyan Tanzin Rinpoche, a respected lama and scholar who was born in Pemako to a family of ngakpas (sngags pa; tantric lay practitioner) descending from the terton Pema Lingpa (Padma gling pa, 1450-1521), and who has visited the sites

described in these neyig several times on pilgrimage. The original Tibetan neyig are written in four-lined verses, and as visionary pilgrimage guides to an earthly pure land the wording is at times cryptic. It was necessary to expand the English translation in order to translate the verses intelligibly, as well as to include Lopon P. Ogyan Tanzin Rinpoche's comments and interpretations that were given to clarify the passages and to assist people using the translation as a pilgrimage guidebook. Words in square brackets are Rinpoche's additions and are not in the original Tibetan text.

The Crystal Mirror Chronicle of the Supreme Sacred Realm of Pretapun within the Hidden Earthly Pure Land of Pemako

Here are written the five secret symbols

Eh ma!

From primordial unobstructed Dharmadhatuz unchanging and free of all concepts, the play of the sublime manifest intention miraculously appears as five secret symbols of the dakinis. The time has now ripened to decipher their hidden meaning.


8 Rin chen gter mdzod, a sixty-three volume collection of important treasures attributed to Guru Padmasambhava and his closest disciples, compiled by 'Jam mgon kong sprul with the assistance of 'Jam dbyangs mkhye brtsezi dbang po.

In the future, when human life begins its decline at the age of twenty years, when violence and degeneration, wars, famine and epidemics prevail, as a result of powerful vengeful aspirations made previously by enemies of the Dharma, armies at the four borders will stir and the beings of Tibet, the Land of Snows, will suffer a time of great sorrow and loss. However, due to previous blessings of the Buddhas Samantabhadra and Sakyamuni there will endure the hidden sacred realm of Pemakoz where the landscape is formed by the holy body of Vajravarahiz Queen of the Dakims. Having attained there the accomplishment

of the state beyond birth and death/0 the great Vidyadhara Padmasambhava raised the Victory Banner of Unceasing Dharma. Throughout the five valleys, six regions and nine realms are laid out the five chakras of Vajravarahiz and therein are hidden countless Dharma treasures11

of Guru Padmasambhava, sealed with the protection of his blessings and prayers. Thus no hostile forces can destroy this hidden, holy landz a naturally perfected, self-arisen vajra fortress. It is a celestial realm of this earth, a hidden realm of the vidyadharasz the outer, inner, secret and most secret holy body of VajravarahL How wondrous and miraculous is this land!


9 The subtitles in this English translation are given to clarify the content of the neyig and are not in the Tibetan text.

10 This seems to allude to Padmasambhavazs attainment of long-life siddhi at Maratika Cavez which as mentioned in the introduction has been relocated by the neyig to a cave on the side of Devakota hill in Pemako.

11 The practice of revealing hidden religious treasures (gter ma) was carried out in India, according to Indian legendary material (Sardar-Afkhami 2001: 43/ n. 54). In Tibet this practice became a fully-developed tradition of revelation whereby mystics underwent visionary searches for scriptures and sacred objects whose existence and concealment were attributed to Guru Padmasambhava. The revealers (gter ston) were prophetically appointed, and upon

discovering a 'treasure' (gter ma) the revealer could recall entire teachings and prophecies received from Guru Padmasambhava in a past life. Among other purposes, revelation of these treasures served to demonstrate continuity with a past authentic source of the teachings (Thondup 1986; Gyatso 1991; Sardar-Afkhami 2001).

Essential explanation of Pemako as the mandala arrangement of the five chakras of the wisdom goddess Vajravarahi

Outwardly this sacred realm appears as the joyful land of Pemakoz while its nature is the mandala arrangement of the Goddess VajravarahT's five chakras.13 The sow-faced snow peak protruding into the sky is the very face of Vajravarahi, surrounded by clear manifestations of Cakrasamvara and his retinue. A long

conch shell radiating rainbow lights marks the throat chakra of Vajravarahi, where continual night fires burn in cremation grounds, which are the realms of Mahakala and his seventy accompanying protector deities. VajravarahT's heart is marked with an auspicious knot and lies in a luminous landz where the waters of the rivers possess the five wisdoms and the site of an overhanging cliff is a mandala of peaceful and wrathful deities. The navel chakra of

Vajravarahi lies in the place known as Pema Drepung [[[Rinchen Pung]]]14 and at its centre appears the Copper Coloured Mountain, the celestial abode of Guru Padmasambhava. This magical landscape, the very body of Vajravarahi, how beautiful it is to behold! From the secret great bliss of Kilayaz Dorje Phurba manifests in the landscape of Kilaying Dzong where deadly insects

12 The narrative of Pemako as the mandala arrangement of VajravarahT's five chakras became popular after the 17th century, particularly with the revelations of sTag sham nus ldan rdo rje (1655-1708) that described the Tsangpo River as her central channel and regions along the Riverzs course as her chakras (Baker 2004: 31).

13 The following passage outlines the five chakras of Vajravarahi 一 face (or head), throat, heart, navel and secret. A popular contemporary narrative identifies the upper three chakras in Southeastern Tibet (now the Tibet Autonomous Region [TAR], China), with the head at Kangri Karpoz the throat below

Gyala Pelri and her two breasts the peaks of Namcha Barwa and Gyala Pelri. The present neyig and visions accompanying them have identified her two lower chakras in the upper Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India, with the womb chakra near Devakota in the Yang Sang Chu valley, and the secret chakra (zKilaying Dzong7; sometimes referred to locally as zKila Yangzom7) at the confluence of the Yang Sang Chu and Siang rivers just south of Tuting.

14 This identification of Pema Drepung as Rinchen Pung was given by Lopon P. Ogyan Tanzin Rinpoche. The identification of the navel (or womb) chakra with Rinchen Pung agrees with the sPo bo lo rgyus and revelations of Kun bzang zod zer gar dbang zchi med rjo rje (b. 1763) (Sardar-Afkhami 1996). It

differs, however, with the accounts of sTag sham nus ldan rdo rje (a previous incarnation of Drakngak Lingpa)z sLe lung bshad pazi rdo rje as well descriptions in the 'Luminous Webz of Rig Zdzin rdo rje thogs med that identify Rinchen Pung instead with VajravarahT's heart chakra. Kun bzang zod zer was

unusual in identifying the chakras not with precise locations, but with entire sections of the Brahmaputra gorge (Sardar-Afkhami 1996: 8). Ian Baker explains that the VajravarahT's five chakras generally refer to areas in Pemako encompassing several pilgrimage sites (Baker 2004).

and snakes crawl within frightful cremation grounds. Harrowing cliffs and dreadful gorges, arid desert heights, snow mountains and forests are patterned throughout this land. Sublime and unsurpassable is this magical place of Pemakoz the utterly perfect outer, inner and secret pure realm of VajravarahL The mountain outwardly appearing as Gyala Pelri is the abode of manifesting deities beyond number. Inwardly it is the thunderous mountain of Namcha Barwaz where the Five Vajrasattva Families and countless bodhisattvas abide.

In the secret pure land of eastern Pemako dwell Vairocana and his retinue of peaceful and wrathful deities, spontaneously arisen and distinctly arranged in the landscape.


