Truth, (sacca or taccha) is speech, writing, notions or an understanding that corresponds with reality and which, if comprehended correctly, can lead one to a more accurate and complete perception of that reality.
There are two types of truth – mundane and supermundane.
If one says: ‘It is raining’ and it is raining, this statement can be said to be true.
However, this is only a mundane truth because it is of limited value.
If, on the other hand, one says: ‘Craving causes dissatisfaction’ and it actually does, this can be said to be a supermundane truth because if understood and taken into account it could lead to a radical change in one’s attitude, one’s life and ultimately, one’s destiny.
Some truths can be partial in that they correspond to some aspects of a reality but not others.
However, one truth cannot contradict another. If a person says: ‘Two plus two equals four’ and another says: ‘Two plus two equals five,’ one or the other of these two statements must be false.
Thus the Buddha says: ‘Truth is one.’ (ekaṃ hi saccaṃ, Sn.884).
The most significant supermundane truths taught by the Buddha are the Four Noble Truths.
The Buddha laid the greatest stress on speaking truthfully.
The first and most important characteristic of Right Speech is that it be true to the best of our understanding.
Of speech that accords with the Dhamma he said: ‘One should refrain from false speech.
When summoned before the court, an inquiry, a family gathering, a guild or the king, and asked: “So, good man, tell us what you know.” If he does not know, he says: “I don’t know.” If he knows, he says: “I know.”
If he did not see, he says: “I didn’t see,” and if he saw, he says: “I saw.”
He does not knowingly lie for his own advantage or another’s advantage or for some trifling gain.’ (M.I,288). See Consistency and Faithfulness.
Truth is most often used to mean in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or to a standard or ideal.
The opposite of truth is falsehood, which, correspondingly, can also take on a logical, factual, or ethical meaning.
The concept of truth is discussed and debated in several contexts, including philosophy and religion .
Many human activities depend upon the concept, which is assumed rather than a subject of discussion, including science, law, and everyday life.
Various theories and views of truth continue to be debated among scholars and philosophers. Language and words are a means by which humans convey information to one another and the method used to recognize a "truth" is termed a criterion of truth.
There are differing claims on such questions as what constitutes truth: what things are truth bearers capable of being true or false;
how to define and identify truth; the roles that revealed and acquired knowledge play; and
whether truth is subjective or objective,
relative or absolute.
Many religions consider perfect knowledge of all truth about all things (omniscience) to be an attribute of a divine or supernatural being.
The Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, K.N. Jayatilleke,1963.