BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS: I THE TANTRAS � ARASAM. GRAHA AND THE �I � S � ANA� SIVAGURUDEVAPADDHATI
At various stages in its development Buddhism incorporated Brahmanical and Hindu deities, but in its Tantric form Buddhism has also influenced the Hindu pantheon. The Tantric period is characterized by mutual influences between the two religions. A. Sanderson has provided evidence for the influence of the Tantric �Saiva canon on the Buddhist Yog� anuttaratantras or Yogin� ıtantras.
Sanderson 1988, pp. 146–147 and 1994, pp. 94ff. demonstrates that passages from the yet unpublished �Saiva Tantras, such as the Brahmay�amala (Picumata), the Tantrasadbh�ava, the Yogin�ısam. c �ara of
the Jayadrathay�amala and the Siddhayoge�svar�ımata, were incorporated with little or no modification into Buddhist Tantras of �Sam. vara, such as the Laghusam. vara (Heruk�abhidh�ana), the Abhidh�anottara, the Sam. put.odbhava, the Sam. varodaya, the Vajrad. �aka and the D.�ak�arn. ava.
Sanderson shows that it is unnecessary to explain existing similarities between Tantric �Saivism and Buddhism by postulating a common source (often referred to as ‘the Indian religious substratum’) from which the two traditions are assumed to have derived. Addressing the influence of Brahmanical iconography on Buddhist Tantric iconography, Banerjea 1956, pp. 558–561 highlights similarities between the forms of �Siva and the Bodhisattvas Sim. han�ada, N�ılakan.
tha and others. As is well known, Buddhist Tantric texts such as Abhay�akaragupta’s eleventhcentury Nis. pannayog�avali (NY) include Brahmanical deities, such as Gan. e�sa, K�arttikeya, the directional guardians and heavenly bodies, in the periphery of the deity man. d.
alas they describe. The reverse, namely the influence of Tantric Buddhism on the later Hindu Tantric pantheon, is studied by B. Bhattacharyya.1 However, Bhattacharyya 1930, p. 1277 and 1932, p. 109 goes too far when he draws the general conclusion that the Buddhists were the first to write IndoIranian
Journal 42: 303–334, 1999.
c 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 304 GUDRUN B¨UHNEMANN Tantric texts and that the Hindu Tantras are borrowed from the Buddhist Tantras. Bhattacharyya addresses not only the iconography but also the deity mantras on the basis of such texts as the S�adhanam�al�a (SM). He concludes that Chinnamast�a and the eight manifestations of T�ar�a known as T�ar�a, Ugr�a, Mahogr�a, Vajr�a, K�al�ı, (the Tantric) Sarasvat�ı, K�ame�svar�ı and Bhadrak�al�ı were adopted by the Hindu pantheon from Buddhist Tantric sources (1930, pp. 1278–1279 and 1932, pp. 148– 149, 156–157). I summarize our present state of knowledge on the adoption of Chinnamast�a into the Hindu pantheon in B¨uhnemann 1999, section 184.108.40.206. In B¨uhnemann 1996 I demonstrate on the basis of textual evidence how a form of T�ar�a, called Mah�ac�ınakramaT �ar�a, was adopted
from an eleventhcentury Buddhist Tantric s �adhana by �S�a�svatavajra into the Hindu Phetk�arin. �ıtantra. The Phetk�arin. �ıtantra’s description of the goddess as Ugrat�ar�a – along with her surrounding deities and elements of typically Buddhist Tantric worship procedures and mantras – became the authoritative description of the goddess and was incorporated into many Hindu Tantric texts, such as Kr.s.
�ananda’s Tantras�ara. Bhattacharyya 1933 traces the adaption of Bh�utad. �amara into the Hindu pantheon by examining the two extant Bh�utad. �amaraTantras, one belonging to the Buddhists and the other to the Hindus. Bhattacharyya 1930, pp. 1295– 1296, 1932, pp. 161–162 and Pal 1981, pp. 102–104 examine the adoption of Ma~njughos.a by the Hindu pantheon. It is usually not easy to determine when and how a deity was adopted from one pantheon into another. The importance of the cases of Bh�utad. �amara and Ugrat�ar�a
lies in the clear understanding they offer of the process of adaptation of a deity from the Buddhist Tantric texts into Hindu Tantras. In this paper I am concerned with the influence of Buddhist Tantrism on Hindu Tantras as evident from the adoption of Buddhist deities, mantras and elements of typically Buddhist Tantric worship procedures. Many Tantric texts have not been edited at all or at least not critically. Often we have no information about the period in which they were written nor who their authors or compilers were. Since much work remains to be done before one can attempt to draw conclusions of a more general nature based on primary texts, it seems best to begin with a study of select Tantric texts. Part One of this paper examines Buddhist influences in two closely related texts, the Tantras�arasam. graha and the Mantrap�ada of the �I�s �ana�sivagurudevapaddhati. Part Two will address Buddhist deities and mantras in two later compilations, the � Sr�ıvidy �arn. avatantra attributed to Vidy�aran.
ya Yati and Kr. s. n. �ananda �Agamav�ag�ı�sa’s Tantras�ara. I will not discuss the origins of these deities nor address questions as to whether they were originally tribal or folk BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 305 deities who were assimilated into the Buddhist pantheon. I use the term ‘Hindu Tantras’ instead of �Saiva, Vais.n. ava or �S�akta Tantras/�Agamas to indicate the nonsectarian character of most of the texts I examine.
The Tantras�arasam. graha (TSS) is a compilation of mantra�s�astra by N�ar�ayan. a, a Kerala Brahmin who resided in �Sivapura on the banks of the river Nil�a. He was the son of N�ar�ayan. a and his wife Um�a. The work, which is called a Tantra in the colophons of the chapters of the text (e.g., 32.67d, 70c), is divided into thirtytwo chapters. It is popularly known as the Vis. an�ar �ayan.
�ıya, since its initial chapters (2–10) deal mainly with mantras to counter the effects of poison (vis. a).2 Goudriaan 1977, p. 160 states that the TSS is not the N�ar�ayan. �ıya quoted by R�aghavabhat.t. a in
his commentary Pad �arth �adar�sa on the � S�arad�atilaka (�ST); however, this turns out to be incorrect. The work referred to and cited by R�aghava is indeed the TSS.3 Since R�aghava completed his commentary in 1493, the TSS can safely be assigned to the fifteenth century (eliminating the possibility of the sixteenth century)4 or earlier. The TSS was printed with an anonymous commentary (vy�akhy �a) which cites the Mantrap�ada of the �I�s�ana�sivagurudevapaddhati. This Mantrap�ada (MP) forms p�ada 2, pat.alas 15–52 of
�s�ana�sivagurudevami�sra’s �I�s �ana�sivagurudevapaddhati (�I �SP), which is also known as the Tantrapaddhati. The�I�SP is a �Saiva manual of temple worship in four p�adas and is assigned to the last part of the eleventh (Dvivedi)5 or to the twelfth century (Unni 1987, p. 9). One should, however, distinguish between the �I
P and the MP inserted into it. At least part of the MP seems to be of a later date than the other parts of the �I �SP. Since MP 47.20cd is cited ( without specifying the text’s name) in R�aghava’s commentary, p. 865, 22 on the �ST, the MP must have been extant in its present form before 1493. Unni 1987, pp. 38–65 summarizes the contents of the MP, and Dvivedi 1995, pp. 189–190 supplies a list of the texts quoted in the�I �SP. Most chapters in the MP correspond to chapters in the TSS. The relationship between the MP of the�I �SP and N�ar�ayan. a’s TSS is discussed in Goudriaan 1977, pp. 158–160 and by Goudriaan in Goudriaan/Gupta 1981, p. 128. Goudriaan considers it possible that either chapters 15–38 of the MP are recast and shortened in the TSS, and chapters 39–52 of the MP are based on the TSS, or that the MP and the TSS are based on one source. In addition, Unni 1987, pp. 19–22 has demonstrated that chapter 41
.2 of the MP clearly refers to the TSS (cited as the N�ar �ayan. �ıya) and that chapter 49 of the MP draws on chapter 30 of the 306 GUDRUN B¨UHNEMANN TSS. This confirms that the TSS is among the sources of the later part of the MP. V.V. Dvivedi 1992, p. 35 draws attention to the fact that the �I�SP describes the worship of the Buddhist deities Vasudh�ar�a and Yam�antaka. The two sections are reprinted without changes in Dvivedi 1992, pp. 36– 41 (= MP 26.1–64) and 1992, pp. 42–44 (= MP 47.1–39) from the only available edition of the MP. Dvivedi inserts the titles Vasudh�ar �as �adhana and Kr.s. n. ayam�ari s �adhana, which do not appear in the text of the MP. Dvivedi 1995, p. 184 believes that the mantra of Yam�antaka in the MP is taken from the Kr.s. n.
ayam�aritantra (6.13). He does not discuss possible sources for the description of Vasudh�ar�a and her worship. Taking Dvivedi’s discovery and his brief discussion of it as a starting point, I have identified additional material of Buddhist origin in the MP of the�I �SP and in the TSS, which Dvivedi does not consult. In this paper I discuss the adoption of the twoarmed earth goddess Vasudh�ar�a; of the god of wealth, Jambhala, who is widely known as the Buddhist counterpart of Kubera; and of Yam�antaka and his mantras. Several other Buddhist mantras in the TSS and the MP are included in an appendix.
