Oḍḍiyāna; (Skt. Oḍḍiyāna; Tib. ཨུ་རྒྱན, Orgyen; Wylie u rgyan (Pashto: اوډيانه; Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଆଣ) a small country in early medieval India, ascribed importance in the development and dissemination of Vajrayana (Tantric) Buddhism.
Possible locations that have been identified are:
(the locality denoted by the term 'Oddiyana' whether in each case cited is Swat Valley or Orissa or some other location is glossed with a suite of orthographic representations and near homophones which require further case-by-case examination and exploration), Orissa and the cult of Jagannath and a number of texts that inform the matter such as; the
as Donaldson (2001: p. 11) frames an overview of some of the debate and then ventures further salience:
- In his argument, P. C. Bagchi states that there are two distinct series of names in Tibetan: (1) O-rgyān, U-rgyān, O-ḍi-yā-na, and (2) O-ḍi-vi-śā, with the first series connected with Indrabhūti, i.e., Oḍiyăna and Uḍḍiyāna, while the second series falls back on Oḍi and Oḍiviśa, i.e., Uḍra (Orissa) and has nothing to do with Indrabhūti.
N.K. Sahu objects, however, and points out that these two sets of names are seldom distinguished in Buddhist Tantra literature, and opines that the words Oḍa, Oḍra, Uḍra, Oḍiviśa and Oḍiyāna are all used as variants of Uḍḍiyāna.
In the 'Seven Line Prayer' (of Padmasambhava) revealed in Jigme Lingpa's terma of the Ngöndro of the Longchen Nyingthig and throughout the Longchen Nyingtig Ngondro, Oddiyana is rendered in the form Tibetan: ཨོ་རྒྱན, Wylie: o rgyan.
Udyāna (Sanskrit, meaning garden or orchard; Chinese pinyin: wu chang, also romanized as Woo-chang) was a Buddhist region in northern India, delimited in part by the Indus River and to the south by a region known as Soo-ho-to. Prakrit was spoken.
Possible locations of Udyāna that have been identified are:
Faxian wrote: "There is a tradition that when Buddha came to North India, he came at once to this country, and that here he left a print of his foot, which is long or short according to the ideas of the beholder. It exists, and the same thing is true about it, at the present day." (This footprint can still be seen today, in the upper Swat valley, at Lat/Long:35.1316,72.459).