Particular physical characteristics of Pemako, and [[[Chime]]]15 Yang Sang, the womb chakra of Vajravarahi (Devakota Mountain and Pretapun) Inwardly, the upper end of the valley called Dremo Jong is steep and narrow, while its lower end is wide. The mountain peaks and valleys together form the petals of an open lotusz and the sound of the river's rushing waters can be heard constantly. Monkeys play as gods play and the calls of the birds are

sweet songs of Dharma. Forests are thick with medicinal and richly scented trees and at all times rainbow lights appear. Crops are abundant beyond measure, with an array of sublime sweet and sour tastes. No hostile forces can destroy this fortress-like valley. It is the incomparable Enjoyment Bodyz Sambhogakayaz the outer, inner, secret and most secret supreme realm.

Brief description of Devakota Mountain

Outwardly the garden-like place of Devakota Mountain is the mandala of Guhyasamajaz the gathering place of dakinis of the Mother Tantra. In essence it is indistinguishable from Dhumatalaz

15 zChime7 (zdeathless7) is an oral comment from Lopon P. Ogyan Tanzin Rinpoche and not in the Tibetan text. This title seems to be connected to the prophecy of Pemakbzs womb chakra being the 'Deathless Extreme Secret Place7 ('Chi med yang gsang gnas) from where the seeds of humanity will regenerate themselves after the end of a dark age.

[the great city of dakinis in Oddiyana].16 Self-arisen buried treasure chests hold precious Dharma treasures of the three transcendent qualities. It is the unequalled pure realm of this very earth.


Particular characteristics of Pretapun

The landscape of PretapurT forms a fully opened lotusz and the nectar waters which flow through this holy land are luminous and possess the eight sublime qualities.

18 The five lakes here are of the nature of the Five Buddha Families and their waters are the colour of clear, lapis blue. Wondrous and amazing are these waters, inseparable from the waters of Lake Dhanakosa in the pure realm of Oddiyana. At the heart of the island Cittaz which lies in the centre of the

Lake, is the miraculous Gandola Temple, one in nature with that of Oddiyana where uncountable Sambhogakaya deities gather.19 Upon seeing this place one's obscurations to knowledge will be cleared and negative karma accumulated over a thousand eons will be purified. Whoever completes thirteen circumambula-tions of PretapurT will instantly reach the transcendent state where there is no discrimination between male and female, nor good and

16 According to Matthieu Ricard (in a personal communication with Toni Huber in 1992)/ Dhumatala is identified as the Buddhafield of VajrayoginTz with whom Vajravarahi is interchangeable (Huber 1999: 267/ ch.4, n. 21). Dhumatala is another important tantric s让e relocated in Pemako by the neyig that has an earlier geographical referent in another location. In this case, Dhumatala is thought to have been in the Swat Valley of northwest Pakistan, a location identified with the tantric site of Oddiyana (Tucci 1971: 397 n.lz 399 n. 4; Huber 1999).

17 PretapurT (local variants also Tretapuriz Titaporiz Tsetapuriz Cittapuri) is one of the three abodes of the Three Kayas (of the Lotus Family; Padma'i rigs) that are said to surround like petals the central hill of Devakota: Am让abhazs abode of Pema Shelri (Dharmakaya)z Avalokitesvarazs abode of Potala (Sambhogakaya) and Padmasambhavazs abode of PretapurT (Nirmanakaya).

18 yan lag brgyad; zthe eight branches7 or zthe eight qualities7: Pure water is said in Buddhist sutras to possess eight qua丘ties: crystal clarity, coolness, sweetness, lightness, softness, soothing to the stomach, free of impurities, clears the throat.

19 Oddiyana (also Uddiyana ; o rgyan, u rgyan) is held to be the birthplace of Guru Padmasambhavaz as well as the place of origin of many Vajrayana and Dzogchen teachings, and has thus placed an important role in the history and dissemination of Tibetan Buddhism. Many scholars seem to agree with

Tuccizs assertion that Oddiyana was located in the Swat Valley of Pakistan (Tucci 1940). However, the question of Oddiyana7s actual location is quite complex, given that by the time of our sources it had evolved into a country of legend and myth rather than physical reality (Geoffrey Samuel, personal communication 2015).

evil. For whoever makes a single circumambulation of this earthly pure realm, the door to all lower rebirths will be closed. These and many other inconceivable qualities are to be gained in this pure land.

The earth here is filled with precious, sealed Dharma treasures and at all times rainbow lights appear in the sky. Those of pure view can see the faces of the deities that abide here and receive from them many auspicious prophecies. Whoever exerts oneself in Dharma practice in this holy land will attain the

liberated rainbow body and by making offerings and aspirations all hindrances and obstacles of this life will be removed, the eight fears20 will be pacified and the six fortunes21 will increase. The seed of a vidyadhara22 will be planted in the mindstream of anyone who settles in this sacred place. By

the power of the lakes' clear and lustrous nectarlike waters, all sicknesses, harmful forces, obscurations and obstacles will be removed, providing one has not already been beheaded nor one's heart torn out. Except for those instances where previous karma has fully ripened, by the power of these waters one

will be separated from all untimely death and gain the longevity of a hundred years. By a single drop of this water entering the mouthz without doubt one will be healed of all sicknesses and attain liberation. How wondrous are these liberating and purifying waters! Guru Padmasambhava himself declared,

"These wonders are true and undeceiving. If they prove to be false I myself will be reborn immediately in hell. Only those of fortune will find their way to this hidden, sacred land. Those lacking sufficient merit will be unable to reach it. [It is Mahakalas oath to drive countering forces from this pure realm]. Therefore, if you doubt the truth of these accounts [[[Mahakala]]] will drink the blood of your heart. Protectors of this holy place, guard well this sacred land and its Dharma treasures! RAKSHA HUNG!”

20 'jigs pa brgyad; zthe eight fears7: drowning, thieves, lions, snakes, fire, demons, captiv让y, elephants.

21 skal ba drug; zthe six fortunes7: power and wealth, physical form, gloryz reputa-tionz wisdom, enthusiastic perseverance.

22 In Tibetan Buddhism a vidyadhara (zawareness holder7; rig fdzin) is a wisdom being who abides in or 'holds' an enlightened state of pure awareness or 'rigpa'.

The discovery of Pretapun and Devakota Mountain and their significance

At the end of this five hundred year period of enduring Dharma/3 when human life begins its decline after twenty years, due to the inventions of evil spirits a multitude of diseases, conflicts and famines will spread throughout the land of Tibet. An outbreak of war between the armies of Upper and Lower

Tibet, the Hor and the Mongols, will flash and crack like thunder and the glorious doctrine of Dharma will decline like a setting sun behind mountain peaks. Untimely deaths will come unexpectedly and lead to agony in the hell of unceasing torment. When the evil age appears in these ways, [[[Pemako]]]z the

most secret of all secret sacred places, will become a fortress-like haven providing vajra protection from all fears. Concerning the one who will discover this secret place and thereby open the door of liberation for sentient beings, [[[Guru Padmasambhava]] thus foretold]:

"The one now known as Aryasale will be born in the future as the secretly named Dudjom, Destroyer of Evil, bearing a red birthmark. His birthplace will be that known as Lhatsedrak, home of the Five Manjushri Families, and he will be born to a bodhisattva father of a high, noble lineage. By the power of

previous deep and profound prayers he will be impelled to travel as a mendicant throughout hidden sacred places. If Mara's obstacles do not deceive him, his karmic imprints will ripen and he will discover many major and minor hidden sacred places, revealing Dharma treasures. In this way such an

unsurpassable liberator of beings will appear in the future. He will meet with twenty-five dakinis born of good lineages, and by practicing with them he will be able to extend his life to seventy years. However, at this time he must beware of meeting a woman of an unpropitious lineage, which would create

dangerous obstacles like crossing a narrow passage over an abyss. To avoid this danger, by relying on the combined practice of Vajrakllaya and Amitayus he will have protection like that of an iron fence and will overcome all onslaughts of obstructing forces.