2. THE EARTH GODDESS VASUDH�AR�A LAKSMI
The TSS and the MP extensively describe the mantras of the earth goddess Vasudh�ar�a and their ritual applications. The goddess’s name Vasudh�ar�a means “a flow of wealth,” and is suggestive of her being a form of Laks.
m�ı. This is indeed supported by her classification in the two texts. The sections TSS 22.19–41 and MP 26.1–64 draw heavily on Buddhist material. The seer (r.s. i) of Vasudh�ar�a’s heart mantra om. vasudh�ar �a sv�ah�a (MP 26.5+) is specified as the Buddha (MP 26.5a) and the mantra’s presiding deity is Vasudh�ar�a Laks. m�ı/�Sr�ı. The practitioner is instructed to bow to the Buddhas and the Bodhisattvas in the beginning of the worship ritual (MP 26.8ab; TSS 22.20c). The five Buddhas are listed in MP 26.8cd–10 as Aks.obhya, Vairocanaka, Ratnasam. bhava, Amit�abha,6 Amoghasiddhi, and the eight Bodhisattvas as Padmap�an. i (i.e., Avalokite�svara), Maitr�atm�a (Maitreya), Gagan�adigaja (for Gaganaga~nja), Samantabhadra, Yaks.�adhipa (i.e., Vajrap�an. i), Ma~njughos.a and Vis.
kambhaka. One of the eight Bodhisattvas is clearly missing from this list, which otherwise resembles the one found in texts such as SM, no. 18, pp. 49, 12 – 50, 2, which include the names Maitreya, Ks.itigarbha, Vajrap�an. i, Khagarbha,Ma~njughos.a, Gaganaga~nja, Vis. kambhin and Samantabhadra.
The practitioner then visualizes the seed syllable tr �am. , which transforms into Mt. Sumeru. From the syllable vam. (TSS, yam. MP) a lotus is mentally produced, on which the practitioner visualizes himself (MP 26.11–12; TSS 22.21ab). He then recites the widely used Buddhist Tantric mantra (cf. SM, p. 218, 8–9), om. svabh�ava�suddh�ah. sarvadharm�ah. (sarvasam�ah. MP) / svabh�ava�suddho (sarva�suddho MP) ’ham – “Om. , all dharmas are intrinsically pure, I am intrinsically pure.” This recitation is followed by the contemplation of the four Brahmic states (brahmavih�ara), loving kindness (maitr�ı), compassion (karun. �a), sympathetic joy (mudit�a, TSS, sam. tos. a MP) and equanimity (upeks. �a) (MP 26.13–14; TSS 22.21ab+). The practitioner recites the mantra om. sarvatath�agat�an�am. sarvasiddhayah. sam. padyant�am (MP; om. sarvatath�agat�ah. �sam. sit�ah. sarvatath�agat�an�am.
sarvasiddhayah. sam. padyant�am TSS) / sarvatath�agat�a�s c�adhitis. t.hant�am (MP; sarvatath�agat�a�s c�atis. t.hant�am TSS). This mantra is recited by contemporary Japanese Shingon practitioners as: om. sarvatath�agata (sic) �sam.
sit�ah. sarvasattv�an�am. sarvasiddhayah. sam. padyant�am. tath�agat�a�s ca adhitis. t.hant�am (Miyata 1988, p. 16). Our texts classify mantras according to the categories hr. daya and upahr.daya, which are wellknown from
Buddhist Tantric texts, and refer to the hand gestures samayamudr�a and vajramudr�a (MP 26.15–17ab; TSS 22.23). The samayamudr�a is defined, for example, in SM, p. 4, 7 and the vajramudr�a in SM, p. 3, 5–7. Among the surrounding deities of Vasudh�ar�a are the yellow Amit�abha Buddha, the white Loke�svara (MP, Y�age�svara TSS) and the dark Vajrap�an. i (MP, Vajrin TSS) (MP 26.24–26; TSS 22.28–30). The anonymous commentary on the TSS states that the Buddha should be visualized clad in a robe as described in the Buddhist scriptures (TSS, p. 314, 16–17).
MP 26.20–22 describes Vasudh�ar�a as a yellow colour, holding a pomegranate (d�ad. ima) in her left hand which is resting on her left knee. In her right hand she holds a lotus which contains a small vessel showering jewels. The goddess places one foot on a vessel which showers wealth. The TSS (22.25–27ab) confirms the above description and adds that the lotus in the goddess’s hands is red. The iconographic passages in the two texts are: MP 26.20–22:
hemanibh�am. p�ıvarakucakala�s �am. candramukh�ım alikularucike�s�ım. </> kan~culika�n_g�ım. kuvalayanayana�m. c�arubhuj�am. tanutaravaramadhy�am /</ 20a> hemakir�ıt. �am. kanakaman. imayair �abharan. aih.
�sucinivasanagandhair </> a~ncitam�alyair adhigatavapus. am. 308 GUDRUN B¨UHNEMANN k�antimat�ım. 7 pran. amata vasudh�ar�am // 208 tis. t.hant�ım. vinidh�ay�a _ nghrim. vasuvars. ighat.�ımukhe /
a�kun~cita�n_ghrija�nusthava�mapa�n. isthada�d. ima�m9 // 21 ratnavars. ighat.�ıgarbham utpalam. c�apare kare / syandam�an�arthadh�ar�ad. hyan�alanirgatavallar�ım // 22 “Bow down to beautiful Vasudh�ar�a, who resembles gold (in colour), whose pitcherlike breasts are fleshy, who has a moonlike face, whose hair resembles a flight of (black) bees, whose body (is covered with) a bodice, who has lotuslike eyes, beautiful arms,
a very slender excellent waist, (wears) a golden crown, whose body is covered with golden and jewelled ornaments, with pure garments and fragrant substances (and) beautiful flowers; who stands, having placed (her) foot on the opening of a small vessel showering wealth, who (holds) a pomegranate in her left hand which rests on the knee of (her) bent foot (= leg) and (holds) in her other (= right) hand a lotus which contains a small vessel showering jewels, who is (so to say) a creeper growing out of the neck (of the vessel) which abounds in flows of riches issuing forth.” TSS 22.25–27ab:
(�av�ahayed : : : / 24a) bh�asvatka~nculik�am. citravasan�am. makut.ojjval�am / saumy�am ud�ar�am. hem�abh�am. sakal�akalpabh�us. it�am // 25 vasuvars. ighat.asth�a _ nghrim. 10 v�amaj�anv�attap�an. in�a / vahant�ım. d�ad. imam. savyap�an. in�a11 c�arun. otpalam // 26
ratnavars. ighat.�ıgarbha<m. > n�alanirgatavallar�ım / 27ab “(One should invoke [Vasudh�ar�a]) who (wears) a shining bodice, beautiful garments, a blazing crown, who is placid, generous, has a golden lustre, is adorned with all (kinds of) ornaments, whose foot rests on a vessel showering wealth, who carries a pomegranate with her (left) hand which is placed on her left knee and with her right hand a red lotus which contains a small vessel which showers jewels, who is (so to say) a creeper growing out of the neck (of the vessel). According to MP 26.27+ and TSS 22.31–34ab, Vasudh�ar�a Laks. m�ı is
accompanied by �Sr�ı and Mah�a�sr�ı and the seven jewels (ratna). But in MP 26.48, which addresses another mantra of the goddess, Vasudh�ar�a is accompanied by Dhane�svara, the god of wealth. This is reminiscent of the Buddhist Tantric Vasudh�ar�a, who is often described as the consort of Jambhala, the god of wealth (e.g., SM, nos. 285 and 289). In MP 26.49+ the goddess’s surrounding deities are listed as Dharma, Buddha, “Sahya” (corrupted for sam. gha), S�agaranirghos.a, Vajraraks.a (v.l. Vajrayaks. a), Tarun.
in, �Ary�avaloke�svara, Praj~n�a, Sarasvat�ı and “all Bodhisattvas.” The description of the worship ritual of Vasudh�ar�a in the two Hindu Tantric texts is clearly based on Buddhist material. The elements of the practitioner’s visualization pattern summarized above are characteristic of Tantric Buddhist s �adhanas. In addition, the names of the deities surrounding Vasudh�ar�a leave no doubt that the above ritual application of Vasudh�ar�a’s mantras is taken from a Buddhist source. The iconographic description of Vasudh�ar�a in the two Hindu texts is
most likely based on Buddhist sources as well. It is unlikely that the MP and the TSS would have replaced the iconographical description of the Buddhist goddess with a description of the earth goddess from their own tradition while adopting the Buddhist goddess’s mantras and their ritual applications. In the Hindu tradition, the earth goddess is also known by the names Vasudh�a (�ST 15.138) and Vasundhar�a (cf. AgniPur �an. a 120.38–39); however, iconographic descriptions of Vasudh�a/Vasundhar�a differ from the one found in the MP and the TSS.
However, the goddess’s iconography does not correspond to that of Vasudh�ar�a described in the rather brief s�adhanas in SM, nos. 213–216, according to which the goddess holds a rice shoot (dh�anyama~njar�ı) and displays the wishgranting gesture. It also does not correspond to the iconography of a (sixarmed) Buddhist Vasudh�ar�a recorded in
the Vasundharodde�sa whose text is discussed in both De Mallmann 1986, pp. 441–442 and in Bhattacharyya 1974, pp. 35–36. However, in one description found in the Vasundharodde�sa, the goddess is on a vessel of plenty (bhadraghat.oparisthit�a) and Loke�svara and Vajrap�an. i are among the surrounding deities of the goddess just as in the MP and the TSS. I am not aware of a textual source for the goddess’s iconography. Such a source may be found once additional iconographic material has been made available from yet unedited Buddhist texts.
