Four Abidings of Mindfulness
Four Abidings of Mindfulness (四念住, 四念處). One practices śamatha and vipaśyanā with one’s mindfulness abiding in four places: body, sensory experiences, mind, and dharmas.
A. According to the Pāli Canon of the Theravāda School, one practices
(1) mindfulness of one’s body in stillness and in motion;
(2) mindfulness of one’s sensory experiences as pleasant, unpleasant, or neither;
(3) mindfulness of one’s mind, from which arises greed, anger, and delusion;
(4) mindfulness of one’s mental objects, including the teachings of the Buddha.
Through vigilant mindfulness, one realizes that all dharmas are impermanent and that there is no self in command.
B. According to the Mahāyāna doctrine, one needs to observe that
(1) the body is impure,
(2) all experiences boil down to suffering,
(3) the mind is constantly changing, and
(4) all dharmas have no selves (see right mindfulness).