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Indian logic has a long history. It somewhat covers the domains of two of the six schools (darsanas) of Indian philosophy, namely,Nyaya andVaisesika. The generally accepted definition of Indian logic over the ages is the science which ascertains valid knowledge either by means of six senses or by means of the five members of the syllogism. In other words, perception and inference constitute the subject matter of logic. The science of logic evolved in India through three ages: the ancient, the medieval and the modern, spanning almost thirty centuries. Advances in Computer Science, in particular, in Artificial Intelligence have got researchers in these areas interested in the basic problems of language, logic and cognition in the past three decades. In the 1980s, Artificial Intelligence has evolved into knowledge-based and intelligent system design, and the knowledge base and inference engine have become standard subsystems of an intelligent system. One of the important issues in the design of such systems is knowledge acquisition from humans who are experts in a branch of learning (such as medicine or law) and transferring that knowledge to a computing system. The second important issue in such systems is the validation of the knowledge base of the system i.e. ensuring that the knowledge is complete and consistent. It is in this context that comparative study of Indian logic with recent theories of logic, language and knowledge engineering will help the computer scientist understand the deeper implications of the terms and concepts he is currently using and attempting to develop.

Hetuvidya is one of the three original systems of logic in the world. It contains three different types: Hteuvidya in India, Hetuvidya in Tibet, and Hetuvidya in Center Plains.
The coming of new Indian Hetuvidya realized its logical leap from inductive reasoning to deductive reasoning. In Center Plains Hetuvidya developed a system of dialectical logic which included "Eight Branches and Two Oestinations", and explored many problems about pragmatic logic and dialectical logic. In Tibet Hetuvidya gained more development in ontology, knowledge and logic. Hetuvidya is not only a crystal of Buddhist wisdom, but also a treasure of traditional Chinese culture.

 Previous research will study the logic based the new weight collection Chen "on" a theory in the system of the core to epistemology.However, in the "logic of Nyaya Chen door" and "logic" is God in theory, especially the study on the Chinese and Japanese later launched as the center, but with the logic of the completely different tendencies.Although the legend "set theory" from the meaning of the net amount of translated into Chinese, but the fourteen five years after they lost.Therefore, in order to understand the logic that is based on the theory of theory research in China and Japan will not germinate.However, China and Japan since the acceptance of Hetuvidya, will serve as a basis for Buddhist studies to study and research, and this study has important significance in Northridge, Nandu Buddhism, to obtain a solid position in the justice system.Therefore, the researchers emerge in an endless stream, and left a large number of works.The purpose of this study is to clarify the above Hetuvidya research in China and Japan in the development and dissemination of.


Author order Helpman first Hetuvidya research history in its formation and its background, logic thought in India and the origin of theory of knowledge form two, because teachers appear --
Theory of the formation and development -- "Charaka samhita" logic theory --
"convenient" heart of the logic three, Nyaya logic theory -- like GE multi-legged argument --
the logic of Chen four, Chen that Hetuvidya reform and India after the development of logic in Chapter China Hetuvidya research section because of inheritance and the descendants of one, five of birth --
"yogacarabhumi-sastra" seven on two, Hui Ming far the -- its acceptance --
China -- the beginning of Hetuvidya research consciousness proportion --
logic acceptance with the Chinese Buddhist features second Chinese to accept a "logic, logic is the theory of" translation and research -- researchers and their writings -- God Tai - the track - Net - Xuan fan - the eye preparing - - Jing Mai - Lu then - conscious - wall - Hyun - Yuan Xiao Ling Jun two, "logic" -- on the right door translation researchers andThe Puguang - God -- Thai - circular logging - the track - net eye - Xuan fan - Jing Xing - Sheng Zhuang - the object - the preparation of a card three, the establishment of Chinese Logic -- Hui biogas -
Zhi Zhou works -- and subsequent studies -- Chong Jun - from aryl - too much yin - the - profit Li Qing - - a sacrifice - Tao Yi - Jun Qing - Dao Xian as science - alternative neighbors - round understanding -- after the Song Dynasty in the second chapter of Hetuvidya research Japanese Hetuvidya research section of Hetuvidya descendants -- early Hetuvidya research, logic -- a descendant of South Temple, Temple of inheritance -- the inheritance -- supporting life.
The two, the temple of Hetuvidya research Hetuvidya research and its influence -- good bead Hetuvidya research three, Hetuvidya research development in Japan -- to study vertical justice system and Hetuvidya research -- for he - round -
Chun Tak second Hetuvidya research in Japan, a subject classification research -- life "cases Jinglu" -- keeping pet - Ming quan - Hui - long light - Hui Zhen - Tao quan - Interpretation of law - ping Zhi two, Nandu general research and writing -- Yuan Xing Si researchers -- Todaiji researchers -- method.Research on Hetuvidya -- law disapprove of Qing Chun Xuan Rui Hetuvidya research - - Ren Jue three, Kofukuji Temple Long Yin system --
Yakushiji long long -- Da Temple of the justice system -- vertical Vimalakirti will -- researchers four, Kita Hospital Xu problem, inferior, two - to win his three biography -- forest with "thirty-three" -- the practice of researchers and five works, the "East" domain Yongchao recorded -- the researchers......
The second part of the study, Dunhuang unearthed a rail logic works with "logic is sparse" -- Theory of interpretation and text two, Dunhuang manuscripts "net eyes" -- Interpretation and text logic book three, Dunhuang manuscripts "logic of thirty-three" -- Interpretation and text appendix: China, Japan and the writings of Yinming scholars