3. JAMBHALA, THE GOD OF WEALTH
The TSS and the MP describe rituals for Jambhala, the god of wealth, who is widely known as the Buddhist counterpart of Kuvera/Kubera. The TSS presents Jambhala in chapter 26 (26.17–35) which mainly addresses Mr. tyum. jaya, a form of �Siva. Jambhala’s mantra, iconographic description and connected rituals are immediately followed by a description of the mantras of Kubera. The MP presents Jambhala in chapter 32 (32.90–103) following the description of Can.d. e�svara,
who is identified with �Siva. As in the TSS, Jambhala’s description is immediately followed by that of mantras and rituals for Kubera and Jambhala and Kubera share some of the same surrounding deities (MP 32.108cd–109ab).
Preceding Jambhala’s iconographic description in the two texts are instructions for the worshipper’s visualization. Jambhala is visualized on a lotus on which a hexagonlike man.d.
ala is inscribed. From the seed (b�ıja) syllable hr�ım. a lotus appears; on top of the lotus, from 310 GUDRUN B¨UHNEMANN the syllable am. , a moon disc appears; then appears, on top of the lotus, from the syllable jam. (which is Jambhala’s seed syllable) the
deity Jambhala (MP 32.101; TSS 26.31cd–32ab). This visualization follows patterns found in Buddhist Tantric s �adhana texts. Two Jambhala s�adhanas in the SM (nos. 284 and 288) enjoin that the Yogin visualize an eightpetalled
double lotus (vi�svapadma), on top of it a moon disc and on it – produced from the syllable jam. – the deity Jambhala.
The MP identifies Jambhala as the lord of the Yaks.as (32.100c), an epithet which is also found in his mantra which addresses him as the lord of the great army of the Yaks.as: m�an. ibhadramah�asenayaks. �adhipataye12 jambhal�aya jalendr�aya sv �ah�a (MP 32.90–91ab). A similar mantra appears in SM, no. 295 (p. 570, 7–8): namo ratnatray�aya namo m�an. ibhadr�aya mah�ayaks. asen�apataye om. jambhalajalendr�aya sv �ah�a. The
deities immediately surrounding Jambhala are the Yaks.as M�an. ibhadra, P�urn. abhadra, Celim�alin, Vikun. d. alin (most likely for Civikun.d. alin or,
with TSS 26.16+, for �Sibikun.d. alin), Narendra and Carendra. These six names appear to have been taken from a Buddhist source listing eight names, such as SM, no. 284 (p. 561, 5–9): M�an. ibhadra, P�urn. abhadra,
Dhanada, Vai�sravan. a, Kelim�alin, Vicitrakun. d. alin, Mukhendra and
Carendra (cf. also SM, no. 298, p. 566, 16–20). Siddhaikav�ıramah�atantra, p. 158, 1–4 gives the same names, but has Varendra instead of Carendra. NY, p. 63, 19–26 lists P�urn. abhadra, M�an. ibhadra, Dhanada, Vai�sravan. a, Civikun.d.
alin, Kelim�alin, Sukhendra and Calendra. A slab from Ratnagiri with a relief of Jambhala gives these names as P�urn. abhadra, Cilikun.d. alin, Vai�srama(for: �va�)n. a, Kelim�alin, Dhanada,Mukhendra,M�an. ibhadra and Caran. endra (Mitra 1961, p. 40). The variants in the names are limited to Vicitrakun. d. alin (SM) for Civikun. d. alin (NY), Cilikun.
d. alin (Ratnagiri); Mukhendra (SM, Ratnagiri) for Sukhendra (NY); and Carendra (SM) for Calendra (NY), Varendra (Siddhaikav�ıramah�atantra) or Caran. endra (Ratnagiri). According to NY, p. 63, 27 each of these Yaks.as holds identical attributes. These are Jambhala’s characteristic attributes, the fruit of the citron tree (in the right hand) and the mongoose (in the left). A xylograph from the Rin ’byun_, prepared by Mongol artists in circa 1810 (Chandra 1991, p. 310, no. 820; see Illustration 1), portrays Jambhala embracing a consort and surrounded by eight Yaks.as, each with a consort. The mantra inscribed below the picture invokes the eight male Yaks.as as follows:
o<m. > jambhalajale<n>draye sv�ah�a / om. man. ibhadr�aya sv�ah�a /
Illustration 1. 820 Manydeity Jambhala from a S¯adhana Ekav¯ıra s¯adhanavinirgata Bahudeva Jambhala T. Dpah. bo chig sgrublas byu_ nbah. i dzambhala lhama _ n, NW. 74 om. p�urn.
abhadr�aya sv�ah�a / om. dhanadaya (!) sv�ah�a / om. bai�sravan. aya (!) sv�ah�a / om. kilim�aliniye (!) sv�ah�a / 312 GUDRUN B¨UHNEMANN om. picikun.d. alini (!) sv�ah�a / om. mukhendr�aya sv�ah�a / om. carendr�aya sv�ah�a / This group of Yaks.as is also seen in a sculpture in the round excavated at N�aland�a and preserved in the National Museum, New Delhi (acc. no. 47.62). The Yaks.as are positioned around Jambhala and constitute the surrounding deities of his man.d. ala (Mitra 1961, p. 41). As described in the NY, they hold the fruit of the citron tree in their right hand, the mongoose in their left and, in addition, place one foot on a vessel full of jewels.
Jambhala is described twice in the MP and the TSS. According to the first description (MP 32.96–97) he is yellow, twoarmed, seated on a white lotus, has three feet and is corpulent. The parallel description in the TSS (26.21) adds that Jambhala has three feet, three faces and (one) tawny eye. The deity’s deformities correspond to those of Kubera in Hindu mythology (see Hopkins 1915, pp. 142, 147). Except for the red ornaments on the deity’s body, no attributes held in his hands are described. The first iconographic description in the two texts is: MP 32.96–97: �svetapadmasthitam. saumyam. p�ıt�abham. dvibhujam. prabhum / rakt�akalpasphuranmauliman. ikun. d. alaman.d. itam // 96 h�arakey�urakat.akakat. is�utr�adyalam. kr. tam / trip�adam. tundilam.
dhy�ayet p�uj�adau mantrasiddhaye // 97 “For the perfection of the mantra one should meditate at the beginning of the worship (p�uj�a) on the lord who is on a white lotus, is tranquil, has a yellow lustre, has two arms, is adorned with red ornaments, a shining crown and jewelled earrings, who is adorned with necklaces, armlets, bracelets of gold, a waistband, etc., who has three feet (and) is corpulent.” TSS 26.21: �svetapadmasthito h�arapat. t.akey�urakun.d. al�ı /
rakta�kalpapriyo devah. pin_ga�ks. as trimukhas13 tripa�t // “The god is on a white lotus, wears necklaces, a diadem, bracelets, earrings, is fond of red ornaments, has (one) tawny eye, three faces (and) three feet. The second description is: MP 32.102ab: (: : : smaret / 101b : : : jambhalam // 101d) b�ıjap�uram. ca nakulam. dadh�anam. tam. caturbhujam / “(One should recall) the fourarmed (Jambhala) who holds the fruit of the citron tree and the mongoose.” BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 313 TSS 26.32cd–33a: (: : : jambhalam / 32b) sab�ıjap�uram.
nakulam. dadh�anam. savar�abhayam // 32cd caturbhujam imam. dhy�atv�a : : : / 33a “Having meditated on that fourarmed (Jambhala) who holds the mongoose along with the fruit of the citron tree (and) who is endowed with the wish(granting gesture and the gesture of) protection : : : ” According to the second description (MP 32.102a), Jambhala is fourarmed, but only two attributes are specified in the MP: the fruit of the citron tree (b�ıj�ap�ura) and the mongoose (nakula). This may be due to a confusion of the fourarmed form of Jambhala with the previously described twoarmed form. Since the two descriptions of the Hindu Jambhala appear in connection with two different rituals, it is likely that they were meant to describe two different iconographic types, but through the course of time were blended together. The parallel description in the TSS (26.32cd–33a) specifies the gestures of protection and wishgranting
as the two other attributes, which makes for a total of four attributes. Since in the second description the number of Kubera’s faces is unspecified, we have to assume that the deity has one face. Buddhist s �adhanas in the SM describe a form of the yellow Jambhala with two arms holding the fruit of the citron tree and the female mongoose (nakul�ı), which is often said to spew forth precious stones, etc. However, the deity has only one face and not three faces as specified in the TSS’s description. The Buddhist threefaced Jambhala, on the
other hand, has six arms and represents a different iconographic type (cf. SM, no. 286). Even though none of the Buddhist s�adhana texts I examined give exactly the visualization pattern found in the two Hindu Tantric texts, and none of these texts give an identical description of Jambhala, the description of the deity and the rituals associated with his worship in the MP and the TSS are clearly of Buddhist origin. This is also substantiated by the fact that Jambhala is unknown in the Hindu Tantric pantheon, while Jambhala and Kubera appear in Buddhist Tantric pantheons, often with similar characteristics.14
The adoption of Jambhala by the Hindu texts is based on material (textual or otherwise) that is yet unidentified. The following piece of information may be useful for identifying the source. The MP and the TSS state that the deity “was once for some reason injured by a wheel on his head” (the MP adds: by Hari). To alleviate his pain one should offer water libations on his head, whereby he will be pleased. This 314 GUDRUN B¨UHNEMANN information could provide a clue as to the mythology connected with this deity.
Dvivedi has drawn attention to the fact that the �I �SP (i.e., MP 47.11) cites a Yam�antaka mantra which he believes is borrowed from the Kr.s. n. ayam�aritantra. It must be added that the TSS (17.9cd–10ab) also records this mantra, which also appears in Laks.man. ade�sika’s �ST 24.18 and in texts citing the �ST, such as the � Sr�ıvidy �arn. avatantra (�SVT).