These words I speak are the infallible truth." 23

23 According to Indian Buddhist cosmology, as in texts like the Abhidharmakosaz Sakyamuni Buddha appeared in the world when the average human life span was 100 years. In these texts the Buddha's teachings were foretold to remain for 5/000 years after his death, a period divided up into progressively less spir让ual epochs of 500 years in which the human life span would decrease an average of five years each time (Sardar-Afkhami 2001: 49).


Prophecy of times to come

In the East the Chinese tiger pouncing in the airz in the South an elephant moving westwards, in the West a peacock dancing, in the North a yellow bull leaping and running, and in the centre a tortoise groaning in painz these are the signs that the time has come for people to make their way to the hidden land of Pemakd.24

Migrating through the secret valley of Anulungz continuing alongside the Langchen Riverz they will arrive in Pemakoz the miraculous pure land of great joy. All throughout this pure land are forests and lofty mountain peaks. The soaring Pongedenpa Mountain smells at its heights of incense and is covered in

forests neither too dense nor too sparse. Utterly beautiful to behold is this land of Pemakd. During the day celestial birds sing melodious songs and in all directions rainbow lights appear. Mother dakinis and skygoers dance with delight, hosts of deities and wisdom beings assemble like clouds, and powerful Dharma protectors and guardians gather in a fury. In all four directions nectar falls continuously like a gentle rain. There are countless caves marked

with signs of spiritual accomplishment including the extraordinary secret cave of Guru Padmasambhavaz which is the meeting place of mother dakinis, inseparable from the Gandola Temple of Oddiyana. In the West is the cave known as Khading Nyidapukz where Guru Pad-masambhava engaged for seven months in the Red Garuda sadhana that embodies all buddhasz thereby accomplishing many siddhis and becoming inseparable from the wisdom of Jnana Garuda.

24 Though it is not directly indicated in the neyigz we can infer that the tertbnz Drakngag Lingpaz was part of a movement of Tibetans fleeing to Pemako in the early 20th century, taking the invasion of the Younghusband expedition, the depredations of Zhao Erfeng and imperial China's western

expansion onto the Tibetan Plateau as signs that the time was ripe to depart for the hidden land. The animals listed in this passage as analogies for countries involved in Tibefs political circumstances of the time could bez with speculation, interpreted as follows: China the tiger; Russia, or Mongolia,

the yellow bull; India the elephant; and Br让ain the peacock. The tortoise groaning in pain in the centre is presumably Tibet An example of a wave of Tibetan migrants to Pemako at this time was a group of nearly two thousand eastern Tibetans who in 1902/ 03 followed rjes drung 'jam pa byung gnasz a

terton from Riwoche in Khamz in search of the 'innermost secret site' {yang gsang gnas) of Pemako. With the encroaching invasion of the Kuomintang armies in nearby Powoz rjes drung returned to Riwoche and died there soon after, leaving his Tibetan followers behind in the Mishmi territory of Pemako (Sardar-Afkhami 2001; Grothmann 2012).

As a sign of having perfected the unobstructed samadhi of the Red Garuda deityz Guru Padmasambhava hid twenty-five Dharma treasures of Garuda activity here. Whoever does one circumambu-lation of this place will rise above all hindrances created by harmful naga forces.

In the southeast is Rinchen Kundu Lingz the realm of Vajrasat-tva where a great cliff in the shape of a lion looks out to the sky. Here are hidden twenty-five various Dharma treasures related to wealth and architecture. Any sincere prayers made here are fulfilled.

In the northwest is Osel Lhalungz the dwelling place of the godsz known also as White Rock Tashi Dzongz a supreme hidden place which holds twenty-five Dharma treasures as well as all worldly needs and desires.

In the northeast the place known as Tumdrak Trekche is a great garden of trees and meadows, wherein a cave marked at its rear with a symbol indicates the hiding place of five treasures of black magic.

In the southwest is the place called Gawa Khyilz the Wheel of Blissz where five treasures of artz medicine and architecture are hidden. In addition to these in the land below are deposits of goldz silver, copper, lead and minerals that can be effortlessly forged. Various precious stones can be found herez

as well as five hidden sources of salt water. When the appropriate time has ripened all of these resources will be unearthed and put to use. Guru Padmasambhava vowed to come again in manifold emanations of his bodyz speech, mindz qualities and activity. When favourable times and conditions unfold without obstruction, his emanations will gradually reveal these treasures for the good of sentient beings and create causes for glorious happiness and prosperity.

The terton Dudjom Namkhai Dorje rendered this chronicle from the five secret syllables, which are the spontaneous display of his vast wisdom awareness of the great empty expanse of Dharmadhatu.

The Chronicle of Devakota That Clears Away the Darkness of Ignorance (from The Treasure of the Inexhaustible Wisdom Expanse of Secret Enlightened Intention)25

Here are written the five secret symbols

The five secret symbols were spontaneously rendered from a vision of the unimpeded vajra continuum in the luminous space of awareness. The time has come to set forth their inner meaning. Please listen well oh fortunate ones!


The original creation of the hidden pure land of Pemako

In the beginning of the phenomenal universe of three thousand enduring worlds was primordial great emptiness, from which were born the four elements of earth, water, fire and airz arising one by one and existing in support of each other. From the four elements spontaneously emerged the four continents with

its central Mount Meru. At the summit of the Mountain in the hands of the Universal Buddha is a begging bowl filled with a measureless ocean of sparkling nectar. In the centre of the ocean grows a celestial wish-fulfilling tree bearing an abundance of leaves, fruits and flowers. On the stamen of each flower is a Nirmanakaya realm and depending on the common merits and fortunate karma of beings throughout the world, the petals of the lotus flowers become pure lands on earth. The earthly sphere of VajravarahT's holy body is the mandala of her five chakras containing outer, inner, secret and most secret realms. Being a pure land on this earth it is thus named Pemakoz the Sacred Formation of the Lotus.26

In the pastz Sakyamuni and other buddhas have blessed and expounded on this realm in the Four Tantras.27 Outwardly it is

25 sGongs gsang zad med klong mdzod: a terma cycle of Drakngak Lingpa.

26 This description is similar to other accounts of earthly pure lands, or hidden lands, found in Buddhist cosmology of the Abhidharmakosa and Tibetan terma. Related mythologies of the hidden lands describe them as the 25 petals of a lotus that fills the begging bowl of Buddha Vairocana (Dilgo Khyentse 1999; Sardar-Afkhami 2001: 9).