 Comparing the three-form reasoning of new Hetu-vidya with Western logic, scholars have put forward four perspectives. Combining their strengths and shortcomings, and the examples of Hetu-vidya reasoning, we can conclude that the three-form reasoning should have four forms:

(1) the affirmative expression of formal implication;
(2) the modus ponens of hypothetical reasoning concerning sufficient conditions after universal instantiation;
(3) the negative expression of a formal implication; and
(4) the modus tollens of hypothetical reasoning concerning sufficient conditions after universal instantiation.

 Chongbu Tsering Dorji, Philosophical Reasons of the Tibetan Ethnic Group, Gansu Ethnic Publishing House, Lanzhou, July 1996. 238 pp. Illus.19 cm. ISBN 7-5421-0453-5. Nine theses on comparative study of the Tibetan and the Western philosophy, covering Tibetan and Western thinkers, Tibetan Hetuvidya and Western formal logic, and the historical evaluation of the Tibetan philosophical system an d that of the West; assessment and prospects of the Tibetan philosophy at the turn of the century, including thoughts on the social position and future of Tibet an philosophy.

Panpan Dorje, Gain a Thorough Understanding of the Esoteric Buddhist Teachings Philosophical State of Tibetan Buddhism, Qinghai People's Publishing House, Xining, September 1996. 319 pp. 20 cm. ISBN 7-225-01149-9. Cultural Phenomena of Tibetan Buddhism Series. Analysis and elaboration of the basic contents, systematic structure, characteristics, theoretical sources and ideological changes of the doctrines of the Nyingma, Sakya, Gelug and Jonang sects and other sects from the religious, cultural and philosophical angles. Chongbu Tsering Dorje, New Thinking Trend: Thoughts on the Quest for Tibetan Buddhism, Tibetan People's Publishing House, Lhasa, September 1999. 334 pp. 20 cm. ISBN 7-223-01 245-5. Fourteen theses by Chongbu Tsering Dorje, a contemporary young Tibetan scholar, on comparative study on the philosophy of Tibetan Buddhism and that of the West from different aspects, covering many viewpoints that merit readers attention.

Sangdrup, Tibetan Psychology, Ethnic Publishing House, Beijing, June 1997. 276 pp. 20 cm. ISBN 7-105-02627-8. Basically retaining the traditional psychological structure of the Tibetan ethnic group, and a detailed introduction to the emergence, development and social position of Tibetan psychological theory and an analysis, on the theoretical plane, of some psychological phenomena in Tibetan social life.

Hetuvidya (Buddhist Logic)

Gedun Trupa (First Dalai Lama), Outline of Tibetan Hetuvidya, Gansu Ethnic Publishing House, Langzhou, December 1996. 487 pp. 20 cm. ISBN 7-5421-0484-5. Originally titled Theory of Pratyaksapramana, written in the 15th century, an annotation on "Pramanavarttika Karika" by Dharmakirti, an Indian Buddhist scholar, this book and Annotations on t he "Seven Treatises on Hetuvidya" by Khedrupje Geleg Pasang, the First Panchen Lama, are considered the representative works of Tibetan Hetuvidya. Based on the block edition of Labrang Monastery.

Jime Sangdrup, The Origin and Theoretical Exploration of the Hetuvidya, China Tibetology Publishing House, Beijing, July 1996 . 443 pp. 20 cm. ISBN 7-80057-271-4. Four chapters: introduction to two Hetuvidya schools in ancient India before the emergence of Buddhism in the first chapter; emergence and development of Indian Buddhist Hetuvidya in the second chapter; the spread and main representatives of Hetuvidya in different periods in Tibet in the third chapter; and the basic theoretical system and scope of Hetuvidya in the fourth chapter. With a recommendation article by Dunggar Lobsang Chilai.