Moreover, it is only one of two mantras of Yam�antaka found in the MP which are obviously borrowed from a Buddhist source. In the MP and the TSS the second mantra is identified as a mantra of Yama, not Yam�antaka. These two texts seem to confuse Yama and Yam�antaka as can be seen from the instances discussed below. Ironically, the Buddhist mantras appear in the section of the MP which promotes the rites of black magic (abhic�ara) which are said to be revealed for the sake of the protection of the (Vedic) dharma (47.5a) from the enemies of the dharma and the Veda (47.1b), which include the Buddhists.
Both the TSS and the MP address the mantras and rituals for Yama/Yam�antaka in the context of the abhic�ara15 rites (TSS 17.1– 29; MP 47.1–39). While the texts usually refer to a group of six acts (s. at. karm�an. i), the following seven abhic�ara rites are listed in the TSS (cf. also AgniPur �an. a 306.1 with v.l) and the MP: (1) immobilization (stambha), (2) causing dissension (vidves.a), (3) eradication (ucc�at.a), (4) liquidation (m�aran. a), (5) creating confusion or madness (bhr�anti, bhrama),16 (6) destruction (uts�adana) and (7) creating illness (roga,17 vy�adhi), especially fever. These rites are briefly defined in the anonymous commentary on the TSS.
The mantras of Yama/Yam�antaka are to be inscribed in a yantra which is employed in black magic (abhic�ara). According to �ST 24.17d, this is a yantra of Pretar�aja, i.e., Yama, the god of death. �ST 24.22cd specifies its use in the rite of liquidation (m�aran. a) (cf. also R�aghavabhat.t. a, p. 865, 20), while the anonymous commentary on the TSS, p. 238, 10 states that the yantra is perhaps to be used in the rite of causing dissension, since the TSS does not give precise information. According to sources from Bali which will be discussed below, the first of the two mantras is also inscribed in the squares of a yantra (Hooykaas 1973, drawing on p. 172, charts on pp. 204–205 and remarks on p. 233).
b) The ThirtyTwoSyllabled Mantra The first mantra is in Anus.t. ubh metre. R�aghavabhat.t. a’s commentary, p. 866, 18 refers to it as the yamar�aja�sloka. The version in MP 47.11 is: ya ma r�a ja sa do me ya ya mo yo ru n.a yo da ya / da ya yo ni ra ya ks.e ya ya ks.e �sa �sca ni r�a ma yah. //
The version found in TSS 17.9cd–10ab is distorted and differs mainly in the first quarter of the verse: �sa ma s. �a ga la so me �sa ya me do ru n. a yo da ya // ya da yo ni ra ya ks.e ya ya ks.e pa ~nca ni r�a ma ya / The anonymous commentary on the TSS, p. 237, 12, the author of which is familiar with the MP, gives a version closer to the one in the MP: ya ma r�a ja sa do me ya ya me do ru n.a yo da ya / ya da yo ni ra ya ks.e ya ya ks.e ya �sca ni r�a ma ya // The mantra also appears in Laks.man. ade�sika’s �ST 24.18 (last part of the tenth century or first half of the eleventh century). Its wording according to the three editions of the text is:
ya ma r�a ja sa do me ya ya me do ru n.a yo da ya / ya di yo ni ra pa (ya �ST3) ks.e ya ya ks.e ya va (pa ks.e ya ca �ST2, 3) ni r�a ma ya // �SVT, volume 2, p. 849, 8, quoting the �ST, gives the following reading of the mantra: ya ma r�a ja sa d�a me ya ya me d�a sa ja r�a ma ya / ya da yo ni ra pa ks.e pa pa ks. e pa ra ni yo da ya // The above mantra is known in Buddhist Tantrism as the mantra of Yam�antaka, especially of his form Vajrabhairava, and continues to be recited in the Tibetan dGe lugs pa tradition up to the present.18 Decleer 1998, p. 296 reports that the Vajrabhairava cycle continues to be practiced under the name Mahis. asam. vara in Nepal. Contemporary
ritual manuals based on older texts, such as Sharpa Tulku/R. Guard 1990, p. 66 and Sharpa Tulku/R. Guard 1991, p. 25 classify the mantra as Vajrabhairava’s root mantra, a classification which is supported by two ancient Vajrabhairava texts cited below. As Dvivedi 1995, p. 184 states, the mantra appears in the (Sarvatath�agatak�ayav �akcitta) Kr.s. n. ayam�aritantra. This Tantra is referred to in T�aran�atha’s History of Buddhism (Chattopadhyaya 1970, p. 243), along with the Trikalpa and the Saptakalpa (see below). T�aran�atha credits Lalitavajra (tenth century) 316 GUDRUN B¨UHNEMANN Illustration 2. 585 Sa _ mks.ipta Bhairava T. H. jigsbyed bsduspa
with having brought these texts from the library of Dharmaga~nja in Ud.d. iy�ana. The mantra is referred to in Kr.s. n. ayam�aritantra 1.6–13 in an encoded form and appears in full in 6.13: ya ma r�a j�a sa do me ya ya me do ru n.a yo da ya / ya da yo ni ra ya ks.e ya ya ks.a ya cca ni r�a ma ya // BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 317 This mantra is also found in the Vimalaprabh�a commentary (cited in the introduction to the Kr.s. n. ayam�aritantra, p. 19, note 1) on K�alacakratantra 4.118 with a variant in the fourth quarter, ya ks. e ya cca instead of the above ya ks. a ya cca. The same version, with the variant ya ks.e yac cha, is inscribed on a xylograph from the Rin ’byun_ (Chandra 1991, p. 229, no. 585; see Illustration 2), where the deity is called Sam.
ks.iptaBhairava. 19 The reading ks. e better suits the parallelism in the verse and appears in several other texts cited below. Note the long �a at the end of the compound yamar�aj�a in the versions of the two texts, which is ungrammatical unless it is supposed to be combined with an a at the beginning of the next word. This mantra with the same variant in the fourth quarter also appears in three Vajrabhairava texts. In chapter 3 of the Vajramah�abhairavatantra, identified with the Saptakalpa by Sikl�os 1996, p. 9 and Decleer 1998, p. 290, the mantra is classified as the root mantra of the buffaloheaded Vajramah�abhairava
and appears in an encoded form. Sikl�os 1996, p. 36 does not attempt to assemble the syllables of the mantra, which is to be extracted from the alphabet syllable by syllable. In his translation of the relevant passage he also omits syllables.20 This mantra also appears in a text referred to as The Myth in Sikl�os 1996 and as The Mythological Antecedents under one heading in Decleer 1998, p. 291, but with a short a at the end of the compound yamar�aja, with the variant yac ccha (for yac ca) and the reading ni ra m�a ya (for ni r �a ma ya) in the fourth quarter of the verse.21 Lastly, the mantra is found in chapter 1 of the Three Chapter Tantra of Vajrabhairava, which is identified with the Trikalpa22 by Sikl�os 1996, p. 9 and Decleer 1998, p. 293.23 In this text we also find the short a at the end of the compound yamar�aja and the spellings ya ccha (for yac ca) and ni ra ma ya (for ni r�a ma ya) in the fourth quarter of the verse. This text confirms that the mantra is the deity’s root mantra.
The above mantra verse appears in Buddhist texts from Bali, which are mostly hymns of praise which the editors have named Yamar � ajastavas. They are preserved in Archipelago Sanskrit. Different versions are recorded in Hooykaas 1964, p. 63 and p. 66; Goudriaan/Hooykaas 1971, no. 815, verse 10 and no. 941 and Hooykaas 1973, p. 210 (part of a ritual application). The versions gathered by these two scholars can be listed as follows:
1ab) ya ma r�a ja sa do me ya ya me do ro da yo da ya / 2ab) ya ma r�a ja sa do me ya ya me do ra da yo da ya / 3ab) ya ma r�a ja sa do me ya ya me do ro da yo da ya / 4ab) ya ma r�a ja sa do me ya ya me do ro da yo da ya / 5ab) ya ma r�a ja sa do me ya ya me do ro da yo da ya / 318 GUDRUN B¨UHNEMANN 6ab) ya ma r�a ja sa do me ya ya me ro do da yo da ya / 7ab) ya ma r�a ja sa do me ya ya me ro do da yo da ya / 8ab) ya ma r�a ja sa do me ya ya me no do da so da ya / 1cd) ya da yo ni ra ra ks.i ya ya ks.i sa nti n. �ı r�a ma ya // 2cd) ya da yo ni ra ya ks.i ya ya ks.i sa nta n. �ı r�a ma ya // 3cd) ya da yo ni ra ya ks.i ya ya ks.i sa ~nca n. �ı r�a ma ya // 4cd) ya da ya ni ja ra ma ya ya : : : sa ~nca n. �ı r�a ma ya // 5cd) ya da yo ni ja ra ma ya ya ks.i sa ~nca n. �ı r�a ma ya // 6cd) ya da yo ni si ra pi ya ya pi ra si ni ra ya ma // 7cd) ya da yo ni si ra pi ya ya ksi pa ~nca ni ra ma ya // 8cd) ya da yo ni si ra pi ya ya ksi pa ~nca ni ra ma ya // Another variant of this mantra from Bali is found in a hymn entitled Yamastava and published in L�evi 1933, p. 51, 2–3: om. ya ma r�a ja sa do me ya ya me du ru da yo da ya / ya da yo n�ı ra ya ks.�ı ya yaks.i sa ~nca na ra ma ya //
The first quarter of the verse, yamar�ajasadomeya, also appears independently in a number of other Balinese hymns. One version reads yamar�ajas �arameya (Goudriaan/Hooykaas 1971, no. 942, verse 1a). Since S�arameya is the name of Yama’s dog in Indian mythology, Goudriaan/Hooykaas 1971, p. 544 and Hooykaas 1973, p. 203 (note) assume that Sadomeya is a variant of the name S�arameya. Accordingly, a wood sculpture of a dog is identified as Sadomeya in Goudriaan/Hooykaas 1971, photograph, p. 24+. In his earlier publication, Hooykaas 1964, p. 67, the author suggests, even less convincingly, a derivation of sadomeya from sadodyama, “one who always exerts himself.”