27 rgyud bzhi; zthe four classes of tantra7: according the New Schools of Tibetan Buddhism (gSar bsgyur) they are Kriya, Carya, Yoga, Anuttarayoga.

called Pemakoz the realm of great bliss. Rocky gorges run steep and narrow like passing through the inside of a goats horn. Jewelshaped mountain ranges stretch across the landscape, while the pastures and forests are enveloped in rainbow lights. Various species of birds sing the Dharma with their sweet

calls, and major and minor sacred sites located throughout the land are numerous beyond expression. Uncountable caves exist marked with signs of Guru Padmasambhava's yogic accomplishments, [and by his ordinance the land is infused with the presence of Dharma protectors].

In this secret land of Vajravarahis five chakras, arisen from the Dharmadhatuz lotus flowers bloom even during the winter season. Simply being present here is sufficient to lead one to an auspicious death, and will establish in oneself the seed of the lasting joy of the Nirmanakaya. This is the infallible truth proclaimed by Guru Padmasambhava. Therefore, oh fortunate onesz reflect on it within your hearts!

Approaching the sacred Devakota Mountain through the valley of Dremo Jong In the rice valley called Dremo Jong/8 the most secret land of great blissz the passes and valleys of the mountains are arranged as an open lotus flower. The roar of the rivers sound a wrathful mantra, and like a canopy over the trees and forests is a constant veneer of rainbows. The rivers and streams flow with luminous nectar and in all parts of the valley fall coolz light showers from a thin cloud cover above. The medicinal herb named Ludu Dorje 29 that grows

lands were especially expounded in the those tantras later classified in Tibet as the Mother Tantras (Sardar-Afkhami 1996).

28 Presumably Dremo Jong (Ijras mo Ijongs) is a local and/ or ancient name for the Yang Sang Chu valley. Sikkim has the same Tibetan name Dre-Jong (Ijras Ijongs), but is nowhere near an entrance route to the Devakota of our present neyig-

29 Klu bdud rdo rje, Codonopsis ovata, grows at altitudes between 2,000-4,200m. Having a light or dark flower and tuberous root, the herb is included in Tibetan pharmacopeia as a cure for leprosy and other ailments associated with nagasz as well as join stiffness and rheumatic pain. The herb is also said

to possess minor sedative and psychoactive properties, and to be taken by yogins in order to enhance siddhis (Lopon P. Ogyan Tanzin Rinpoche, personal communication 2005; Huber 1999; Dowman 1997). In Cult of Pure Crystal Mountain Toni Huber discusses the use of Ludu Dorje by Drukpa yogins in their tantric preparations at Mount Tsari in Southeast Tibet, particularly in the so-called rainbow-light pellet ('ja' tshon ril bu) that the Drukpa Kagyupa are famous for. Ludu Dorje is said to grow on the slopes of Mount Tsari and serious tantric

here attests to the land's purity. One hundred major and one thousand minor treasures of precious gemsz grains, medicines and architecture are concealed in this valley. No hostile forces can destroy this vajra fortress-like realm.

The significance and qualities of Devakota Mountain

The clear-light realm of Devakota Mountain is inseparable from Dhumatala [in Oddiyana]z the realm of deities and dakinis of the Mother Tantra. It is the dwelling place of Cakrasamvara with his 725 accompanying deities, as well as Guhyasamaja and his retinue, where guardians and Dharma protectors as numerous as stars in the sky vigorously engage in Dharma activities. Fortunate ones who merely come to this place will experience spontaneous realization, but those devoid of merit will receive severe consequences for their wrong views. By practising meditation here one can attain perfect Buddhahood in this lifetime, or upon reaching the bardo can attain the Sambhogakayaz the Enjoyment Body of complete

practitioners on pilgrimage there rely on the taxonomy of ritual manuals and experienced lamas to find the correct herb, and then carefully ingest it for its powerful hallucinatory and bodily effects. Pilgrims and residents around Mount Tsari tell stories about the unusual effects that Ludu Dorje has on animals and humans who incidentally, or accidentally, ingest the herb (Huber 1999: 98-99).

30 Devakota, more correctly Devikota (Tib. Lha mo mkhar or Lha mo rdzong; 'Citadel of the Goddess7; also in Tibetan sources as Devikotta and Devikoti), was originally a holy site (pitha) located in West Bengal that was celebrated by Buddhist and non-Buddhist tantric practitioners as a seat of

the goddess. As a pitha Devakota is generally understood to be the location of a certain part of the goddess7 body, sometimes corresponding to a part of the internal body of the yogin. Various Buddhist and non-Buddhist tantric systems identify the body part differently, however, and give differing explanations of its significance 但uber 2008; Sugiki 2009: 522 ff.). In the Kalika Purana, for example, Devakota is an important pitha where the goddess

Safi's two feet fell on the ground (Sircar 1973: 17). According to this neyig Devakota is associated with VajravarahTzs womb chakra and is "the gathering place of dakinis of the Mother Tantra". The location for Devakota described in the present neyig corresponds to the circular hill near Mangkota village

that is encircled anticlockwise by the Yang Sang Chu river, a tributary of the Siang running northwest towards Tuting in the Upper Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. This location differs from various other celebrated Devakota sites in Tibet and India. After the demise of Buddhist tantra in India from

the thirteenth century, Tibetans came to identify Devakota at four places in Tibet: Tsari, Kharchuz Phabongka and Tsadra Rinchen Drak. Tibetans also hypothesized four Indian locations for Devakota, usually never having been to India and speculating on the basis of scriptural passages: Varendra in present-day Bengal, near Pataliputra in Bihar, Devikottai near Pondicherry and Kachari Hills to the east of Varendra 但uber 2008).

enlightenment. Beings like butchers who have committed heavy sins during their lifetimes, but make efforts to purify in this holy place, will be reborn to a stainless brahmin-like lineage. The door to all lower rebirths will be closed for whomever makes one complete circumambulation of Devakota Mountain. The

merit created here by prostrating, offering lights, performing rituals and so forth is equivalent to the merit created by performing these activities millions of times in other places. The fruit of a month of yogic practice in this earthly pure realm is equal to that of a year of yogic practice in an

ordinary place. A single outer circumambulation of this holy place will bring ten billion siddhisz while making thirteen circumambulations in one day will lead directly to the transcendent state that is beyond the dualism of virtue and non-virtue.

It is Guru Padmasambhava's vow that all explained herein is the infallible truth

The outer four directions and eight sub-directions of this sacred place are marked as the abodes of ManjusrTz Chenrezigz Taraz Va-jrasattvaz Heruka's eight deities, HayagrTva and Troma. Each of these are surrounded by countless subsidiary sacred abodes of Vaisravana and other deities.

On the four sides of Devakota Mountain are caves of transcendental yogic accomplishment and at the four corners are the four charnel grounds and the four trees of vital life energy, wherein reside a ceaseless display of dakas and dakinis .