Gedun Sangmten and Tsering Tso, Basic Knowledge of Tibetan Hetuvidya Logic, Gansu Ethnic Publishing House, Lanzhou, May 1996. 276 pp. 20 cm. ISBN 7-5421-0433-0. A guidebook to one of the five classics of Exoterism, the "Pramana varttika Karika" Hetuvidya, and a simple exposition to Bsdus-ra.

Banchen Soinen Zhagba, Pramanavarttika Karika: A Clear Explanation, China Tibetology Publishing House, Beijing. March 1998. 526 pp. 26 cm. ISBN 7-80057-298-6. Hardcover. Gems of Snowland Culture Series. In this book the author, the 15th Ganden Tripa (1428-1544), gives a sentence-by-sentence interpretation to "Pramanavarttika Karika." With an article "Outline of Religious Sects: Tree to Please the Brilliant Person" attached, giving a general account of ancient Indian Buddhism and other religious sects.

Langrin Ngawang Phuntso, New Annotations on "Pramanavarttika Karika" (two volumes), Tibetan People's Publishing House, Lhasa, December 1997. 542 pp and 671 pp. 20 cm. ISBN 7-223-01074-6. "Pramanavarttika Karika" is one of the masterworks of Tibetan Hetuvidya written by the Indian Buddhist scholar Dharmakirti. Five editions of annotations on it have been listed in Catalogues of Chinese Publications in Tibetan Studies (1949-1991 and 1992-1995). A modern Tibetan scholar, the author of this book gives new annotations to the four parts of the origin al book on the basis of many years study. The handwritten original of the book is by the author himself.

Sakban Gonggar Gyaincain, et al, Detailed An [J P]notations to the "Precious Theory of Pratyaksapramana," Sichuan Ethnic Publishing House, Chengdu, April 1998. 773 pp. 20 cm. ISBN 7-5409-1389-4. Pratyaksapramana is one of the Five Major Treatises of Buddhist Doc trine in traditional Tibetan culture. Precious Theory of Pratyaksapra mana is listed in the Catalogue of Chinese Publications in Tibetan Studies (1949-1991) with annotations by Sakban Gonggar Gyaincain. This book contains two more annotations on the Precious Theory of Pratyaksapramana, one by Goranba Sonam Sangge (1429-1469) and the other by Jamyang Lode Wanpo.

Qi Shunlai, An Introduction to Tibetan Hetuvidya, Qinghai Ethnic Publishing House, Xining, August 1998. 588 pp. 20 cm. ISBN 7-5420-0690-8. A Tibetan Hetuvidya textbook for universities and colleges, compiled on the basis of the masterpieces of Hetuvidya,such as "Pramanasamuccaya" and "Seven Treatises on Hetuvidya." Five chapters. First chapter: elaboration of the concepts and history of Hetuvidya and logic; second, third and fourth chapte rs: based on On Bsdus-ra, the Treasured Lamp to the General Meaning by Pandawa Tubten Geleg Gyatso and the Collection of Knowledge of the Mind and Benevolence Sayings by Chamchin Monastery, elaborating the object of the mind knowledge, the knowledge of the mind and relationship between the mind knowledge and its object; fifth chapter: explanation of the logic.

Gungthang Lochi Gyatso and Barang Gonjo Qoinpe, A Collection of Theses on Hetuvidya by Master Guangthang Lochi Gyatso, Gansu Ethnic Publishing House, Lanzhou, February 1999, 461 pp. 20 cm. ISBN 7-5 421-0633-3. Selected Tibetan Ancient Books Seriess. Four theses, two by Gungthang Lochi Gyatso (1851-1930), including Analysis of Syllogism and two by Barang Gonjo Qoinpe, including Introduction to Syllogism.