In these different versions of the stanza we can identify the epithet yamar�aja, “king Yama,” expressions such as yaks. e�sa�s ca, “and the lord of the yaks.as,” and – in some of the Balinese versions – the word yaks. i. The last word nir�amaya in inverted order of syllables reads yamar�ani (for yamar�an. �ı), which is the female reversal of yamar�aja (Hooykaas 1964, p. 67) and appears clearly at the end of stanza 2 of hymn no. 941 in Goudriaan/Hooykaas:
ya ma r�a ja sa do me ya ya me ro do da yo da ya / ya da yo ni si ra pi ya ya ks.i pa ~nca ni r�a ma ya // ya me do sa ya me do ro ya da yo da ya da yo ni / yu ra ks.i ya ya ks.i ya ks.i ya ma r�a ja ya ma r�a n. i //
Of the versions listed above the one from the �ST cited in the �SVT is peculiar. Not only does it have some readings that are not found in the other versions (�sad�ameya), but it also arranges the syllables in such a way that the second quarter of each half of the verse is the exact reversal BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 319 of the first quarter. This arrangement is termed pratilomayamaka in Dan.d. in’s K�avy�ad�ar�sa 3.73:
ya ma r�a ja sa d�a me ya (=) ya me d�a sa ja r�a ma ya / ya da yo ni ra pa ks.e pa (=) pa ks.e pa ra ni yo da ya //
The inversion of syllables in a mantra in a somewhat similar fashion is attested to in Hindu Tantric texts, such as the Prapa~ncas �ara (PS) (most likely tenth century) and the �ST. PS 13.55 and �ST 24.24 give the following mantra of K�al�ı and PS 13.56 and �ST 24.25 provide the following mantra of Yama. Each verse quarter consists of four syllables in regular order and the same four syllables in inverted order. In the �ST these two mantras appear in the same chapter as the above thirtytwosyllabled mantra:
Mantra of K�al�ı
k�a l�ı m�a ra (=) ra m�a l�ı k�a l�ı na mo ks.a (=) ks.a mo na l�ı / m�a mo de ta (=) ta de mo m�a raks. a ta ttva (=) ttva ta ks.a ra //
Mantra of Yama
ya m�a p�a t.a (=) t.a p�a m�a ya m�a t.a mo t.a (=) t.a mo t.a m�a / p�a mo bh�u ri (=) ri bh�u mo p�a t.a t.a r�ı stva (=) stva r�ı t.a t.a // �ST1 reads v �a mo ( for p �a mo) and mo v �a ( for mo p � a) in the third quarter of the verse.
All versions of the mantra verse listed above show the repetition of similar syllables, which is known as yamaka in Indian poetics. Leaving aside the distortions in the different versions, the underlying scheme seems to be that the last three syllables of a verse quarter are repeated in inverted order at the beginning of the next verse quarter. A yamaka in which the last syllables of a verse quarter are repeated (in regular order) at the beginning of the next quarter is termed sam. das. t.ayamaka in Dan. d.
in’s K�avy �ad�ar�sa 3.51. In the scheme of this verse, however, the syllables are repeated in reverse (pratiloma) order, which resembles the pratilomayamaka illustrated above. Each verse quarter contains two syllables which are not repeated. In the following scheme they are represented with the symbol : abc def fed ghi / ihg jkl lkj cba // Based on this scheme the following reading of the verse is suggested. An avagraha has been inserted before meya in the first quarter of the verse:
320 GUDRUN B¨UHNEMANN
yamar�ajasado’meya yame doradayodaya / yad ayonirayaks. eya yaks. eya ca nir�amaya // Considering that the choice of syllables in the mantra is obviously dominated by soundeffects at the expense of grammar and sense, the following meaning could perhaps be extracted from this reading of the verse:
“O you immeasurable (i.e., undefeatable) (ameya) by the assembly (= troups) (sadas) of king Yama! Having arms (dor) in which there is no (a) rise (= production) (udaya) of mercy (day�a) towards Yama! Since (you) can destroy (= stop falling into) the iron hell (ayonirayaks. eya), I would desire to worship (you), O diseasekiller (nir �amaya)!”
In this attempt at translation, which takes into account that the text compromises in grammar and meaning of words, the form ks. eya is taken as a gerundive from the root ks. i (to destroy) and yaks. eya as the first person singular, optative, � Atmanepada of the desiderative (without reduplication) from the root yaj (to worship). The iron hell (ayoniraya) would refer to one of the many hells described in texts (cf. Bh�agavataPur �an. a 5.26.7 for the hell named ayah. p�ana). The word ca is left untranslated and is considered an expletive particle to fill in the metre. In this interpretation, the mantra praises not Yama – as the editors of the Balinese texts cited above assume –, but the enemy of Yama, who could be identified with either �Siva in his manifestation as K�al�ari24 (for the Hindus) or with Vajrabhairava (for the Buddhists).
In a graphic form, the text of the mantra could be inscribed on the sides of a square and read in clockwise direction beginning from the upper left corner. The syllables in bold font are repeated in the scheme and the syllable ya in each corner must be read each time one begins a new line.
ya ma r�a ja sa do me ya ma me r�a do ni ra ca da ya yo ks.e da ya ks. e ya ra ni yo da ya c) The Twelve, Fourteenor TenSyllabled Mantra
The thirtytwosyllabled mantra is immediately followed in the MP by this twelvesyllabled mantra: BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 321 om. hr�ım. vikr. t�anan�aya hum. phat. sv�ah�a. In the MP, this mantra is identified as a mantra of Yama (47.12ab). It is followed by a description of the six limbs (an_gas) of Yama�ntaka. The mantra is not found in the TSS, but appears in the commentary on TSS, p. 238, 11–12 as the mantra of Yama in the following form: om. s.
t.r�ım. vikr. t�anan�aya sv�ah�a. The mantra appears in �ST 24.20 in an encoded form. The verse in �ST1 (with readings in �ST2, 3 and �SVT, volume 2, p. 849, 9–10) is: pran. avah. (pran. avam. �ST3) s. t.
r�ım. (s. t.hr�ım. �ST1, �sr�ı �ST2, pran. avo ‘gram. �SVT) tato dam. s. t.r�a tatparam. vikr. tam. tatah. (vikr. t�antatah. �ST 1, 3) / �anan�aya vadh�ur vahner mantro ‘yam. dv�ada�s�aks. arah. // The individual syllables of the mantra in the code are given as: pran. ava (= om. ) s. t.r�ım. dam. s. t.r �a vikr.
ta+�anan�aya (= vikr. t�anan�aya) vadh�ur vahner (= sv�ah�a), which yield the mantra: om. s. t.r�ım. dam. s. t.r �avikr. t�anan�aya sv �ah�a. R�aghavabhat.t. a’s commentary specifies this mantra as the Yam�antaka mantra (p. 866, 21). R�aghavabhat.t. a adds that instead of the above version of the mantra, some authorities recite pran. ava (= om. ) m�ay�a (= hr�ım. ) s. t.r�ım. vikr. t�anana hum. phat. sv�ah�a. This version resembles the Buddhist version of the mantra given below. This mantra appears frequently with small variants in the Buddhist Kr.s. n.
ayam�aritantra, e.g. 1.14, in which it has fourteen syllables and is specified as the mantra of Yam�ari: om. hr�ıh. s. t.r�ıh. vikr. t�anana h�um. h�um. phat. phat. sv�ah�a. For h�um. the variant hum. (with the short vowel) is also found, and before h�um. /hum. other words, usually imperative forms of verbs, can be inserted (e.g., 4.23+). Variants of the mantra employed in abhic�ara rites described in the Tantra are recorded in the list of mantras, p. 165, appended to the edition of the Kr.s. n.
ayam�aritantra. This mantra is also found in s�adhanas of the red and the dark Yam�ari in SM, nos. 268–272, nos. 274–276 and nos. 278–280, in which it is occasionally classified as the deity’s root (m�ula) mantra. It also appears in Guhyasam�ajatantra 15.18+ and in Abhay�akaragupta’s NY, p. 37, 14. According to NY, p. 37, 14–15, the mantra is the deity’s heart (hr. daya) mantra as well as the mantra for all actions (s �arvakarmikamantra). This latter term implies that all ritual applications can be performed with it (cf. NY, p. 31, 13–14). The mantra is inscribed on a xylograph of the
Illustration 3. Red Yam¯ari Rakt¯ari/Rakta Yam¯ari T. G´sed dmar red Yama�ntaka from the Rin ‘byun_ (Chandra 1991, p. 229, no. 584; see Illustration 3) with the spelling kri instead of kr. in vikr. t�anana. The mantra appears in a tensyllabled form (in code) in chapter 3 of the Vajramah�abhairavatantra: hr�ıh. s. t.r�ıh. vikr. t�anana h�um. h�um. phat..25 The mantra is spelt out in full with minor variants in chapter 1 of the abovementioned
Three Chapter Tantra of Vajrabhairava.26 It appears in BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 323 somewhat corrupted form with seed syllables having short vowels and, as above, the spelling kri for kr. in vikr. t�anana: om. hrih. s. t.rih. vikrit�anana h�um. phat..