In the northeast is the hidden bliss cave of Vajravarahiz in which her heart chakra is marked by an auspicious knot of eternity. From the centre of the auspicious knot a red sindhura31 sub

31 In Vajrayana sindhura, 1让erally zzsediment from the banks of the Indus/7 refers to red earth mineral substances found at a Vajravarahl (or VajrayoginT) sacred site. Such red mineral substances are often seen as the menstrual blood of Vajravarahl, equated with energy drops of the sub tie-body

that allow for blissful awakening in tantric practice (byang sems dmar po) (Huber 1999: 96). For example, Phodrang Kyomotso lake at the summ让 of Sherab

Drilburiz a sacred mountain of Vajravarahl near Mount Tsariz is also called the Ocean of Sindhura and the red substance suspended in its waters is regarded

as VajravarahTzs generative fluid and menstrual blood (Huber 1999: 96-97). This is also the case with the sindhura found in VajravarahTzs hidden bliss cave on the northeastern side of Devakota hill in Pemako. As stated in the present passage of the neyig: "From the centre of the auspicious knot a red sindhura

substance is exuded, the secret drop of red bodhicitta. To taste it is to taste the seed of buddhamind, which gives rise to the supreme wisdom of bliss and emptiness". Along with being cherished as a blessed substance, sindhura is sometimes used in goddess-related tantric r让uals and divination procedures (Huber 1999: 96).

stance is exuded, the secret drop of red bodhicitta. To taste it is to taste the seed of buddhamindz which gives rise to the supreme wisdom of bliss and emptiness, pacifies all disease and causes life and youthfulness to increase.

In the Maratika Cave are hidden five treasuries of instructions on realizing the deathless state. From the rock walls of this cave seeps luminous long-life nectar water with the wish-fulfilling powers of a full moon. To wash with this nectar water, drink it or taste it increases longevity and splendour.

At the peak of Devakota Mountain sits the throne where Guru Padmasambhava eternally abides, and which safeguards a treasure chestz the heart jewel of this earth. It is filled with the Eight Life Supporting Jewels that bestow vitality, such as turquoise, as well as twenty-five naturally arising Dharma treasures.

The Vajra Body of HayagrTva and VajravarahT in union dwells in a rock marked by the syllable LAM. Therein is hidden the profound secret sadhana of HayagrTva, called The Unity of All Sublime Thought. The exterior of this rock is marked with seven rope-like jutting lines which seal this secret treasure

within. On the right end of the rock many seed syllables of BHRUM appear one on top of the other, indicating that within are hidden the outer, inner and secret sadhanas of peaceful and wrathful ManjusrL Their guardian is [[[Mahakala]]]z holding a curved knifez who aids those of fortune in seeking this Dharma treasure. Those lacking merit who deny the sacredness of this place he will kill and release.

Devakota Mountain is the wish-fulfilling island of the four activities where all needs and desires are spontaneously fulfilled. It is a wondrous landz inseparable from the Pure Land of Great Blissz where rebirth can be easily cast aside by oneself and others. By the power of the truth of previous aspirations made by the buddhasz the seed of happy rebirths will be sown in those with heavy negative karma. Those who exert themselves in Dharma practice

here will attain enlightenment in this lifetime. Those who form a connection to this place will gather extraordinary merit by expressing faith and reverence through their bodyz speech and mind. Those who build stupas, temples or who settle in this holy land are declared by Guru Padmasambhava to be his very own messengers. Have faith and make supplications in this earthly pure land and your fortune will become complete. Hold wrong views regarding its purity and you will immediately suffer obstacles. By disparaging this holy land one's seed of liberation will be consumed, while

Ordinary red earth or vermillion (made from cinnabar) is sometimes used as a substitute for sindhura from an actual holy site. Sindhura (or sindoor) is also the red powder placed in the hair parting of married Hindu women.

leading seven people away from this place displays the unmistakable sign of being an evil incarnation. Therefore, abandon wrong views and protect your mind of faith with the hook of mindfulness. Do not make the mistaken choice of misery over bliss!


To the southeast of Devakota Mountain a majestic snow peak soars in the sky. It is known by the people who dwell in the region as Pema Drepung, the Lotus Rice Heapz and it is the most secret of all secret holy places, the self-arisen primordial realm of the Five Buddha Families. The record of this holy mountain and its qualities is sealed in the place known as Lampaka. When the time is ripe to reveal this record its seal will be broken and many fortunate beings will journey to this pure realm.

It is Guru Padmasambhava's vow that this is the undeceptive truth.

This middle-length record of Devakota Mountain naturally arose as a scroll in the precious heart cave of five lights, from the pristine mind of the five wisdoms of Dharmadhatu.亍he essence of the enlightened sphere of emptiness has been refined and written as five magically-arisen secret symbols, which hold vast meaning within. Guru Padmasambhava decreed EkajatT as the chief wisdom protectress of this Dharma treasure. It is thus guarded by her at all times with great vigilance.


At the request of Kushab Rinpoche from Dzogchen Monastery in Tibet, who on the auspicious occasion of his pilgrimage to Pemako saw the need to reveal this holy landz the Terton Dudjom Namkhai Dorje interpreted the secret meaning of the five self-arisen symbols from the vast space of enlightened awareness.

32 "Dopo" is a local vernacular addition to the name Pema Drepung and is not in the Tibetan text.

Here are written the secret, self-arisen symbols.

The Chronicle of the Most Secret Dopo33 Pema Shelri Mountain [and Potala Mountain]: The Lamp Which Dispels the Darkness of Ignorance (from The Unity of All Sublime Thought of the Three Roots)34

Here are written the five secret syllables

Eh ma!

From the primordially stainless, uncompounded Dharma Body of Dharmakaya is born the illusory Enjoyment Body of the Sambhogakaya Buddha, which manifests unceasingly in a diversity of forms in order to bring sentient beings to the peace of liberation. I prostrate to the Three Supreme Kayasz the Three Bodies of the Buddha.


Prophecy of the suffering to come in Tibet

Guru Padmasambhava spoke the following prophecy:

"I, Padmasambhava, have attained the peerless Vajra Body which is beyond birth and death. I have gained mastery of the five disciplines and my knowledge does not waver nor fluctuate over the three times.

I have come during a time of great fortune, comparable to the god realms, when the complete holy Dharma of both sutra and tantra is flourishing. The land is filled with accomplished yogins and yoginis, and beings abide happily in accord with both Dharma and temporal law. The noble deities and aryas in their delight raise high the Banner of Victory.

33 In this case as well, "Dopo" is a local vernacular addition to the name Pema Shelri and not in the Tibetan text.

34 rTsa gsum yi dam dgongs 'dus is a terma cycle of sTag sham nus ldan rdo rjez a seventeenth century terton who was a previous incarnation of Drakngak Lingpa. That fact that the latter two Chronicles are attached to different terma cycles (see note 17) suggests the possibility that the three neyig presented here as a compilation may have first been recorded on separate occasions and not intended as a group.