  Ju Zong ling, A Brief History of the Hetuvidya of Tibetan Buddhism, Nationalities Publishing House, Beijing, December 1994. 173 pp. 20 cm. ISBN 7-105-02375-9.
  There chapters. I. "The Background of hetuvidya Propagated in Tibet" :The situation and reasons of decline of Hetuvidya in India and the social conditions of Tibet at the time of Hetuvidya's Introduction into Tibet. II. "The Time Divisions of the History of Hetuvidya's Spread in Tibet": The early propagation of Hetuvidya and the later propagation of Hetuvidya, withe the later period subdivided in the rour stages of resurgence, wide spread, research and development. III. "The Characteristics of the hetuvidya of Tibetan Buddhism, " introducing the theory of Dharmakirti, a special way of study, the reorganization of the Hetuvidya system, etc. The second half of the book contains annotations to the Nyayabindu. With a preface by Tudog Dorje.

  bTsun-pa-ston-gshon, A Commentary on Pramanavarttika, China Tibetology Publishing House, Beijing, December 1993. 496 pp. 26 cm.ISBN 7-80057-085-1. Hardcover. Gems of smowland Culture Seies.
  Pramanavarttika, a classic of Hetuvidya of Tibetan Buddhism, was written in about the seventh century by the Buddhist Philosopher Dharmakirti of ancient India. It is one of three main components of the seven theories on Hetuvidya. bTsun-pa-ston-gshon was a scholar in the 12th or 13th century, who annotated the original of over 2,oooitems sentence by sentence. Compiled on the basis of a rare handwritten copy.

  dGe-bshes-ye-shes-dbang-phyug, Anotations on Pramanavarttika, Tibetan People's Publishing House, Lhasa, December 1992. 270 pp. 20 cm. ISBN 7-223-00454-1.
  A continuation of the book Annotations on Pramanavarttika published by Tibetan people's Publishing House in q989, which was included in the Catalogue of Chinese publications in Tibetan Studies (1949-1991), published by the Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 1995.

  vJu-mi-pham-vjam-dbyang-rnam-rgyal-rgya-mtsho, Explanations on Pramanavarttika, China Tibetology Publishing House, Beijing, December 1995. 559 pp. 26 cm. ISBN 7-80057-136-2. Hardcover. Gems of Snowland Culture Series. Collated by Sichuan National Minority Ancient Books Compilation Office.
  Annotations to the original text of this classic of Tibetan Hetuvidye paragraph by paragraph and chapter by chapter based on the author's own understanding, as well as on works on Hetuvidya of ancient India and some other works by Tibetan Buddhist philosophers led by Sakya Pandita.

  rNgog-blo-ldan-shes-rab, Annotations to Pramana-viniscaya, China Tibetology Publishing House, Beijing, december 1994.511 pp. Illus. 20cm. ISBN 7-80057-138-6. Hardcover.Pramanaviniscaya is the detailed form of "the Seven Theories on Pratyaksapramana in General, detailed and shortened Forms,: In this book strict logical inference was used by an ancient master translator and Hetuvidya specialist of dgreat attainments to explain various problems in the original text. It is one of the earliest published books on Hetuvidya of Tibetan Buddhism. Complied and published in accrddance with the rare block edition preserved in the nationalities Cultural Palace of beijing.

  [[rGyal-tshab-rje]. dar-ma-rin-chen, Detailed Annotations to pramanaviniscaya(Vols.I and II), Gansu Nationalities Publishing House, Lanzhou, November 1993. 1, 124 pp. 20 cm. ISBN 7-5421-0129-9. Collated by Jigs-med-thog-mchog and bsam-gtan-shes-rab.
  A bookk famous for its great length and based on the block edition in Qinhai's Kumbum Monastery, by the successor to Tsongkhapa's throne (1364-1430).

  rGyal-tshab-rje, [[dar-ma-rin-chen, Annotations to Hetuvidya, Gansu Nationalities Publishing House, Lanzhou, March 1995. 111pp. 19 cm. ISBN 7-5421-0367-9. Edited by the Xiahe County Compilation and Translation Bureau and collated by vJigs-med-thig-mchog.
  An annotated version to the book The Seven Theories on Hetuvidya in shortened form by Dharmakirti and an elementary textbook for people interested in Hetuvidya. Three chapters: perceptual knowledge of Hetuvidya, the way to correct inference, and persuasion by using the method of inference.

  Chu-skyes-dge-vdun-bsam-gtan, The Law of Demonstration on Hetuvidya, Gansu Nationalities Publishing House, Lanzhou, March 1995. 241 pp. 19 cm. ISBN 7-5421-0349-0.
  a monograph on consciousness of tibetan Hetuvidya. With nine chapters mainly discussing the seven-point awareness, with emphasis on direct perception and inferential understanding.

  dGe-vdun-bsam-gtan, A Course pn Tibetan Hetuvidya, central University for Nationalities Press, Beijing, March 1995. 308 pp. 20 cm. ISBN 7-81001-941-4.
  Ageneral acdcount of the methodology of Tibetan Hetuvidya in light of modern logic, with the contents divided into three levels: elementary, intermediate and advanced.

Buddhist logic