In the Vajramah�abhairavatantra and in the Three Chapter Tantra of Vajrabhairava the mantra is classified as the action mantra. Contemporary ritual manuals of the dGe lugs pas, such as Sharpa Tulku/R. Guard 1990, p. 66 and Sharpa Tulku/R. Guard 1991, p. 25, follow this classification. Ma~nju�sr�ım�ulakalpa, p. 29, 11–12 gives the mantra as om. hr�ım. h. j~n�ıh. vikr. t�anana hum. : : : phat. phat. sv�ah�a. The occurrence of an anusv�ara (for originally anun�asika) to which a visarga is added (= m. h. ) in this version is occasionally attested to for other mantras in Tantric texts.27
The only translatable word in this mantra is the vocative vikr. t�anana, “O you of deformed face.” The syllables hr�ıh. (hr�ım. ) and s. t.r�ıh. (s. t.r�ım. ) are seed (b�ıja) syllables. H�um. (hum. ), phat. and sv�ah�a are each classified in Hindu Tantras as closing words (j�ati) of mantras. Phat. imitates the sound of bursting or breaking and sv �ah�a is an exclamation already known from Vedic times, which accompanies an offering in the fire. The �ST’s version of the mantra, : : : dam. s. t.r �avikr. t�anan�aya : : : sv�ah�a, translates as “: : : sv�ah�a to the one whose face is deformed by fangs (dam. s. t.r �a).” While the Hindu versions of the mantra have some seed syllables end in the nasal (hr�ım. s.
t.r�ım. ), the corresponding seed syllables in the Buddhist texts end in the visarga (hr�ıh. s. t.r�ıh. ). A string of seed syllables similar to those in the above mantra appears in Ma~nju�sr�ım�ulakalpa, p. 574, 20 in a mantra invoking the Yaks. in.�ı Pramod�a; one of the seed syllables ends in an anusv�ara followed by a visarga: om. s. t.hr�ım. hr�ım. h. mah�anagni h�um. phat. sv�ah�a. d) The EightSyllabled
Mantra (of Yama)
In the preface (p. 4) to his and Dvivedi’s edition of the Kr.s. n. ayam�aritantra, Samdhong Rinpoche states that the “importance of this work [i.e., the Kr.s. n. ayam�aritantra] can be judged from the fact that a �Saivite Tantra called �I�s�ana�sivagurudevapaddhati has borrowed some of its materials from the Kr.s. n.
ayam�ari Tantra.” Samdhong Rinpoche refers here to the inclusion of the thirtytwosyllabled mantra in the MP. In his statement Samdhong Rinpoche echoes Dvivedi 1995, p. 184, who believes that the author of the�I �SP borrowed the thirtytwosyllabled mantra from the Kr.s. n. ayam�aritantra. Dvivedi does not address the second mantra. The occurrence of the thirtytwosyllabled mantra in the Kr.s. n. ayam�aritantra cannot be taken as proof that this Tantra constitutes
the source from which the TSS and the MP have borrowed, especially since no entire passage (except for the two mantras) from the Tantra can be identified in the TSS or the MP. This mantra, as well as the second one which Dvivedi does not address, also appears in three Vajrabhairava texts. �ST 24.19 provides a third mantra, dh�um�andhak�ar �aya sv�ah�a, which is to be inscribed in the same yantra. This mantra is also referred to in MP 47.19c as the eightsyllabled mantra of Yama. It is
not included in the TSS, but referred to in its commentary, p. 238, 15–16, also as the mantra of Yama. This mantra is not found in the Buddhist texts examined above. Therefore, it seems that the TSS and the MP (as well as the �ST) did not borrow the two mantras directly from the Kr.s. n. ayam�aritantra or from the Vajrabhairava texts cited above but rather from another unidentified source, in which a third mantra was included. e) On the Iconography
We do not find iconographic descriptions of Yama/Yam�antaka in the TSS or the MP. R�aghavabhat.t. a, p. 866, 25, commenting on the thirtytwosyllabled mantra, states that the visualization of the deity should be learnt from one’s preceptor. The mantras of the deity’s limbs (an_ga) found in MP 47.11+ refer to the deity’s deformed face, his dark (kr.s. n. a) colour, speak of his nine faces and reddishbrown hair mass. These references most likely have contributed to Dvivedi 1992, p. 42 labelling the section describing the deity’s yantra, which he extracts and reprints from the MP, as the s �adhana of the dark Yam�ari (Kr. s.
n. ayam�ari), as opposed to that of the red Yam�ari (Raktayam�ari). The Kr.s. n. ayam�aritantra, which Dvivedi 1995, p. 184 considers the source for the thirtytwosyllabled mantra of Yam�antaka in the MP, does not describe a ninefaced form of Yam�ari. This ninefaced dark Yam�antaka (cf. also MP 47.23a+) can be identified as a form of Yam�antaka called Vajrabhairava (cf. De Mallmann 1986, pp. 400–401). That deity is described with nine faces, sixteen legs and thirtyfour arms in chapter 4 of the abovementioned
Vajramah�abhairavatantra (Sikl�os 1996, pp. 38–41).28 5. APPENDIX: OTHER MANTRAS OF BUDDHIST ORIGIN In addition to the above mantras, the TSS and the MP include a few other mantras of Buddhist origin. These mantras include fragments of typically Buddhist Tantric offering mantras. Invocations such as namo ratnatray �aya, “salutation to the three jewels” (i.e., to the Buddha, the dharma and the sam. gha), as well as epithets employing the prefix BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 325 vajraindicate their Buddhist origin. In the following, I refrain from a detailed discussion of each mantra for reasons of space.
a) The can.d. �asidh�ar�amantra for the destruction of evil demons (graha) which attack children The MP inserts the following long mantra between 43.52ab and cd. Its name, can.d. �asidh�ar �a (cf. also MP 43.52c), means “the edge of the fierce sword.” The mantra includes the epithet can.d. �asidh�ar �adhipati, “overlord of the edge of the fierce sword.” In the MP and the TSS this mantra is followed by another mantra which addresses Khad. gar�avan. a.
This Khad. gar�avan. a, who is known as a form of �Siva, is also addressed as Can.d. e�svara, Rudra and “the lord of the edge of the fierce sword” (can.d. �asidh�ar �apati). The mantra invokes Can. d. avajrap�an. i, a fierce form of the Yaks.a Vajrap�an. i. namo bhagavate ratnatray�aya </> nama�s can. d. avajrap�an. aye mah�asattvasen�apataye (for mah�ayaks. a�) </> nama�s can. d.
as�r. n_khala�ya prad�ıpta�ya prajvalita�rpitad�ıptakes�a�ya n�ılakan. t.h�aya cintit�aya r�up�aya (?) lambodar�aya mah�aj~n�anavaktr�aya bhrukut.ik�am�aya caturdam. s. t.r�aya kar�al�aya mah�avikr. tar�up�aya vajragarbh�aya ehy ehi k�ayam anupravi�sya �sirasi gr. hn.a caks.us. �ı c�alaya hari (v.l. bhiri) kim. cir�ayasi siddhadevad�anavagandharvayaks. ar�aks. asapretan�agapi�s �ac�am. s tr�asaya kampaya samayam anusmara hana jaha paca matha vidhvam. saya can.d. �asidh�ar�adhipatir �aj~n�apayati hum. phat. sv�ah�a / The version in TSS 13.44ab+ is: namo ratnatray�aya </> nama�s can. d.
avajras�.rn_khala�ya prad�ıpta�ya prajvalitahasta�ya prajvalit�arcitad�ıptake�s�aya n�ılakan. t.h�aya kr. t�antar�up�aya lambodar�aya mah�aj~n�anavaktr�aya bhrukut.�ımukh�aya caturdam. s. t.r�akar�al�aya mah�avikr. tar�up�aya vajragarbh�aya / ehy ehi k�ayam anupravi�sya �sirasi gr. hn. a / caks. us. �ı c�alaya / hiri bhiri kim. cirayasi / devad�anavagandharvayaks. ar�aks. asabh�utabh�ıs. an.a pretan�agapi�s �ac�apasm�ar�an tr�asaya kampaya samayam anusmara hana daha paca matha vidhvam. saya can.d. �asidh�ar�adhipatirudro j~n�apayati hum. phat. sv�ah�a / In addition to Can. d. avajrap�an. i, the TSS’s version of the mantra invokes Vajra�sr.n_khala, who may be the male counterpart of Vajra�sr.n_khala� who is known as a Yaks.in.�ı in the Jain pantheon (Misra 1981, p. 128, p. 174). She also figures as a gate keeper in deity man.d. alas described in
Abhay�akaragupta’s NY. Compare parts of this mantra to parts of the following dh�aran. �ı from SM, no. 205, p. 404, 5–16: namo ratnatray�aya / nama�s can. d. avajrap�an. aye mah�ayaks. asen�apataye / namo bhagavati mah�avajrag�andh�ari aneka�satasahasraprajvalitad�ıptatej�ayai ugrabh�ımabhay�anak�ayai yogin�ıyai bh�ıs.mabhagin�ıyai dv�ada�sabhuj�ayai vik�ırn. ake�s�ıyai anekar�upavividhave�sadh�arin.�ıyai / ehy ehi bhagavati mah�avajrag�andh�ari tray�an. �am. ratn�an�am. satyena �akat.a �akat.a baladev�adikam. ye c�anye samaye na tis. t.hanti t�an
�avarttayis. y�ami / �s�ıghram. gr. hn.a gr. hn.a gr. hn.a om. ala ala ala ala hulu hulu mulu mulu culu culu dhama dhama raks.a raks.a raks. �apaya raks. �apaya p�uraya p�uraya �avi�sa
�avi�sa bhagavati mah�avajrag�andh�ari siddhacan.d. avajrap�an. ir �aj~n�apayati hr�ıh. hah. hum. phat. sv�ah�a / The invocation nama�s can. d. avajrap�an. aye mah�ayaks. asen�apataye, which is found in the can.d. �asidh�ar �amantra as well as in the initial part of the dh�aran.