All beings dwell in peace and all sorrow is subdued

However, as the world sinks into a degenerate age and human life begins its decline at the age of twenty years, evil forces and vengeful spirits will be strengthened and like a storm their malevolent activities will destroy the Dharma. The land will be occupied by demonesses, and male and female spirits as

numerous as stars will wander throughout the land creating disturbances. Disturbances from the North and South will rouse conflict and China, Tibet, Hor and Mongolia will each vie for territory. One nation like a peacock will flaunt its feathers, another like a tiger will let out a savage roar, another like a stubborn bull will rear its horns, and another like a black dog will viciously growl. The four mountains and six valleys will be shaken by this posturing

of war. Thejvur great mountains will groan and the four pillars will flee to the borders. In the four valleys there will be an outbreak of civil war and in the four gorges fires will blaze. The yellow swan on the great northern lake of bodhisattva practice will become disturbed. The turquoise dragon will come disguised as a richly blue coloured peacock, and like a talking parrot uttering empty words will speculate and decide on the Dharma of China, Tibet and the

gods. The one known as Karmaka will wield the lasso of love. In place of the sun's natural warmth fierce red flames will scorch the land. When these chief omens unfold the livelihood and conduct of beings will decline like a running waterfall and the people of the world will undergo enormous suffering and struggles.

However, due to the virtuous aspirations made by the present king of Taktsang,35 his retinue and his male and female subjects, those people with fortunate seeds of karma will find their way to four steep hidden valleys. Those of ill-fated karma will be left to suffer conflict. What misery beings will undergo when such a time appears!"

Here Guru Padmasambhava gazed silently at the skyz and continued

"The profound Dharma called The Unity of All Sublime Thought of the Three Roots will benefit sentient beings in the future. It is hidden in front of the snowy mountain known as Nalung, below a boulder marked with step-like grooves and the paw print of an ogress. Here a [white marble rock] marked by a bliss

wheel is the place where the dakinis gather to dance, a stage for their play of wisdom. Aryasale,36 present now among the citizens of Tibet, will bring about benefit for many beings in the future, but he will also encounter obstacles to his Dharma activities.

35 sPa gro stag tshang: Paro Taktsang in western Bhutan.

36 A rya sa le; also A' tsar sa le: the Nepali consort and disciple of Yeshe Tsogyal.

Having offered this prophecy and advice, Guru Padmasambhava exhorted his disciples to heed it from the depths of their hearts. He then entered into meditative absorption.

The causes of the Tibetans suffering to come

Yeshe Tsogyal offered a mandala of gold and turquoise to Guru Padmasambhava, and then appealed:

"Eh ma! How astonishing is all that you have said! Omniscient one of the three times, son of the Victorious Ones, Thotreng Tsai, please explain at which time and place in particular these events will occur, what conditions will lead to such an age of misery, and what counter methods can be relied on to ward off these evils? As to the one who will protect beings from these dangers, precisely when will he come and from where?

Oh Great Saint and Guru, please answer our questions directly without concealing your knowledge from us."

Guru Padmasambhava replied:

"Alas! Listen well, Yeshe Tsogyal! The precise place will be the country of Tibet, and the precise time will be the year of the male iron monkey3", during the age when human life begins its decline at the age of twenty years. As to the exact causes of the misery to come, one is the depletion of merit of the

Tibetan people. Another is the previous evil aspirations and sorcery of malevolent forces, which will lead to the degeneration of Dharma and its followers. Many demons with powerful evil intent will gather and create conflict in the upper and lower parts of the country and as a result the nation will be

divided into many small factions. The people will be paralyzed by doubt as to what should be done, and so will fail to engage in methods which can ward off these dangers. Although my ema- *

37 The male iron monkey year of this time period was 1920-21. Among several major political disturbances near that time, one that would have directly affected Pemako and people moving towards the hidden land was Lhasa's annex of Powo (spo bo; spu bo; spo yul) after 1911. Powo is presently a southeastern

region of the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) that verges on the northern part of Pemako. It was virtually an independent kingdom from the thirteenth century when the Mongol-backed king of Tibet, Chos rgyal zphags pa (1235-1280)/ empowered the local head lama of Powo with a royal proclamation and seal. When

Powo's twenty-fifth king abdicated the throne to become a monk in the early twentieth century, it led to a series of conflicts and later a joint intervention by Lhasa and Qing mi丘tary to usurp Powo's governance. When Chinese soldiers plundered Powo's wealth on their return to China in 1911 and further destabilized the region, Lhasa took the opportunity to seize control and Powo lost its independence (Samuel 1993: 77; Ronis 2011).

nations will speak of these coming evils and give instructions on how to avert them, the people will not believe or heed my warnings. Out of pride each person will blindly proclaim their own truth. Even though I myself will appear, it will be to no avail.

As to who will be the protector of beings, he by the name ofAryasale is inseparable from me. Due to our common prayers he will come as my emanation, having the name Dudjom and auspiciously marked with five moles. He will be an emanation of the glorious Heruka, born in the area of Eastern Tibet called Chishung

Lhatse in the year of the sheep. He will not live in accord with the local people of this area and they will chastise and criticize him. After he appears, inspectors from neighbouring countries will come on a reconnaissance [to Tibet], which will indicate that the time has come for all holy places and pure lands to come under Aryasales power. [His consort, by the name ofNorbu, will be an emanation of Yeshe Tsogyal who abides at the Copper Coloured Mountain. She will assist Aryasale in discovering the Dharma Treasure known as The Unity of All Sublime Thought of the Three Roots and in opening the door of the hidden earthly pure land of Pemako, thereby upholding the holy Buddha Dharma]."

The formation of the [Dopo] Pema Shelri and Potala Mountains within the holy hidden land of Pemako

Guru Padmasambhava then displayed the mudra of realization and gazing at the skyz and continued:

"Eh ma!

This phenomenal land, known conventionally as Pemako, the innermost hidden land of the lotus, is a terrestrial Sukhavati, an earthly Pure Land of Great Bliss. As to its creation amidst the three thousand worlds of this universe, it originated within the centre of the perfumed waters in Vairo-cana's begging bowl, where grows the five-branched Wish-Fulfilling Tree of Bodhicitta. On its central branch is Mount Meru, while its surrounding four branches support the four continents of the four directions.

The petals of the flower on the southern branch form the world of Dzam-buling3^ and on its anthers sits Bodhgaya, the Vajra Seat where the thou

38 Pema Shelri and Potala mountains are known locally in Arunachal Pradesh as Pemashree and Riutalaz or Eko Dumbing, respectively. Both are located in the Abroka Range south and southeast of Devakota and the Yang Sang Chu valley.

39 'Dzam bu gling; Skt: Jambudvipa: the human world in which we live; one of the four continents in Abhidharma cosmology that is trapezoidal in shape and

sand buddhas of this fortunate aeon manifest enlightenment.

On the northeastern petal exists the sacred mountainous land of [[[Chime]]] Yang Sang, the most secret [[[Wikipedia:deathless|deathless]]] pure realm, where lie the Lotus Crystal Mountain of Pema Shelri and Potala Mountain, [the mountain abodes of Amitabha and Chenrezig]. Being the unsurpassable perfectly pure realm on this earth it is thus named Pemako, the Land of the Lotus.

,By the blessings and aspirations of the Buddhas Samantabhadra, Sakyamuni and the Lotus-Born Padmasambhava, the truth of this earthly pure land is established and endlessly proclaimed, and prophesied by each of the thousand buddhas that will appear with the emerging and passing away of consecutive aeons. Seeing, hearing, recalling or reaching this supremely sacred land can purify a thousand aeons of negative karma and ensure higher rebirths. No hostile forces can destroy this mighty vajra-fortress. These words are the infallible truth, therefore oh fortunate ones, reflect on it within your hearts!"