�ı from the SM, also appears in texts such as the � Satas�ahasrik�a Praj~n�ap�aramit�a (p. 2, 2). It is found several times as part of a dh�aran. �ı of Mah�abala in the Chinese version of the � Aryamah�abala(n�amamah �ay�ana) s �utra as reproduced in Bischoff 1956, pp. 81, 85 – 86, 100: namo ratnatray�aya nama�s can. d. avajrap�an. aye mah�ayaks. asen�apataye. It also found in the Balinese Buddhaveda (L�evi 1933, p. 80, 24): namo ratnatray �aya nama�s can. d.
avajrap�an. imah�ayaks. asen�apati. The phrase kim. cir�ayasi samayam anusmara sv�ah�a is part of a mantra of gate keeper Abhimukha in Mah�avairocanas�utra (Yamamoto 1990), p. 56 and p. 114 and the phrase kim. cir�ayasi only appears in a mantra of the surrounding deities in Mah�avairocanas�utra, p. 48. The expression samayam anusmara is found several times in texts such as the Sarvatath�agatatattvasam. graha, p. 171, 2; p. 199, 5–6, p. 260, 3 and p. 266, 3.
b) The vajrag�andh�ar�ımantra for protection from Pi�s�acas, evil demons (graha) and fever (MP 43.72+) om. ras. t.idehim. coktajik�adha om. k�ar�ım. (?) k�aty�ayan�ım. (?) nairr. ty�am. k�al�ım. mah�ak�al�ım. vajrak�al�ım. ya�sasvin�ım. suk�al�ım �agneya�m. va�yavya�m. ka�lika�m. pan_ktis�aktim. s�a�nta�k.s�ım indr�an. �ım. yaks. akauber�ım. m�ahe�svar�ım. vais.n. av�ım. c�amun.d.
�ım. raudr�ım. v�ar�ah�ım. kauber�ım. y�a�s c�any�a mama samaye tis. t.hanti tann�am�avartayis. y�ami / �s�ıghram. gr. hn. a / om. lala culu p�uraya dhara �anaya subhage / �avi�sa bhagavati / mah�avajrag�andh�ari siddhacandravajrap�an. ir �aj~n�apayati hr�ım. hah. h�am. h�am. h�am. hum. phat. sv�ah�a / In this mantra we encounter the name Vajrag�andh�ar�ı, who figures as a Yaks.in.�ı in Jainism (see Misra 1981, pp. 128, 174, 175). Parts of this mantra are similar to the dh�aran. �ı cited from the SM in a). That dh�aran.
�ı is part of SM, no. 205, which is the only s �adhana in the SM, which is dedicated to Vajrag�andh�ar�ı. c) Mantra against fever (jvara) (MP 45.55+) The presiding deity of the following mantra is the Buddha (buddh�adhidaivato mantro). namo s. aratnatra (for ratnatray�aya?) �s�a�sam. (for jvara?) hr.dayam �avartayis. y�ami /
bho bho jvara �sr.n. u hana garda charda sarvajvara cat.a vajrap�an. ir �aj~n�apayati / �siro mu~nca kan. t.ham. mu~nca uro mu~nca hr.dayam. mu~nca udaram. mu~nca kat.im. mu~nca ja _ nghe mu~nca p�adau mu~nca can. d. ap�an. ir �aj~n�apayati hum. phat. sv�ah�a / TSS 15.2+ gives a similar mantra:
namo ratnatray�aya </> jvarahr. dayam �avr. tayis. y�ami bho jvara �sr.n. u hana garja charda �sarvajvara avat.a vajrap�an. ir �aj~n�apayati mama �siro mu~nca kan. t.ham. mu~nca b�ahum. mu~nca udaram. mu~nca kat.im. mu~nca guhyam. mu~nca �urum. mu~nca j�anum. mu~nca ja _ nghe mu~nca p�adau mu~nca can. d. ap�an. ir �aj~n�apayati hum. phat. sv�ah�a / d) Mantra accompanying a bali offering (TSS 30.37+) iti miti timi k�akatun.d. ini sv�ah�a /
namo ratnatray�aya pi _ ngal�aya anale kunale gr. hn. a pin. d. am. pi�s�acini sv�ah�a // The mantra contains a salutation to the three jewels. The text following the invocation resembles the following mantra inscribed on a xylograph entitled “the three sisters (bhagin�ıtraya) dByug gu ma” from the Rin ‘byun_ (Chandra 1991, p. 317, no. 842). I have made no attempt to correct the text of the mantra: om. anale kun.d.
ale mah�api�saciniye sv�ah�a / om. gr. hna mah�abh�an.d. a pi�saciniye sv�ah�a / e) Mantra to protect cattle (TSS 30.7cd+; MP 49.6ab+) namo bhagavate vajrahum. k�aradar�san�aya (vajramuk�a� MP) om. cuku (vila MP) mili meli siddhi gom�ari vajrin. i hum. phat. / asmin gr�ame gokulasya raks. �am. kuru �s�antim. kuru sv�ah�a / Vajrahum. k�ara, whose name appears in the invocation part of this mantra, is known as a deity of the Buddhist Tantric pantheon (cf. SM, no. 257). The vocative gom�ari may refer to a form of (Mah�a)m�ar�ı, the goddess o
f pestilence, whose mantra is taught in chapter 137 of the AgniPur �an. a and other texts. A mantra similar to the above one appears in AgniPur �an. a 302.29–30: om. namo bhagavate tryambak�ayopa�samayopa�samaya culu culu mili mili bhidi bhidi gom�anini cakrin. i hr�um. phat. / asmin gr �ame gokulasya raks. �am. kuru �s�antim. kuru kuru kuru sv�ah�a.29 It is important to note that in the AgniPur �an. a the name Vajrahum. k�ara has been replaced with that of Tryambaka, i.e., �Siva, and the vocative vajrin. i with cakrin. i. In addition, the AgniPur �an. a’s
version of the mantra shows corrupt forms of words.
Both the MP inserted into the�I �SP and the TSS incorporate descriptions of Vasudh�ar�a and Jambhala, originally Buddhist deities, along with the procedures for their ritual worship which include typically Buddhist Tantric elements. The two texts must have been extant before 1493, the year in which R�aghavabhat.t. a completed his Pad � arth�adar�sa commentary
on the �ST, in which they are cited. The relationship between the two texts is briefly addressed in the introduction to this paper. While this issue requires further examination, the sections of the two texts studied in this paper seem to confirm Goudriaan’s hypothesis that chapters 15–38 of the MP are earlier than the TSS, while chapters 39–52 of the MP are based on the TSS.
The worship procedures for Vasudh�ar�a and Jambhala described in these texts clearly show Tantric Buddhist elements. The iconography of the two deities is likely to be Buddhist as well, but their sources have not yet been identified in Buddhist texts. An identification of these deity descriptions may be possible when additional text material is made available in edited form. Vasudh�ar�a, who is classified as a form of Laks.m�ı, is yellow, holds a pomegranate in her left hand and a red lotus with a vessel showering jewels in its interior in her right and has her foot placed on a vessel from which wealth flows. This description does not correspond to that of Vasudh�ar�a frequently found in Buddhist texts, where the goddess holds a rice shoot and makes the wishgranting gesture.
Jambhala is described twice. According to the first description he is yellow, is seated on a white lotus, has three feet and is corpulent. The attributes held in his two hands are not given. While the MP does not mention the number of his faces, the TSS specifies three faces. In the second description, the deity is fourarmed and holds the fruit of the citron tree and the mongoose and makes the gestures of protection and wishgranting.
The number of his faces is not specified and must therefore be taken as one. Neither description has so far been identified in Buddhist texts, even though the two attributes, the fruit of the citron tree and the mongoose, are common attributes of the twoarmed Jambhala.
The mantras of Yam�antaka appear in connection with a yantra of Yama used in the rites of black magic (abhic�ara), most likely the rite of liquidation (m�aran. a). In the ritual applications of the MP and the TSS both the names Yama and Yam�antaka (elsewhere known as Yam�ari) appear. I would, however, not conclude that an observation made by O’Flaherty 1976, p. 232, is applicable here, according to which Yam�antaka and K�al�antaka, “death, the ender,” were originally epithets of Yama, which were then transferred to �Siva and reinterpreted as “the ender of death.” The cause of this confusion is that mantras of the Buddhist Yam�antaka were incorporated into a yantra of Yama. The first mantra is thirtytwosyllabled and the second twelve, fourteenor tensyllabled.
While the texts of the Yam�antaka cycle of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition
employ both of these mantras as mantras of Yam�antaka/Yam�ari, the Hindu Tantric texts examined in this paper identify the second mantra as a mantra of Yama. The wording of the two mantras, which continue to be recited by Tibetan Buddhists up to the present, does not indicate a connection to Tantric Buddhism. The first one seems to be in praise of the enemy of Yama, who could be identified either as �Siva in his manifestation as K�al�ari (for the Hindus) or as Vajrabhairava (for the Buddhists). The second mantra addresses the (deity) with a face deformed (by fangs). The main texts of the Yam�antaka cycle in which these two mantras appear, are said to have originated in Ud.d. iy�ana.
Ud.d. iy�ana/Od. d. iy�ana is normally identified with a province in the Swat Valley in the northwest of the subcontinent, presentday Pakistan, where Tantrism once flourished. According to the Hindu Tantras, the two mantras are said to be inscribed in the yantra along with a third eightsyllabled
mantra which cannot be identified in the Buddhist texts examined in this paper. The third mantra is identified as a mantra of Yama. It appears as though texts such as the MP and the TSS did not borrow the three mantras directly from Buddhist Tantric texts, for example the Kr. s.n. ayam�aritantra, but rather from another source which included the third mantra.
The mantras of Yama�ntaka’s limbs (an_ga) listed in MP 47.11+ address a dark deity with nine faces and reddishbrown hair. This description suggests a ninefaced form of the dark Yam�antaka (cf. also the references to his nine faces in MP 47.23a+) who is identified as Vajrabhairava. This ninefaced form of Yam�antaka is not described in the Kr.s. n.
ayam�aritantra but in chapter 4 of the Vajramah�abhairavatantra. The question that arises is what attitudes the compilers of the MP and the TSS had toward the Buddhist material they included. The compilers of the MP and the TSS seem to have had an ambivalent attitude. On the one hand, they describe the rites of black magic (abhic�ara) for use against the enemies of the (Vedic) dharma and the Veda. On the other hand, they incorporate mantras from these very enemies. Unlike other groups in Hinduism who included the Buddha among Vis. n. u’s
avat�aras, the compilers of these two texts made a distinction between their own tradition and that of the Buddhists. The two Yam�antaka mantras are inscribed in yantras. Since they were transmitted as part of a ritual procedure which included the drawing of a powerful yantra, they could not easily be omitted. In the case of the other mantras, which were transmitted as part of a series of mantras to cure diseases, the compilers apparently did not want to exclude popular mantras, which were believed to be powerful, even though they carried traces of the
Buddhist context from which they were taken. Other mantras were inserted between descriptions of ritual procedures for similar Hindu deities for the sake of completeness. The description of Vasudh�ar�a, for example, precedes that of different forms of Durg�a and is directly followed by the presentation of the mantras of the traditional Hindu earth goddess Bh�udev�ı. The description of Jambhala is followed by that of Kubera. In the above discussed texts the Buddhist deities do not occupy the positions of major deities. Jambhala, Vasudh�ar�a and Yama are all associated with the Yaks.a cult as well as Vajrag�andh�ar�ı, Vajrap�an. i and possibly Vajra�sr. _nkhala (if he is the male counterpart of Vajra�sr.n_khala�), whose names are invoked in some of the mantras of Buddhist origin listed in the appendix of this paper. Some of the mantras explicitly invoke the lord of the Yaks. as. In their subordinate
positions they were apparently not felt to interfere with the compilers’ sectarian affiliations. NOTES 1 See Bhattacharyya 1930, 1932, pp. 147ff. and his introduction to his edition of the S�adhanam�al�a, volume 2, pp. cxxxvff. 2 This section of the TSS shares identical passages with the K�a�syapaSam. hit�a (Garud. apa~nc�aks. ar�ıkalpa). For some information, see Aiyangar’s preface to his edition of the TSS, p. 8. 3 In the following I identify a number of citations from the N�ar�ayan. �ıya in R�aghavabhat.t.
a’s commentary on the �S�arad�atilaka (�ST1) that are from the TSS: R�aghavabhat.t. a, p. 589, 12 = TSS 25.29cd; p. 589, 20 = TSS 25.23ab; p. 590, 13–14 = TSS 25.24cd–25ab; p. 591, 24–26 = TSS 25.14–15ab; p. 592, 5 = TSS 25.3d; p. 592, 25 = TSS 25.7ab; p. 592, 27–28 = TSS 25.7cd–8ab; p. 593, 15 = TSS 25.9a; p. 593, 18–19 = TSS 25.6; p. 748, 18 = TSS 23.39ab; p. 749, 15 = TSS 23.44cd; and p. 750, 19–20 = TSS 23.51a–c.
4 Both the preface to the edition of the TSS, p. 1 and Goudriaan in Goudriaan/Gupta 1981, p. 128 give the date as the fifteenth or the sixteenth century. 5 See V.V. Dvivedi’s remarks in connection with the Prapa~ncas�ara in the introduction to his edition of the Nity�as. od. a�sik�arn. ava (Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishvavidyalaya,
V�ar�an. as�ı 1968), p. 41. �I�s�ana�siva of the Mattamay�ura lineage was the teacher of Vairocana who wrote the Pratis. t.h�alaks. an. as�arasamuccaya. The oldest manuscript of the text dates from 1168 CE (see The Hindu Deities Illustrated according to the Pratis. t.h�alaks. an. as�arasamuccaya. Compiled by G. B¨uhnemann and M. Tachikawa (The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, Tokyo 1990), part 1: The Pratis. t.h�alaks. an. as�arasamuccaya and Its Illustrations by G. B¨uhnemann, p. 12). 6 The MP erroneously reads Amit�agha.
7 MP signals variant readings in the text, but it is not entirely clear which reading they are replacing: “k�antimat�ı, tanv�ıti kecit.” 8 The edition of the MP takes verses 20a and 20b as one stanza, which is numbered as 20. The metre of both verses is M�atr�asamaka (16 m�atras per quarter). 9 �d. �ad. im�am. MP. 10 Suggested emendation, �ghat.asy�a _ nghrim. TSS.
11 Suggested emendation, v�amap�an. in�a TSS. 12 The MP erroneously reads ks. ay�adhipataye. 13 tri�siras v.l. TSS.
14 Abhay�akaragupta’s NY gives different descriptions of Kubera. According to NY, p. 61, 12, Kubera holds a mace and a noose, while NY, p. 73, 19–20 describes him as holding a mace and a female mongoose. According to NY, p. 89, 3–4, the deity holds a mace, a jewel, a mongoose and a lotus. NY, p. 89, 3–4 and p. 93, 1 use the epithet Jambhala as a synonym of Kubera. Chandra 1991, p. 172 (no. 388) includes a blockprint
of the Buddhist Kubera from the Pantheon of the Mongolian Kanjur, in which Kubera holds Jambhala’s attributes. According to Blom 1989, pp. 31–32, who addresses depictions of Kubera from Nepalese sketchbooks, Kubera holds, among other attributes, Jambhala’s characteristic mongoose and the fruit of the citron tree. Among the different iconographic forms of the Buddhist Jambhala, one form even steps on Kubera to demonstrate his superiority (cf. SM, no. 292). In texts of the Hindu tradition, the gestures of wishgranting and protection as attributes of Kubera are also recorded in the Am. �subhed�agama (cited in Rao 1914–1916, volume 2, p. 263). The fruit of the citron tree appears as an attribute of Kubera in R�upaman.d. ana 2.37
as well. An icon of Kubera from Mathura, described in Misra 1981, p. 69 (see also Figure 9), represents a sixarmed Kubera, holding the citron and the mongoose, displaying the gestures of wishgranting and protection and holding two other objects.
15 The TSS uses the term ks. udra as a synonym of abhic�ara. Perhaps the seven ks. udras (also referred to in TSS 18.4c) were considered to be a special group of abhic�ara rites. 16 Here I follow the explanation given in the commentary on TSS, p. 235, 9–10, which gives the synonym unm�ada for bhrama. Goudriaan 1978, p. 356 opts for the meaning “wandering, causing to wander.”
17 The MP erroneously reads yoga instead of roga. 18 For the importance of the Vajrabhairava cycle in the dGe lugs pa tradition, see Sikl�os 1996b, pp. 186–187. 19 In the blockprint,
the mantra is prefixed with the syllable om. and appended with the syllables h�um. h�um. phat. phat. sv�ah�a. The mantra hr�ıh. s. t.r�ıh. vikrit�anana (!) h�um. phat. follows, which is a variant of the mantra addressed in section 4c of this paper. 20 Cf. the edited Tibetan text, Sikl�os 1996, pp. 91–92. 21 For the Tibetan text, see Sikl�os 1996, p. 138 and for the Mongolian text, which reads ni ra ma ya (for ni r�a ma ya), see see Sikl�os 1996, p. 210; cf. also the translation section, Sikl�os 1996, p. 65. 22 In the Blue Annals (Roerich 1976, p. 375) the title Trikalpa also appears as part of the title of another text, the Kr.s. n.
ayam�aritantrar�ajaTrikalpa, which is distinguished from the above cited (Sarvatath�agatak�ayav�akcitta) Kr.s. n.
ayam�aritantra; cf. also Sikl�os 1996, p. 18, note 24 and the discussion in Decleer 1998, pp. 293–294. 23 See the Tibetan text in Sikl�os 1996, p. 145 and the Mongolian text in Sikl�os 1996, p. 217; see also the translation section, Sikl�os 1996, p. 70. 24 See Rao 1914–1916, volume 2, pp. 156ff. for the story of M�arkan.d. eya and �Siva’s
manifestation K�al�ari according to several � Agamas. 25 See the Tibetan text in Sikl�os 1996, pp. 92–93 and the translation, p. 37. 26 See Sikl�os 1996, p. 145 for the Tibetan text, p. 217 for the Mongolian text and p. 70 for the translation. 27 Cf. above cited mantra of the Yaks.in.�ı Pramod�a from the Ma~nju�sr�ım�ulakalpa, the seed syllable gam. h.
for Gan. e�sa in �SVT, volume 2, p. 668, 8 (interpreting TSS 24.31) and the seed syllable hr�ım. h. in NY, p. 65, 20. 332 GUDRUN B¨UHNEMANN 28 A discussion of the deity’s iconographic forms is beyond the scope of this article. Sometimes Vajrabhairava also appears in a subordinate position. Thus SM, no. 312 (p. 598, 20–21) describes him under the feet of a sixteenarmed Mah�ak�ala.
29 The AgniPur �an. a reads t.ha t.ha t.ha. The syllables t.ha t.ha correspond to sv�ah�a as is widely attested. Since the third syllable t.ha is redundant, it has been omitted here. 30 The socalled “first edition” of 1992, published by the Chaukhamb�a Sam. skr.t Pratis.t. h�an, Delhi, is only a photomechanical reprint of the edition from Madras.
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