The discovery of the most secret pure realm and its revealer

The Dakin! Yeshe Tsogyal then asked [for clarification about the discovery of the most secret realm of Chime Yang Sang in Pemako and the one who will reveal it]:

"Eh ma! Victorious Guru Thotreng Tsai, please explain further regarding these prophecies you have made. Precisely when will this earthly pure land be discovered, and who will be its revealer, the one who leads sentient beings to liberation? What obstacles might he face to revealing this sacred land and what counter-forces can be used against them? What students, retinue and assistants will accompany him and how will they proceed in fulfilling this prophecy?

Please don't conceal your knowledge from us, but explain thoroughly about these times to come!"

Guru Padmasambhava thus replied:

"Eh ma! Listen carefully Lady of Karchen, Yeshe Tsogyal! Your questions are discerning. The revealer of this most secret hidden land and the situated to the south of Mount Meru. It is so-called for the Jambubriksha or Jambu tree that is said to adorn it. The Jambu tree was presumed to be the rose-apple tree (Eugenia jambolana), though more recent scholarship suggests 让 is a variety of plum. According to legend, just one Jambu tree exists in this world and it is visible only to enlightened beings (Kongtrul 1995).

time of its discovery are as I have explained. He will abide in harmony with those of similar aspirations, but by necessity he will live apart from those with whom he is not in accord. Four assistants born in the years of the rooster, horse, mouse and ox will aid him in accomplishing his mission of revealing

this earthly pure land. The consort who will accompany him in entering the hidden land will be the mind emanation of my present consort Kalasiddhi of Nepal. She will have the name Pema, and will be subdued yet impassioned with a mind of bodhicitta. Altogether, five dakinis possessed of similar qualities will assist him in discovering various Dharma treasures.

Heeding all signs of auspiciousness, they will exert great effort and wield the armour of perseverance in order to accomplish the discovery of the hidden pure land. Along the journey four monks will appease land spirits and local deities with smoke and forma ritual offerings, four tantric masters will make

ransom offerings to repel malevolent spirits, and the five noble dakinis will soothe conflicts with pleasing performances of song and dance. Twenty-five loyal henchmen will clear the route of obstacles, while fifty strong young men bearing weapons will defend against local tribes gathered in revolt against outsiders. From the surrounding borders they will proceed toward the centre of the hidden pure land, slowly and carefully like a tortoise, bringing all circumstances under their control with fearless conduct.

At this time the supreme emanation, the terton himself will practise a non-conceptual meditation on the primordial expanse of Dharmadhatu, an inexpressible wisdom utterly free of all fixations, extremes and contrived activity. All gods, demons and untold variety of deities are indivisible from the empty nature of mind, the beginningless purity of Dharmadhatu, which encompasses the phenomenal appearances of the external universe and all that exists within it. This meditation is the unsurpassable method of subjugating all gods and demons. It is the joyful, vast, quintessential mind which attains the kingdom of Samantabhadra.


The significance and qualities of Dopo Pema Shelri Mountain

The discovery of the most secret hidden pure land will entail profound activity, conducted carefully and discreetly. For essential instructions on how to proceed and the exact location of the hidden earthly pure realm the terton Dudjom will look elsewhere to secret sources. Of the outer, inner and secret realms of VajravarahT's five chak-

rasz the secret realm is Kilaying Dzong/0 Vajrakilaya's Fortress. To its east are three mountains at the head of the valley, which are pure realms of the Three Kayasz alongside the mountain of Devakotaz a mandala of dakinis. Traveling up through the Joyful Rice Valley of Drejongz which spans the lowlands between the mountains, one reaches a high mountain in a hidden land at the head of the valley. To its southeast is a great secret forest-gardenz which

leads further to a mandala of dakinis, the famous mountain known as [Dopo] Pema Shelriz which rises in the sky like an upturned phurba dagger. Its three faces are spontaneous manifestations of the Three Kayasz and when gazed upon from a distance this mighty peakz the abode of countless Dharmakaya deities, looks like a raised victory banner. The surrounding lands in the four directions of the mountain are a mandala of the Four and Six Tantras an extraordinary pure realm of variegated pure emanations.

To the south of Pema Shelri Mountain is the holy lake of Samantabhadras the waters of which have the power to purify the four obscurations40 41 42 by washing, drinking or tasting them.

To the northeast of the mountain is the blood-red coloured lake of EkajatTz shimmering like flames of a firez a reservoir of wrathful activity that actualizes whatever is thought of.

To the east are numberless caves bearing signs and marks [of Guru Padmasambhava]z as well as Wrathful Samantabhadra's Cave of Accomplishment of the Great Blissful Expanse, which induces strength, concentration, pure vision and realization.

[The land at the base of Pema Shelri Mountain] is filled with precious mundane treasures such as silver, goldz copper, ironz vermillion and [[[Wikipedia:medicinal|medicinal]] herbs], which will gradually be enjoyed in the future by fortunate beings.

40 Kilaying Dzong (K'i la dbyings rdzong) is considered to be the vulva of the Goddess, located on the triangle of land at the confluence of the Yang Sang Chu and Siang rivers just below Tutingz Arunachal Pradesh. As for all five chakras, a consistent physical location of Vajravarahl's innermost secret

chakra (yang gsang gnas) is not to be found at a fixed geographical point. Some texts say it lies in her heart chakra while others place it in the secret chakra of her vulva. These different perceptions may at least be partly due to the fact that in tantric practice the heart chakra opens only after the lower chakras have been activated (Baker 2004: 459). Many Tibetan Buddhists believe that Pemakbzs yang gsang gnas is still yet to be discovered.

41 rgyud sde bzhi drug; zthe four and six tantras7: According to the Old School of Tibetan Buddhism (sNga bsgyur rnying ma) the four classes of tantra are further classified as six when separated as outer and inner. The first three, Kriya, Carya and Yoga comprise the outer class, while Mahayoga, Anuyoga and Atiyoga comprise the inner class.

42 sgrib pa bzhi; zthe four obscurations7: karmic, emotional, cognitive, habitual.

In the four sub-directions are four mountains of Guru Pad-masambhavaz four holy rivers and four gardens, which together are like four magnificent gateways to the inner mandala of Pema Shelriz the wish-fulfilling mountain that bestows inconceivable benefits.

Simply gazing at this sacred mountain purifies one thousand aeons of mental defilements, and a single clockwise circumambu-lation is equal in merit to one hundred circumambulations of the entire earth. The power of this innermost secret and unsurpassable realm inspires those of virtuous karma to engage in ardent Dharma practice, and all impure karmaz wrong views and doubts are effortlessly overcome.

This is the infallible prophecy given by Guru Padmasambhava


The significance and qualities of Potala Mountain

To the west of Pema Shelri Mountain is the self-arisenz majestic Potala Mountain. When looked at from afar the rocky slopes of its snowy peak appear like a glorious armed warrior, and its lower alpine meadows like a stealthily moving tiger or cheetah. It is the mountain palace of the great Bodhisattva Jinasagara Avalokitesvaraz from whose right eye tears of immeasurable compassion fell to the earth and formed the clear emerald lake of Green Tara. From the lake the waters flow down through the Yang Sang valley on the right side of Potala Mountain, and washing withz drinking or tasting these waters possessed of the eight qualities pacifies the eight and sixteen fears.

From Avalokitesvara's left eye fell tears which form the lake of White Tara. Its clear white waters are imbued with the blessings of the Arya goddess and have the power to bestow longevity, dignity and splendour. The waters flow down towards Darping and through the Ati Valley, where those settled on its shores are blessed with long-life and happiness.

To the east of the Potala Mountain is the prosperous land of the double vajra and the auspicious knotz where countless deities of

43 Potalaz or Potalaka (Bo ta la; known in the Tuting region as Riwo Talaz Riutala and Eko Dumbing) is yet another important Indian holy s让e that has been identified in Pemako by the terton. Potala is the legendary dwelling of the Bodhisattva Avalok让mentioned in the Avatamsakaz Gandavyuha Sutras and the records of Xuangzang (Laanemets 2006). On the basis of these texts it has been hypothesized by Shu Hikosaka that ancient Potalaka is the real mountain of Pothigaiz or Potiyilz in the Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu (Hikosaka 1998).

the Vajra Family dwell and where all disease, harmful forces and the eight fears are dispelled. In this sublime realm are the holy lake of Vajrasattva and the pacifying Vajra Cavez wherein are hidden treasures of pacifying architecture.

To the south of the Potala Mountain is the most excellent of all places, the sphere of the Precious Knot of Eternity, the joyful mandala of countless deities of the Jewel Family. Here are found the holy lake of the Eight Herukas and the Jewel Cavez which holds all treasures of goldz silver, precious gems and increasing activity that actualizes all needs and desires.

To the west of the Potala Mountain is the blissful realm of dakinis and countless deities of the Lotus Family. Here is the Great Blissful Lake and the Powerful Lotus Cavez where there are hidden treasures of controlling activity such as mastery of life-force and other spiritual powers.

To the north of the Potala Mountain is the realm of the wrathful yaksa mantra, the dwelling place of numberless fierce deities of [the Karma Family] possessed of powerful skilful means. The Cave of Wrathful Accomplishment holds treasures of all wrathful methods of liberation, as well as the powerful secret tantra of black magicz called the Fire Garland. Whatever endeavours begun here are completed without obstacles due to the blessings of this land of great power and potential.

At the central peak of Potala Mountain Jinasagara Avalokitesvara and all root and lineage lamas are gathered like billowing clouds. Around the middle of the mountain a multitude of wish-granting tantric deities dwell like a flurry of snow and rain. Around the base of the mountain dakasz dakinis and Dharma protectors are assembled like stars in the night skyz and although unseen the roar of their compassionate voices can be heard. The waters flowing from the mountain are luminous nectar, and the rocky ridges glisten with drops of rainbow light. The [[[Wikipedia:medicinal|medicinal]] herb] known as Ludu Dorje that grows on the mountain attests to the land's purity. Rainbow lights hover like a canopy over the forests and all species of birds pronounce the Dharma in their sweet songs. No hostile forces can destroy this secret holy mountain. By gazing atz hearing ofz or reaching this sublime realm even those with negative karma like butchers

will take higher rebirths in pure lineages and proceed unwaveringly towards liberation. Even animals that eat the grass and drink the waters of this pure land are able to leave footprints in stone and leave relics in their bodies after death. What need to speak of the miracles this pure land can display in

humans? Reaching this pure land closes the door to lower rebirths, and simply taking seven steps towards it with the intention to arrive ensures that one will be reborn there in the next

Tasting a drop of water or particle of dust of this sacred land purifies all evil karma and plants the seed of enlightenment in one's mindstream. Whoever guides seven people to this hidden sacred land proves oneself to be a messenger of Guru Pad-masambhava himself. Those who clear paths to this hidden sacred

realm, cultivate and develop the land or build temples herez regardless of their caste or gender, are decreed by Guru Pad-masambhava to be his own manifestations. A single circumambulation around the peak of the Potala Mountain is equal in merit to one billion recitations of the mantra of Amitabha. One

circumambulation around the middle of the mountain is equal in merit to ten billion recitations of the mantra of Chenrezig. One circumambulation around the base of the mountain brings merit equal to infinite recitations of the mantra of Padmasambhava.

Potala Mountain is the very heart son of Amitabha, Chenrezig and Guru Padmasambhava, the unsurpassable, innermost secret hidden land of this earth. Therefore, oh fortunate onesz make aspiration prayers with faith and reflect in your hearts on this most holy hidden realm! T

hose holding wrong views about this sacred realm will suffer immediate retribution from its guardian deity. As this is the infallible vow of Guru Padmasambhava, do not make the mistaken choice of misery over bliss!


For the benefit of future sentient beings this subsidiary chronicle of the holy mountain of Pema Shelriz along with The Unity of All Sublime Thought of the Three Roots, is hidden at the base of the great mountain in the place called Nalung. It will be given to the terton known as Pema or Dudjom by the protector named Gangtsenz who [by ordinance from Guru Padmasambhava] fiercely guards this Dharma treasure and punishes all vow breakers and thieves.



44 Being a terma (gter ma), or treasure text, the words are zsealed7 with 'GYA' (rgya, 'seal') to conceal 让s teachings outside of ordinary time and space until the prophesied time of 让s discovery (Sardar-Afkhami 2001: 65).

The three doors of body, speech and mind in recording this chronicle are sealed with vajra secrecy

At the base of the great snow mountain in the place called Nalungz Iz Dudjomz aided by my noble consort, Norbuz and ten further assistants, received the transmission of the original secret symbols. In the hidden garden of Khading Nyida Opukz the Luminous Cave of the Sun Moon Garudaz I began the rendering of their hidden meaning, and in the Mentang Cave of Great Bliss it was completed.

May it be virtuous!

Translated from the original Tibetan into English by Elizabeth McDougal (Tenzin Chozom) under the guidance of Lopon P. Ogyan Tanzin Rinpoche, at Uddiyana Dharmakaya Vihar, Sarnath, India, 2005.


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45 At the time of writing I am unsure of the locations of 'Nalung'/ zKhading Nyida Opukz and zMentang Cave/ I assume that 'Khading Nyida Opukz is the cave mentioned at the end of the third neyig where Dudjom Drakngak Lingpa recorded his revelation of this termaz and where Padmasambhava is said in the first neyig to have accomplished the Red Garuda sadhana.
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Chos rje gling pa (2nd)z Kun bzang zod zer gar dbang chi med rdo rje. gNas gsol bar ched kun sei phrin las nyur 'grub. Handwritten text copied from the library of Kha ba sprul sku of Padma bkod in May 1996 by the Hamid Sard ar-Af khami. Department of Sanskrit and Tibetan Studies, Harvard University.
bDud 'joms drag sngags gling paz ye shes rdo rje. "dgongs gsang zad med ye shes klong mdzod las: dai wa ko Ta'i gnas yig ma rig mun sei/." In bdud 'joms drag sngags gling pa'i gter chos/. TBRC W21576. 8: 361 - 373. birz distt. kangra/ tulku pema lodoez 1983-1985.

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Revue d'Etudes Tibetaines
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